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       paste - merge corresponding or subsequent lines of files


       paste [-s][-d list] file...


       The  paste utility shall concatenate the corresponding lines of the given input files, and
       write the resulting lines to standard output.

       The default operation of paste shall concatenate the  corresponding  lines  of  the  input
       files.  The  <newline>  of  every  line  except the line from the last input file shall be
       replaced with a <tab>.

       If an end-of-file condition is detected on one or more input  files,  but  not  all  input
       files,  paste shall behave as though empty lines were read from the files on which end-of-
       file was detected, unless the -s option is specified.


       The paste utility shall conform to the Base Definitions  volume  of  IEEE Std 1003.1-2001,
       Section 12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines.

       The following options shall be supported:

       -d  list
              Unless  a backslash character appears in list, each character in list is an element
              specifying a delimiter character. If a backslash character  appears  in  list,  the
              backslash  character  and  one  or  more  characters  following  it  are an element
              specifying a delimiter character as described below. These elements specify one  or
              more  delimiters  to use, instead of the default <tab>, to replace the <newline> of
              the input lines. The elements in list shall be used circularly; that is,  when  the
              list  is exhausted the first element from the list is reused. When the -s option is

               * The last <newline> in a file shall not be modified.

               * The delimiter shall be reset to the  first  element  of  list  after  each  file
                 operand is processed.

       When the -s option is not specified:

               * The  <newline>s  in  the  file  specified  by the last file operand shall not be

               * The delimiter shall be reset to the first element of list each time  a  line  is
                 processed from each file.

       If  a backslash character appears in list, it and the character following it shall be used
       to represent the following delimiter characters:



              Backslash character.

              Empty string (not a null  character).  If  '\0'  is  immediately  followed  by  the
              character  'x' , the character 'X' , or any character defined by the LC_CTYPE digit
              keyword (see the  Base  Definitions  volume  of  IEEE Std 1003.1-2001,  Chapter  7,
              Locale), the results are unspecified.

       If any other characters follow the backslash, the results are unspecified.

       -s     Concatenate all of the lines of each separate input file in command line order. The
              <newline> of every line except the last line in each input file shall  be  replaced
              with the <tab>, unless otherwise specified by the -d option.


       The following operand shall be supported:

       file   A  pathname of an input file. If '-' is specified for one or more of the files, the
              standard input shall be used; the standard input shall be read one line at a  time,
              circularly,  for each instance of '-' . Implementations shall support pasting of at
              least 12 file operands.


       The standard input shall be used only if one or more file operands is '-' . See the  INPUT
       FILES section.


       The input files shall be text files, except that line lengths shall be unlimited.


       The following environment variables shall affect the execution of paste:

       LANG   Provide  a  default  value for the internationalization variables that are unset or
              null. (See the  Base  Definitions  volume  of  IEEE Std 1003.1-2001,  Section  8.2,
              Internationalization Variables for the precedence of internationalization variables
              used to determine the values of locale categories.)

       LC_ALL If set to  a  non-empty  string  value,  override  the  values  of  all  the  other
              internationalization variables.

              Determine  the  locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text data as
              characters (for  example,  single-byte  as  opposed  to  multi-byte  characters  in
              arguments and input files).

              Determine  the  locale  that  should  be  used to affect the format and contents of
              diagnostic messages written to standard error.

              Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of LC_MESSAGES .




       Concatenated lines of input files shall be separated by the  <tab>  (or  other  characters
       under the control of the -d option) and terminated by a <newline>.


       The standard error shall be used only for diagnostic messages.






       The following exit values shall be returned:

        0     Successful completion.

       >0     An error occurred.


       If  one  or  more  input  files  cannot  be  opened when the -s option is not specified, a
       diagnostic message shall be written to  standard  error,  but  no  output  is  written  to
       standard  output.  If  the  -s  option  is  specified, the paste utility shall provide the
       default behavior described in Utility Description Defaults .

       The following sections are informative.


       When the escape sequences of the list option-argument are used in  a  shell  script,  they
       must be quoted; otherwise, the shell treats the '\' as a special character.

       Conforming  applications  should  only  use  the  specific  backslash  escaped  delimiters
       presented in this volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001. Historical implementations treat '\x'  ,
       where 'x' is not in this list, as 'x' , but future implementations are free to expand this
       list to recognize other common escapes similar to  those  accepted  by  printf  and  other
       standard utilities.

       Most  of  the  standard  utilities work on text files. The cut utility can be used to turn
       files with arbitrary line lengths into a set of text files containing the same  data.  The
       paste  utility  can be used to create (or recreate) files with arbitrary line lengths. For
       example, if file contains long lines:

              cut -b 1-500 -n file > file1
              cut -b 501- -n file > file2

       creates file1 (a text file) with lines no longer than 500 bytes (plus the  <newline>)  and
       file2  that  contains  the  remainder of the data from file. Note that file2 is not a text
       file if there are lines in file that are longer than 500 + {LINE_MAX} bytes. The  original
       file can be recreated from file1 and file2 using the command:

              paste -d "\0" file1 file2 > file

       The commands:

              paste -d "\0" ...
              paste -d "" ...

       are   not  necessarily  equivalent;  the  latter  is  not  specified  by  this  volume  of
       IEEE Std 1003.1-2001 and may result in an error. The construct '\0' is used  to  mean  "no
       separator"  because historical versions of paste did not follow the syntax guidelines, and
       the command:

              paste -d"" ...

       could not be handled properly by getopt().


        1. Write out a directory in four columns:

           ls | paste - - - -

        2. Combine pairs of lines from a file into single lines:

           paste -s -d "\t\n" file






       Utility Description Defaults , cut , grep , pr


       Portions of this text are reprinted and  reproduced  in  electronic  form  from  IEEE  Std
       1003.1,  2003  Edition,  Standard  for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System
       Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003  by
       the  Institute  of  Electrical  and  Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the
       event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE  and  The  Open  Group
       Standard,  the  original  IEEE  and  The  Open Group Standard is the referee document. The
       original Standard can be obtained online at .