Provided by: rdiff-backup_1.2.8-7_amd64 bug


       rdiff-backup - local/remote mirror and incremental backup


       rdiff-backup                [options]               [[[user@]]::source_directory]

       rdiff-backup {{ -l | --list-increments } | --remove-older-than time_interval |  --list-at-
       time  time  | --list-changed-since time | --list-increment-sizes | --verify | --verify-at-
       time time} [[[user@]]::destination_directory]

       rdiff-backup --calculate-average statfile1 statfile2 ...

       rdiff-backup --test-server [user1]@host1.net1::path [[user2]@host2.net2::path] ...


       rdiff-backup is a script, written in python(1) that backs up  one  directory  to  another.
       The  target  directory  ends up a copy (mirror) of the source directory, but extra reverse
       diffs are stored in a special subdirectory of that target  directory,  so  you  can  still
       recover  files  lost  some time ago.  The idea is to combine the best features of a mirror
       and  an  incremental  backup.   rdiff-backup  also  preserves  symlinks,  special   files,
       hardlinks, permissions, uid/gid ownership, and modification times.

       rdiff-backup  can also operate in a bandwidth efficient manner over a pipe, like rsync(1).
       Thus you can use ssh and rdiff-backup to securely  back  a  hard  drive  up  to  a  remote
       location,  and  only  the  differences  will  be transmitted.  Using the default settings,
       rdiff-backup requires that the remote system accept ssh connections, and that rdiff-backup
       is  installed  in the user's PATH on the remote system.  For information on other options,
       see the section on REMOTE OPERATION.

       Note that you should not write to the mirror directory except with rdiff-backup.  Many  of
       the  increments  are  stored  as reverse diffs, so if you delete or modify a file, you may
       lose the ability to restore previous versions of that file.

       Finally, this man page is intended more as a  precise  description  of  the  behavior  and
       syntax  of  rdiff-backup.  New users may want to check out the examples.html file included
       in the rdiff-backup distribution.


       -b, --backup-mode
              Force backup mode even if first argument appears to be an increment or mirror file.

              Enter calculate average mode.  The arguments  should  be  a  number  of  statistics
              files.   rdiff-backup  will  print  the  average of the listed statistics files and

              Enable backup of MacOS X carbonfile information.

              If an rdiff-backup session fails, running rdiff-backup  with  this  option  on  the
              destination  dir will undo the failed directory.  This happens automatically if you
              attempt to back up to a directory and the last backup failed.

              This is equivalent to '--compare-at-time now'

       --compare-at-time time
              Compare a directory with the backup set at the given time.  This can be  useful  to
              see  how  archived  data  differs  from  current data, or to check that a backup is
              current.  This only compares metadata, in the same way rdiff-backup decides whether
              a file has changed.

              This is equivalent to '--compare-full-at-time now'

       --compare-full-at-time time
              Compare  a  directory  with  the  backup set at the given time.  To compare regular
              files, the repository data will be copied in its entirety to the  source  side  and
              compared byte by byte.  This is the slowest but most complete compare option.

              This is equivalent to '--compare-hash-at-time now'

       --compare-hash-at-time time
              Compare  a  directory with the backup set at the given time.  Regular files will be
              compared by computing their SHA1 digest on the source side and comparing it to  the
              digest recorded in the metadata.

              Normally  only  the  final  directory of the destination path will be created if it
              does not exist. With this option, all missing directories on the  destination  path
              will  be created. Use this option with care: if there is a typo in the remote path,
              the remote filesystem could fill up very quickly (by creating  a  duplicate  backup
              tree).  For  this  reason  this option is primarily aimed at scripts which automate

       --current-time seconds
              This option is useful mainly for testing.  If set, rdiff-backup will use it for the
              current  time  instead  of  consulting  the  clock.   The argument is the number of
              seconds since the epoch.

