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       rename - change the name or location of a file


       #include <stdio.h>

       int rename(const char *oldpath, const char *newpath);


       rename()  renames a file, moving it between directories if required.  Any other hard links
       to the file (as created using link(2)) are unaffected.  Open file descriptors for  oldpath
       are also unaffected.

       If newpath already exists it will be atomically replaced (subject to a few conditions; see
       ERRORS below), so that there is no point at which another  process  attempting  to  access
       newpath will find it missing.

       If  oldpath  and newpath are existing hard links referring to the same file, then rename()
       does nothing, and returns a success status.

       If newpath exists but the operation fails for some reason rename() guarantees to leave  an
       instance of newpath in place.

       oldpath  can specify a directory.  In this case, newpath must either not exist, or it must
       specify an empty directory.

       However, when overwriting there will probably be  a  window  in  which  both  oldpath  and
       newpath refer to the file being renamed.

       If  oldpath refers to a symbolic link the link is renamed; if newpath refers to a symbolic
       link the link will be overwritten.


       On success, zero is returned.  On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.


       EACCES Write permission is denied for the directory containing  oldpath  or  newpath,  or,
              search  permission  is  denied  for  one  of  the directories in the path prefix of
              oldpath or newpath, or oldpath is a directory and does not allow  write  permission
              (needed to update the ..  entry).  (See also path_resolution(7).)

       EBUSY  The  rename  fails because oldpath or newpath is a directory that is in use by some
              process (perhaps as current working directory, or as root directory, or because  it
              was  open  for  reading)  or  is in use by the system (for example as mount point),
              while the system considers this an error.  (Note that there is  no  requirement  to
              return  EBUSY in such cases—there is nothing wrong with doing the rename anyway—but
              it is  allowed  to  return  EBUSY  if  the  system  cannot  otherwise  handle  such

       EDQUOT The user's quota of disk blocks on the filesystem has been exhausted.

       EFAULT oldpath or newpath points outside your accessible address space.

       EINVAL The new pathname contained a path prefix of the old, or, more generally, an attempt
              was made to make a directory a subdirectory of itself.

       EISDIR newpath is an existing directory, but oldpath is not a directory.

       ELOOP  Too many symbolic links were encountered in resolving oldpath or newpath.

       EMLINK oldpath already has the maximum number of links to it, or it was  a  directory  and
              the directory containing newpath has the maximum number of links.

              oldpath or newpath was too long.

       ENOENT The link named by oldpath does not exist; or, a directory component in newpath does
              not exist; or, oldpath or newpath is an empty string.

       ENOMEM Insufficient kernel memory was available.

       ENOSPC The device containing the file has no room for the new directory entry.

              A component used as a directory in oldpath or newpath is not, in fact, a directory.
              Or, oldpath is a directory, and newpath exists but is not a directory.

              newpath is a nonempty directory, that is, contains entries other than "." and "..".

       EPERM or EACCES
              The directory containing oldpath has the sticky bit (S_ISVTX) set and the process's
              effective user ID is neither the user ID of the file to be deleted nor that of  the
              directory  containing  it,  and the process is not privileged (Linux: does not have
              the CAP_FOWNER capability); or newpath  is  an  existing  file  and  the  directory
              containing it has the sticky bit set and the process's effective user ID is neither
              the user ID of the file to be replaced nor that of the directory containing it, and
              the  process is not privileged (Linux: does not have the CAP_FOWNER capability); or
              the filesystem containing pathname does not support renaming of the type requested.

       EROFS  The file is on a read-only filesystem.

       EXDEV  oldpath and newpath are not on the  same  mounted  filesystem.   (Linux  permits  a
              filesystem  to  be  mounted  at  multiple points, but rename() does not work across
              different mount points, even if the same filesystem is mounted on both.)


       4.3BSD, C89, C99, POSIX.1-2001.


       On NFS filesystems, you can not assume that if the  operation  failed  the  file  was  not
       renamed.   If the server does the rename operation and then crashes, the retransmitted RPC
       which will be processed when the server is up again causes a failure.  The application  is
       expected to deal with this.  See link(2) for a similar problem.


       mv(1),   chmod(2),   link(2),   renameat(2),  symlink(2),  unlink(2),  path_resolution(7),


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