Provided by: pv_1.2.0-1_amd64 bug


       pv - monitor the progress of data through a pipe


       pv [OPTION] [FILE]...
       pv [-h|-V]


       pv  allows  a  user  to see the progress of data through a pipeline, by giving information
       such as time elapsed, percentage completed (with progress bar), current  throughput  rate,
       total data transferred, and ETA.

       To  use  it,  insert it in a pipeline between two processes, with the appropriate options.
       Its standard input will be passed through to its standard  output  and  progress  will  be
       shown on standard error.

       pv will copy each supplied FILE in turn to standard output (- means standard input), or if
       no FILEs are specified just standard input is  copied.  This  is  the  same  behaviour  as

       A simple example to watch how quickly a file is transferred using nc(1):

              pv file | nc -w 1 3000

       A  similar example, transferring a file from another process and passing the expected size
       to pv:

              cat file | pv -s 12345 | nc -w 1 3000

       A more complicated example using numeric output to feed into the dialog(1) program  for  a
       full-screen progress display:

              (tar cf - . \
               | pv -n -s $(du -sb . | awk '{print $1}') \
               | gzip -9 > out.tgz) 2>&1 \
              | dialog --gauge 'Progress' 7 70

       Frequent  use  of  this  third  form  is not recommended as it may cause the programmer to


       pv takes many options, which are divided into  display  switches,  output  modifiers,  and
       general options.


       If  no  display  switches  are specified, pv behaves as if -p, -t, -e, -r, and -b had been
       given (i.e. everything except average rate is switched on).  Otherwise, only those display
       types that are explicitly switched on will be shown.

       -p, --progress
              Turn  the  progress  bar on.  If standard input is not a file and no size was given
              (with the -s modifier), the progress bar cannot indicate how  close  to  completion
              the  transfer  is,  so  it  will  just move left and right to indicate that data is

       -t, --timer
              Turn the timer on.  This will display the total  elapsed  time  that  pv  has  been
              running for.

       -e, --eta
              Turn  the  ETA  timer  on.   This will attempt to guess, based on previous transfer
              rates and the total data size, how long it will be before completion.  This  option
              will have no effect if the total data size cannot be determined.

       -r, --rate
              Turn the rate counter on.  This will display the current rate of data transfer.

       -a, --average-rate
              Turn  the  average  rate  counter  on.   This will display the average rate of data
              transfer so far.

       -b, --bytes
              Turn the total byte counter on.   This  will  display  the  total  amount  of  data
              transferred so far.

       -n, --numeric
              Numeric output.  Instead of giving a visual indication of progress, pv will give an
              integer percentage, one per line, on  standard  error,  suitable  for  piping  (via
              convoluted  redirection)  into  dialog(1).   Note  that -f is not required if -n is
              being used.

       -q, --quiet
              No output.  Useful if the -L option is being used on its  own  to  just  limit  the
              transfer rate of a pipe.


       -W, --wait
              Wait  until  the  first  byte  has  been  transferred  before  showing any progress
              information or calculating any ETAs.  Useful if the program you are  piping  to  or
              from  requires  extra  information  before it starts, eg piping data into gpg(1) or
              mcrypt(1) which require a passphrase before data can be processed.

       -s SIZE, --size SIZE
              Assume the total amount of data to be transferred is SIZE  bytes  when  calculating
              percentages and ETAs.  The same suffixes of "k", "m" etc can be used as with -L.

       -l, --line-mode
              Instead  of counting bytes, count lines (newline characters). The progress bar will
              only move when a new line is found, and the value passed to the -s option  will  be
              interpreted as a line count.

       -i SEC, --interval SEC
              Wait  SEC  seconds  between  updates.  The default is to update every second.  Note
              that this can be a decimal such as 0.1.

       -w WIDTH, --width WIDTH
              Assume the terminal is WIDTH characters wide, instead of trying to work it out  (or
              assuming 80 if it cannot be guessed).

       -H HEIGHT, --height HEIGHT
              Assume  the  terminal  is  HEIGHT  rows  high, instead of trying to work it out (or
              assuming 25 if it cannot be guessed).

       -N NAME, --name NAME
              Prefix the output information with NAME.  Useful in conjunction with -c if you have
              a complicated pipeline and you want to be able to tell different parts of it apart.

       -f, --force
              Force output.  Normally, pv will not output any visual display if standard error is
              not a terminal.  This option forces it to do so.