       --exclude shell_pattern
              Exclude the file or files matched by shell_pattern.  If  a  directory  is  matched,
              then  files  under  that  directory  will  also be matched.  See the FILE SELECTION
              section for more information.

              Exclude all device files.  This can be useful for security/permissions  reasons  or
              if rdiff-backup is not handling device files correctly.

              Exclude all fifo files.

       --exclude-filelist filename
              Excludes  the  files  listed  in filename.  If filename is handwritten you probably
              want --exclude-globbing-filelist instead.  See the FILE SELECTION section for  more

              Like  --exclude-filelist,  but  the list of files will be read from standard input.
              See the FILE SELECTION section for more information.

       --exclude-globbing-filelist filename
              Like --exclude-filelist but each line of the filelist will be interpreted according
              to the same rules as --include and --exclude.

              Like  --exclude-globbing-filelist, but the list of files will be read from standard

              Exclude files on file systems (identified by device number)  other  than  the  file
              system the root of the source directory is on.

       --exclude-regexp regexp
              Exclude  files matching the given regexp.  Unlike the --exclude option, this option
              does not match files in a directory it matches.  See the FILE SELECTION section for
              more information.

              Exclude all device files, fifo files, socket files, and symbolic links.

              Exclude all socket files.

              Exclude  all  symbolic  links.  This  option is automatically enabled if the backup
              source is running on native Windows to avoid backing-up NTFS reparse points.

       --exclude-if-present filename
              Exclude directories if filename is present. This option needs to  come  before  any
              other include or exclude options.

              Authorize a more drastic modification of a directory than usual (for instance, when
              overwriting of  a  destination  path,  or  when  removing  multiple  sessions  with
              --remove-older-than).   rdiff-backup  will  generally  tell  you  if it needs this.
              WARNING: You can cause data loss if you mis-use this option.  Furthermore,  do  NOT
              use  this  option  when  doing  a  restore,  as  it  will  DELETE FILES, unless you
              absolutely know what you are doing.

       --group-mapping-file filename
              Map group names and ids according the the group mapping  file  filename.   See  the
              USERS AND GROUPS section for more information.

       --include shell_pattern
              Similar  to  --exclude  but  include matched files instead.  Unlike --exclude, this
              option  will  also  match  parent  directories  of  matched  files  (although   not
              necessarily their contents).  See the FILE SELECTION section for more information.

       --include-filelist filename
              Like  --exclude-filelist,  but  include  the  listed files instead.  If filename is
              handwritten you probably want --include-globbing-filelist instead.   See  the  FILE
              SELECTION section for more information.

              Like --include-filelist, but read the list of included files from standard input.

       --include-globbing-filelist filename
              Like --include-filelist but each line of the filelist will be interpreted according
              to the same rules as --include and --exclude.

              Like --include-globbing-filelist, but the list of files will be read from  standard

       --include-regexp regexp
              Include  files  matching  the  regular  expression  regexp.   Only files explicitly
              matched by regexp will be included by this option.  See the FILE SELECTION  section
              for more information.

              Include all device files, fifo files, socket files, and symbolic links.

              Include all symbolic links.

       --list-at-time time
              List  the files in the archive that were present at the given time.  If a directory
              in the archive is specified, list only the files under that directory.

       --list-changed-since time
              List the files that have changed in the destination directory since the given time.
              See  TIME  FORMATS  for  the  format  of  time.   If  a directory in the archive is
              specified, list only the files under that directory.  This option does not read the
              source  directory; it is used to compare the contents of two different rdiff-backup

       -l, --list-increments
              List the number and date of partial incremental backups contained in the  specified
              destination  directory.   No  backup  or  restore will take place if this option is

              List the total size of all the increment and mirror files by  time.   This  may  be
              helpful  in  deciding how many increments to keep, and when to --remove-older-than.
              Specifying a subdirectory is allowable; then only  the  sizes  of  the  mirror  and
              increments pertaining to that subdirectory will be listed.

       --max-file-size size
              Exclude files that are larger than the given size in bytes

       --min-file-size size
              Exclude files that are smaller than the given size in bytes

              Exit  with error instead of dropping acls or acl entries.  Normally this may happen
              (with a warning) because the destination does  not  support  them  or  because  the
              relevant user/group names do not exist on the destination side.

              No Access Control Lists - disable backup of ACLs

              Disable backup of MacOS X carbonfile information

              This  option  prevents rdiff-backup from flagging a hardlinked file as changed when
              its device number and/or inode changes.  This option is useful in situations  where
              the source filesystem lacks persistent device and/or inode numbering.  For example,
              network filesystems may have mount-to-mount differences in their device number (but
              possibly  stable  inode  numbers); USB/1394 devices may come up at different device
              numbers each remount (but would generally have same inode number);  and  there  are
              filesystems  which don't even have the same inode numbers from use to use.  Without
              the option rdiff-backup may generate unnecessary numbers of tiny diff files.

              Disable the default gzip compression of most of the .snapshot and  .diff  increment
              files  stored  in  the  rdiff-backup-data  directory.   A backup volume can contain
              compressed and uncompressed increments, so  using  this  option  inconsistently  is

       --no-compression-regexp  regexp
              Do  not  compress  increments  based  on  files  whose filenames match regexp.  The
              default includes many common audiovisual and archive files, and  may  be  found  in

              No Extended Attributes support - disable backup of EAs.

              This  will  disable  writing  to  the file_statistics file in the rdiff-backup-data
              directory.  rdiff-backup will run slightly quicker and take up a bit less space.

              Don't replicate hard links on destination side.   If  many  hard-linked  files  are
              present, this option can drastically decrease memory usage.  This option is enabled
              by default if the backup  source  or  restore  destination  is  running  on  native

              Use  nulls  (\0)  instead  of newlines (\n) as line separators, which may help when
              dealing with filenames containing newlines.  This affects the  expected  format  of
              the files specified by the --{include|exclude}-filelist[-stdin] switches as well as
              the format of the directory statistics file.

              If set, rdiff-backup's output will be  tailored  for  easy  parsing  by  computers,
              instead  of  convenience  for  humans.   Currently  this  only applies when listing
              increments using the -l or --list-increments switches, where the time will be given
              in seconds since the epoch.

              If  the  filesystem  to  which  we  are backing up is not case-sensitive, automatic
              'quoting' of characters  occurs.  For  example,  a  file  'Developer.doc'  will  be
              converted  into  ';068eveloper.doc'. To override this behavior, you need to specify
              this option.

              If set, rdiff-backup will preserve uids/gids instead of trying to  preserve  unames
              and gnames.  See the USERS AND GROUPS section for more information.

              If  set, summary statistics will be printed after a successful backup.  If not set,
              this information will still be available from the session statistics file.  See the
              STATISTICS section for more information.

       -r, --restore-as-of restore_time
              Restore the specified directory as it was as of restore_time.  See the TIME FORMATS
              section for more information on the format of restore_time, and see  the  RESTORING
              section for more information on restoring.

       --remote-cmd cmd
              Deprecated. Please use --remote-schema instead

       --remote-schema schema
              Specify  an alternate method of connecting to a remote computer.  This is necessary
              to get rdiff-backup not to use ssh for remote backups, or if, for instance,  rdiff-
              backup is not in the PATH on the remote side.  See the REMOTE OPERATION section for
              more information.