       -c, --cursor
              Use cursor positioning escape sequences instead of  just  using  carriage  returns.
              This  is  useful  in  conjunction  with  -N  (name)  if  you  are using multiple pv
              invocations in a single, long, pipeline.


       -L RATE, --rate-limit RATE
              Limit the transfer to a maximum of RATE bytes per second.  A suffix  of  "k",  "m",
              "g", or "t" can be added to denote kilobytes (*1024), megabytes, and so on.

       -B BYTES, --buffer-size BYTES
              Use  a  transfer buffer size of BYTES bytes.  A suffix of "k", "m", "g", or "t" can
              be added to denote kilobytes (*1024), megabytes, and so  on.   The  default  buffer
              size is the block size of the input file's filesystem multiplied by 32 (512kb max),
              or 400kb if the block size cannot be determined.

       -R PID, --remote PID
              If PID is an instance of pv that  is  already  running,  -R  PID  will  cause  that
              instance  to  act as though it had been given this instance's command line instead.
              For example, if pv -L 123k is running with process ID 9876, then running pv -R 9876
              -L  321k  will  cause it to start using a rate limit of 321k instead of 123k.  Note
              that some options cannot be changed while running, such as -c, -l, and -f.


       -h, --help
              Print a usage message on standard output and exit successfully.

       -V, --version
              Print version information on standard output and exit successfully.


       An exit status of 1 indicates a problem with the -R option.

       Any other exit status is a bitmask of the following:

       2      One or more files could not be accessed, stat(2)ed, or opened.

       4      An input file was the same as the output file.

       8      Internal error with closing a file or moving to the next file.

       16     There was an error while transferring data from one or more input files.

       32     A signal was caught that caused an early exit.

       64     Memory allocation failed.

              A zero exit status indicates no problems.


       Andrew Wood <>

       Kevin Coyner <>
       (Debian package maintainer)

       Jakub Hrozek <>
       (Fedora package maintainer)

       Cedric Delfosse <>
       (previous Debian package maintainer)

       Eduardo Aguiar <>
       (provided Portuguese [Brazilian] translation)

       Stephane Lacasse <>
       (provided French translation)

       Marcos Kreinacke <>
       (provided German translation)

       Bartosz Fenski <>
       (provided Polish translation, along with Krystian Zubel)

       Joshua Jensen
       (reported RPM installation bug)

       Boris Folgmann
       (reported cursor handling bug)

       Mathias Gumz
       (reported NLS bug)

       Daniel Roethlisberger
       (submitted patch to use lockfiles for -c if terminal locking fails)

       Adam Buchbinder
       (lots of help with a Cygwin port of -c)

       Mark Tomich
       (suggested -B option)

       Gert Menke
       (reported bug when piping to dd with a large input buffer size)

       Ville Herva <>
       (informative bug report about rate limiting performance)

       Elias Pipping
       (patch to compile properly on Darwin 9; potential NULL deref report)

       Patrick Collison
       (similar patch for OS X)

       Boris Lohner
       (reported problem that -L does not complain if given non-numeric value)

       Sebastian Kayser
       (supplied testing for SIGPIPE, demonstrated internationalisation problem)

       Laszlo Ersek
       (reported shared memory leak on SIGINT with -c)

       Phil Rutschman
       (provided a patch for fully restoring terminal state on exit)

       Henry Precheur
       (reporting and suggestions for --rate-limit bug when rate is under 10)

       E. Rosten
       (supplied patch for block buffering in line mode)

       Kjetil Torgrim Homme
       (reported compilation error with default CFLAGS on non-GCC compilers)

       Alexandre de Verteuil
       (reported bug in OS X build and supplied test environment to fix in)

       Martin Baum
       (supplied patch to return nonzero exit status if terminated by signal)

       Sam Nelson
       (supplied patch to fix trailing slash on DESTDIR)

       Daniel Pape
       (reported Cygwin installation problem due to DESTDIR)

       Henry Gebhardt <>
       (supplied patches to improve SI prefixes and add --average-rate)

       Vladimir Kokarev
       Alexander Leo
       (reported that exit status did not reflect file errors)


       If you find any bugs, please contact the primary author, either by email or by  using  the
       contact form on the web site.


       cat(1), dialog(1)


       This is free software, distributed under the ARTISTIC 2.0 license.