       --remote-tempdir path
              Adds the --tempdir option with argument path  when  invoking  remote  instances  of

       --remove-older-than time_spec
              Remove  the  incremental  backup  information in the destination directory that has
              been around longer than the given time.  time_spec can be either an absolute  time,
              like "2002-01-04", or a time interval.  The time interval is an integer followed by
              the character s, m, h, D, W, M, or Y, indicating  seconds,  minutes,  hours,  days,
              weeks,  months,  or  years  respectively,  or  a number of these concatenated.  For
              example, 32m means 32 minutes, and 3W2D10h7s means 3 weeks, 2 days, 10 hours, and 7
              seconds.   In this context, a month means 30 days, a year is 365 days, and a day is
              always 86400 seconds.

              rdiff-backup cannot remove-older-than and back up or restore in a  single  session.
              In order to both backup a directory and remove old files in it, you must run rdiff-
              backup twice.

              By default, rdiff-backup will only delete information from one session at  a  time.
              To  remove two or more sessions at the same time, supply the --force option (rdiff-
              backup will tell you if --force is required).

              Note that snapshots of deleted files are covered by this operation.   Thus  if  you
              deleted a file two weeks ago, backed up immediately afterwards, and then ran rdiff-
              backup with --remove-older-than 10D today, no trace  of  that  file  would  remain.
              Finally,  file  selection  options  such  as  --include  and --exclude don't affect

       --restrict path
              Require that all file access be inside  the  given  path.   This  switch,  and  the
              following  two,  are  intended to be used with the --server switch to provide a bit
              more protection when doing automated remote backups.  They are not intended as your
              only line of defense so please don't do something silly like allow public access to
              an rdiff-backup server run with --restrict-read-only.

       --restrict-read-only path
              Like --restrict, but also reject all write requests.

       --restrict-update-only path
              Like --restrict, but only allow writes as part of an incremental backup.   Requests
              for other types of writes (for instance, deleting path) will be rejected.

              Enter  server  mode (not to be invoked directly, but instead used by another rdiff-
              backup process on a remote computer).

              When running ssh, do not use  the  -C  option  to  enable  compression.   --ssh-no-
              compression is ignored if you specify a new schema using --remote-schema.

       --tempdir path
              Sets  the  directory  that rdiff-backup uses for temporary files to the given path.
              The environment variables TMPDIR, TEMP, and  TMP  can  also  be  used  to  set  the
              temporary  files directory. See the documentation of the Python tempfile module for
              more information.

       --terminal-verbosity [0-9]
              Select which messages will be displayed to the  terminal.   If  missing  the  level
              defaults to the verbosity level.

              Test  for  the  presence  of  a  compatible rdiff-backup server as specified in the
              following host::filename argument(s).  The filename section will be ignored.

       --user-mapping-file filename
              Map user names and ids according to the user mapping file filename.  See the  USERS
              AND GROUPS section for more information.

       -v[0-9], --verbosity [0-9]
              Specify verbosity level (0 is totally silent, 3 is the default, and 9 is noisiest).
              This determines how much is written to the log file.

              This is short for --verify-at-time now

       --verify-at-time now
              Check all the data in the repository at the given time by computing the  SHA1  hash
              of  all the regular files and comparing them with the hashes stored in the metadata

       -V, --version
              Print the current version and exit


       There are two ways to tell rdiff-backup to restore a file or directory.  Firstly, you  can
       run  rdiff-backup  on  a mirror file and use the -r or --restore-as-of options.  Secondly,
       you can run it on an increment file.

       For example, suppose in the past you have run:

              rdiff-backup /usr /usr.backup

       to back up the /usr directory into the /usr.backup directory, and now want a copy  of  the
       /usr/local directory the way it was 3 days ago placed at /usr/local.old.

       One way to do this is to run:

              rdiff-backup -r 3D /usr.backup/local /usr/local.old

       where  above  the  "3D"  means  3  days  (for other ways to specify the time, see the TIME
       FORMATS section).  The /usr.backup/local directory  was  selected,  because  that  is  the
       directory containing the current version of /usr/local.

       Note  that  the option to --restore-as-of always specifies an exact time.  (So "3D" refers
       to the instant 72 hours before the present.)  If there was no backup made  at  that  time,
       rdiff-backup  restores  the  state recorded for the previous backup.  For instance, in the
       above case, if "3D" is used, and there are only backups  from  2  days  and  4  days  ago,
       /usr/local as it was 4 days ago will be restored.

       The  second  way  to  restore files involves finding the corresponding increment file.  It
       would be in the /backup/rdiff-backup-data/increments/usr directory, and its name would  be
       something like "local.2002-11-09T12:43:53-04:00.dir" where the time indicates it is from 3
       days ago.  Note that the increment files all  end  in  ".diff",  ".snapshot",  ".dir",  or
       ".missing",  where ".missing" just means that the file didn't exist at that time (finally,
       some of these may be gzip-compressed, and have an extra ".gz"  to  indicate  this).   Then

              rdiff-backup              /backup/rdiff-backup-data/increments/usr/local.<time>.dir

       would also restore the file as desired.

       If you are not sure exactly which version of a file you need, it is  probably  easiest  to
       either  restore  from the increments files as described immediately above, or to see which
       increments are available with -l/--list-increments, and  then  specify  exact  times  into


       rdiff-backup  uses time strings in two places.  Firstly, all of the increment files rdiff-
       backup creates will have the time  in  their  filenames  in  the  w3  datetime  format  as
       described  in  a  w3 note at  Basically they look like
       "2001-07-15T04:09:38-07:00", which means what it looks like.  The "-07:00"  section  means
       the time zone is 7 hours behind UTC.

       Secondly,  the  -r,  --restore-as-of,  and --remove-older-than options take a time string,
       which can be given in any of several formats:

       1.     the string "now" (refers to the current time)

       2.     a sequences of digits, like "123456890" (indicating the time in seconds  after  the

       3.     A string like "2002-01-25T07:00:00+02:00" in datetime format

       4.     An  interval, which is a number followed by one of the characters s, m, h, D, W, M,
              or  Y  (indicating  seconds,  minutes,  hours,  days,  weeks,  months,   or   years
              respectively),  or  a  series of such pairs.  In this case the string refers to the
              time that preceded the current time by the length of the interval.   For  instance,
              "1h78m" indicates the time that was one hour and 78 minutes ago.  The calendar here
              is unsophisticated: a month is always 30 days, a year is always 365 days, and a day
              is always 86400 seconds.

       5.     A  date format of the form YYYY/MM/DD, YYYY-MM-DD, MM/DD/YYYY, or MM-DD-YYYY, which
              indicates midnight on the  day  in  question,  relative  to  the  current  timezone
              settings.   For  instance, "2002/3/5", "03-05-2002", and "2002-3-05" all mean March
              5th, 2002.

       6.     A backup session specification which is a non-negative  integer  followed  by  'B'.
              For instance, '0B' specifies the time of the current mirror, and '3B' specifies the
              time of the 3rd newest increment.


       In order to access remote files, rdiff-backup opens up a pipe to a  copy  of  rdiff-backup
       running on the remote machine.  Thus rdiff-backup must be installed on both ends.  To open
       this pipe, rdiff-backup first splits  the  filename  into  host_info::pathname.   It  then
       substitutes  host_info into the remote schema, and runs the resulting command, reading its
       input and output.

       The default remote schema  is  'ssh  -C  %s  rdiff-backup  --server'  where  host_info  is
       substituted  for  '%s'.  So if the host_info is, then rdiff-backup runs 'ssh rdiff-backup --server'.  Using --remote-schema, rdiff-backup can  invoke  an
       arbitrary command in order to open up a remote pipe.  For instance,
              rdiff-backup --remote-schema 'cd /usr; %s' foo 'rdiff-backup --server'::bar
       is basically equivalent to (but slower than)
              rdiff-backup foo /usr/bar

       Concerning  quoting,  if  for  some  reason  you need to put two consecutive colons in the
       host_info section of a host_info::pathname argument, or in the pathname of a  local  file,
       you  can  quote  one  of  them  by prepending a backslash.  So in 'a\::b::c', host_info is
       'a::b' and the pathname is 'c'.  Similarly, if you want to refer to  a  local  file  whose
       filename  contains  two consecutive colons, like 'strange::file', you'll have to quote one
       of the colons as in 'strange\::file'.  Because the backslash is a quote character in these
       circumstances,  it  too  must  be  quoted  to  get  a  literal backslash, so 'foo\::\\bar'
       evaluates to 'foo::\bar'.  To make things more complicated, because the backslash is  also
       a  common  shell  quoting character, you may need to type in '\\\\' at the shell prompt to
       get a literal backslash (if it makes you feel better, I had to type in  8  backslashes  to
       get  that  in  this  man  page...).   And  finally,  to  include a literal % in the string
       specified by --remote-schema, quote it with another %, as in %%.

       Although ssh itself may be secure, using rdiff-backup in the  default  way  presents  some
       security  risks.   For  instance  if  the  server  is  run  as  root, then an attacker who
       compromised the client could then use rdiff-backup to overwrite arbitrary server files  by
       "backing  up"  over  them.   Such  a  setup  can  be  made  more  secure by using the sshd
       configuration option command="rdiff-backup --server" possibly along with  the  --restrict*
       options  to  rdiff-backup.   For  more  information,  see  the web page, the wiki, and the
       entries for the --restrict* options on this man page.


       rdiff-backup has a number of  file  selection  options.   When  rdiff-backup  is  run,  it
       searches  through  the  given  source  directory  and  backs up all the files matching the
       specified options.  This selection system may appear complicated, but it is supposed to be
       flexible  and  easy-to-use.   If  you  just  want  to  learn the basics, first look at the
       selection examples in the examples.html file included in the package, or  on  the  web  at

       rdiff-backup's  selection  system  was originally inspired by rsync(1), but there are many
       differences.  (For instance, trailing backslashes have no special significance.)

       The file selection system comprises a number of file selection conditions, which  are  set
       using one of the following command line options: --exclude, --exclude-filelist, --exclude-
       device-files,  --exclude-fifos,  --exclude-sockets,  --exclude-symbolic-links,  --exclude-
       globbing-filelist, --exclude-globbing-filelist-stdin, --exclude-filelist-stdin, --exclude-
       regexp,  --exclude-special-files,   --include,   --include-filelist,   --include-globbing-
       filelist,   --include-globbing-filelist-stdin,  --include-filelist-stdin,  and  --include-
       regexp.  Each file selection condition either matches or doesn't match a  given  file.   A
       given  file  is excluded by the file selection system exactly when the first matching file
       selection condition specifies that the file be excluded; otherwise the file  is  included.
       When  backing  up, if a file is excluded, rdiff-backup acts as if that file does not exist
       in the source directory.  When restoring, an excluded file is considered not to  exist  in
       either the source or target directories.

       For instance,

              rdiff-backup --include /usr --exclude /usr /usr /backup

       is exactly the same as

              rdiff-backup /usr /backup

       because the include and exclude directives match exactly the same files, and the --include
       comes first, giving it precedence.  Similarly,

              rdiff-backup --include /usr/local/bin --exclude /usr/local /usr /backup

       would backup the /usr/local/bin directory (and its contents), but not /usr/local/doc.

       The include, exclude,  include-globbing-filelist,  and  exclude-globbing-filelist  options
       accept  extended shell globbing patterns.  These patterns can contain the special patterns
       *, **, ?, and [...].  As in a normal shell, * can be expanded to any string of  characters
       not containing "/", ?  expands to any character except "/", and [...]  expands to a single
       character of those characters specified (ranges are acceptable).  The new special pattern,
       **,  expands  to any string of characters whether or not it contains "/".  Furthermore, if
       the pattern starts with "ignorecase:" (case insensitive), then this prefix will be removed
       and  any  character  in  the string can be replaced with an upper- or lowercase version of

       If you need to match filenames which contain the above globbing characters,  they  may  be
       escaped  using  a backslash "\". The backslash will only escape the character following it
       so for ** you will need to use "\*\*" to avoid escaping it to the * globbing character.

       Remember that you may need to quote these characters when typing them into a shell, so the
       shell does not interpret the globbing patterns before rdiff-backup sees them.

       The --exclude pattern option matches a file iff:

       1.     pattern can be expanded into the file's filename, or

       2.     the file is inside a directory matched by the option.

       Conversely, --include pattern matches a file iff:

       1.     pattern can be expanded into the file's filename,

       2.     the file is inside a directory matched by the option, or

       3.     the file is a directory which contains a file matched by the option.

       For example,

              --exclude /usr/local

       matches  /usr/local,  /usr/local/lib,  and  /usr/local/lib/netscape.   It  is  the same as
       --exclude /usr/local --exclude '/usr/local/**'.

              --include /usr/local

       specifies that /usr, /usr/local,  /usr/local/lib,  and  /usr/local/lib/netscape  (but  not
       /usr/doc)  all  be  backed  up.   Thus  you  don't  have  to  worry about including parent
       directories to make sure that included subdirectories have somewhere to go.  Finally,

              --include ignorecase:'/usr/[a-z0-9]foo/*/**.py'

       would match a file like /usR/5fOO/hello/there/  If  it  did  match  anything,  it
       would  also  match  /usr.   If  there  is  no  existing file that the given pattern can be
       expanded into, the option will not match /usr.

       The  --include-filelist,  --exclude-filelist,  --include-filelist-stdin,  and   --exclude-
       filelist-stdin options also introduce file selection conditions.  They direct rdiff-backup
       to read in a file, each line of which is a file specification, and to include  or  exclude
       the  matching  files.   Lines are separated by newlines or nulls, depending on whether the
       --null-separator switch was given.  Each line in a filelist is  interpreted  similarly  to
       the way extended shell patterns are, with a few exceptions:

       1.     Globbing patterns like *, **, ?, and [...]  are not expanded.

       2.     Include patterns do not match files in a directory that is included.  So /usr/local
              in an include file will not match /usr/local/doc.

       3.     Lines starting with "+ " are interpreted as include directives, even if found in  a
              filelist  referenced  by  --exclude-filelist.   Similarly, lines starting with "- "
              exclude files even if they are found within an include filelist.

       For example, if the file "list.txt" contains the lines:

              - /usr/local/doc
              + /var
              - /var

       then "--include-filelist list.txt" would include /usr, /usr/local, and /usr/local/bin.  It
       would  exclude  /usr/local/doc,  /usr/local/doc/python,  etc.   It  neither  excludes  nor
       includes /usr/local/man, leaving the fate of this  directory  to  the  next  specification
       condition.   Finally,  it  is undefined what happens with /var.  A single file list should
       not contain conflicting file specifications.

       The  --include-globbing-filelist  and  --exclude-globbing-filelist  options  also  specify
       filelists, but each line in the filelist will be interpreted as a globbing pattern the way
       --include and --exclude options are interpreted (although "+ " and "- " prefixing is still
       allowed).  For instance, if the file "globbing-list.txt" contains the lines:

              + dir/bar
              - **

       Then   "--include-globbing-filelist  globbing-list.txt"  would  be  exactly  the  same  as
       specifying "--include dir/foo --include dir/bar --exclude **" on the command line.

       Finally, the --include-regexp and --exclude-regexp allow files to be included and excluded
       if  their  filenames  match a python regular expression.  Regular expression syntax is too
       complicated to explain here, but is covered in Python's  library  reference.   Unlike  the
       --include  and  --exclude  options,  the  regular  expression  options  don't  match files
       containing or contained in matched files.  So for instance

              --include '[0-9]{7}(?!foo)'

       matches any files whose full pathnames contain 7 consecutive digits which aren't  followed
       by 'foo'.  However, it wouldn't match /home even if /home/ben/1234567 existed.


       There can be complications preserving ownership across systems.  For instance the username
       that owns a file on the source system may not exist  on  the  destination.   Here  is  how
       rdiff-backup  maps  ownership on the source to the destination (or vice-versa, in the case
       of restoring):

       1.     If the --preserve-numerical-ids option is given, the remote files will always  have
              the  same  uid  and gid, both for ownership and ACL entries.  This may cause unames
              and gnames to change.

       2.     Otherwise, attempt to preserve the user and group names for ownership and in  ACLs.
              This may result in files having different uids and gids across systems.

       3.     If  a name cannot be preserved (e.g. because the username does not exist), preserve
              the original id, but only in cases of user and group ownership.  For ACLs, omit any
              entry that has a bad user or group name.

       4.     The  --user-mapping-file  and  --group-mapping-file options override this behavior.
              If either of these options is given, the policy described in 2 and 3 above will  be
              followed,  but  with  the  mapped  user  and group instead of the original.  If you
              specify both --preserve-numerical-ids and one of the mapping options, the  behavior
              is undefined.

       The user and group mapping files both have the same form:


       Each  line  should contain a name or id, followed by a colon ":", followed by another name
       or id.  If a name or id is not listed, they are  treated  in  the  default  way  described

       When  restoring,  the  above  behavior is also followed, but note that the original source
       user/group information will be the input, not the already  mapped  user/group  information
       present  in  the  backup  repository.  For instance, suppose you have mapped all the files
       owned by alice in the source so that they are owned by ben in the repository, and now  you
       want to restore, making sure the files owned originally by alice are still owned by alice.
       In this case there is no need to use any of the mapping options.  However, if  you  wanted
       to  restore  the  files  so that the files originally owned by alice on the source are now
       owned by ben, you would have to use the mapping options, even though  you  just  want  the
       unames of the repository's files preserved in the restored files.


       Every session rdiff-backup saves various statistics into two files, the session statistics
       file at rdiff-backup-data/session_statistics.<time>.data and the directory statistics file
       at  rdiff-backup-data/directory_statistics.<time>.data.   They  are  both  text  files and
       contain similar information: how many files changed, how many were deleted, the total size
       of  increment  files created, etc.  However, the session statistics file is intended to be
       very readable and only describes the session as a whole.  The directory statistics file is
       more  compact  (and  slightly  less readable) but describes every directory backed up.  It
       also may be compressed to save space.

       Statistics-related options include --print-statistics and --null-separator.

       Also, rdiff-backup will save various messages to the  log  file,  which  is  rdiff-backup-
       data/backup.log   for   backup  sessions  and  rdiff-backup-data/restore.log  for  restore
       sessions.  Generally what is  written  to  this  file  will  coincide  with  the  messages
       displayed  to stdout or stderr, although this can be changed with the --terminal-verbosity

       The log file is not compressed and can become quite large if rdiff-backup is run with high


       If  rdiff-backup  finishes  successfully,  the  exit  status  will  be  0.  If there is an
       unrecoverable (critical) error, it will be non-zero (usually 1, but don't depend  on  this
       specific  value).   When  setting up rdiff-backup to run automatically (as from cron(8) or
       similar) it is probably a good idea to check the exit code.


       The gzip library in versions 2.2 and earlier of python (but fixed in  2.3a1)  has  trouble
       producing  files  over  2GB  in length.  This bug will prevent rdiff-backup from producing
       large compressed increments (snapshots or diffs).  A workaround is to disable  compression
       for large uncompressable files.


       Ben Escoto <>

       Feel  free  to  ask  me  questions or send me bug reports, but you may want to see the web
       page, mentioned below, first.


       python(1), rdiff(1), rsync(1), ssh(1).  The main rdiff-backup web page is at http://rdiff-  It has more information, links to the mailing list and CVS, etc.