Provided by: encfs_1.7.4-2.4ubuntu2_amd64 bug


       encfs - mounts or creates an encrypted virtual filesystem


       encfs [--version] [-s] [-f] [-v--verbose] [-i MINUTES--idle=MINUTES] [--extpass=program]
       [-S--stdinpass] [--anykey] [--forcedecode] [-d--fuse-debug] [--public]
       [--no-default-flags] [--ondemand] [--reverse] [--standard] [-o FUSE_OPTION] rootdir
       mountPoint [-- [Fuse Mount Options]]


       EncFS creates a virtual encrypted filesystem which stores encrypted data in the rootdir
       directory and makes the unencrypted data visible at the mountPoint directory.  The user
       must supply a password which is used to (indirectly) encrypt both filenames and file

       If EncFS is unable to find a supported filesystem at the specified rootdir, then the user
       will be asked if they wish to create a new encrypted filesystem at the specified location.
       Options will be presented to the user allowing some control over the algorithms to use.
       As EncFS matures, there may be an increasing number of choices.


       -i, --idle=MINUTES
           Enable automatic unmount of the filesystem after a period of inactivity.  The period
           is specified in minutes, so the shortest timeout period that can be requested is one
           minute.  EncFS will not automatically unmount if there are files open within the
           filesystem, even if they are open in read-only mode.  However simply having files open
           does not count as activity.

       -f  The -f (foreground) option causes EncFS to run in the foreground.  Normally EncFS
           spawns off as a daemon and runs in the background, returning control to the spawning
           shell.  With the -f option, it will run in the foreground and any warning/debug log
           messages will be displayed on standard error.  In the default (background) mode, all
           log messages are logged via syslog.

       -v, --verbose
           Causes EncFS to enable logging of various debug channels within EncFS.  Normally these
           logging messages are disabled and have no effect.  It is recommended that you run in
           foreground (-f) mode when running with verbose enabled.

       -s  The -s (single threaded) option causes EncFS to run in single threaded mode.  By
           default, EncFS runs in multi-threaded mode.  This option is used during EncFS
           development in order to simplify debugging and allow it to run under memory checking

       -d, --fuse-debug
           Enables debugging within the FUSE library.  This should only be used if you suspect a
           problem within FUSE itself (not EncFS), as it generates a lot of low-level data and is
           not likely to be very helpful in general problem tracking.  Try verbose mode (-v)
           first, which gives a higher level view of what is happening within EncFS.

           This option only has an effect on filesystems which use MAC block headers.  By
           default, if a block is decoded and the stored MAC doesn't match what is calculated,
           then an IO error is returned to the application and the block is not returned.
           However, by specifying --forcedecode, only an error will be logged and the data will
           still be returned to the application.  This may be useful for attempting to read
           corrupted files.

           Attempt to make encfs behave as a typical multi-user filesystem.  By default, all FUSE
           based filesystems are visible only to the user who mounted them.  No other users
           (including root) can view the filesystem contents.  The --public option does two
           things.  It adds the FUSE flags "allow_other" and "default_permission" when mounting
           the filesystem, which tells FUSE to allow other users to access the filesystem, and to
           use the ownership permissions provided by the filesystem.  Secondly, the --public flag
           changes how encfs's node creation functions work - as they will try and set ownership
           of new nodes based on the caller identification.

           Warning: In order for this to work, encfs must be run as root -- otherwise it will not
           have the ability to change ownership of files.  I recommend that you instead
           investigate if the fuse allow_other option can be used to do what you want before
           considering the use of --public.

           Mount the filesystem on-demand.  This currently only makes sense in combination with
           --idle and --extpass options.  When the filesystem becomes idle, instead of exiting,
           EncFS stops allowing access to the filesystem by internally dropping it's reference to
           it.  If someone attempts to access the filesystem again, the extpass program is used
           to prompt the user for the password.  If this succeeds, then the filesystem becomes
           available again.

           Normally EncFS provides a plaintext view of data on demand.  Normally it stores
           enciphered data and displays plaintext data.  With --reverse it takes as source
           plaintext data and produces enciphered data on-demand.  This can be useful for
           creating remote encrypted backups, where you do not wish to keep the local files

           For example, the following would create an encrypted view in /tmp/crypt-view.

               encfs --reverse /home/me /tmp/crypt-view

           You could then copy the /tmp/crypt-view directory in order to have a copy of the
           encrypted data.  You must also keep a copy of the file /home/me/.encfs5 which contains
           the filesystem information.  Together, the two can be used to reproduce the
           unencrypted data:

               ENCFS5_CONFIG=/home/me/.encfs5 encfs /tmp/crypt-view /tmp/plain-view

           Now /tmp/plain-view contains the same data as /home/me

           Note that --reverse mode only works with limited configuration options, so many
           settings may be disabled when used.

           If creating a new filesystem, this automatically selects standard configuration
           options, to help with automatic filesystem creation.  This is the set of options that
           should be used unless you know what you're doing and have read the documentation.

           When not creating a filesystem, this flag does nothing.

       -o FUSE_ARG
           Pass through FUSE args to the underlying library.  This makes it easy to pass FUSE
           options when mounting EncFS via mount (and /etc/fstab).  Eg:

               mount encfs#/home/me-crypt /home/me -t fuse -o kernel_cache

           Note that encfs arguments cannot be set this way.  If you need to set encfs arguments,
           create a wrapper, such as  encfs-reverse;

               encfs --reverse $*

           Then mount using the script path

               mount encfs-reverse#/home/me /home/me-crypt -t fuse

       --  The -- option tells EncFS to send any remaining arguments directly to FUSE.  In turn,
           FUSE passes the arguments to fusermount.  See the fusermount help page for information
           on available commands.

           Encfs adds the FUSE flags "use_ino" and "default_permissions" by default, as of
           version 1.2.2, because that improves compatibility with some programs..  If for some
           reason you need to disable one or both of these flags, use the option

           The following command lines produce the same result:

               encfs raw crypt
               encfs --no-default-flags raw crypt -- -o use_ino,default_permissions

           Specify an external program to use for getting the user password.  When the external
           program is spawned, the environment variable "RootDir" will be set to contain the path
           to the root directory.  The program should print the password to standard output.

           EncFS takes everything returned from the program to be the password, except for a
           trailing newline (\n) which will be removed.

           For example, specifying --extpass=/usr/lib/ssh/ssh-askpass will cause EncFS to use
           ssh's password prompt program.

           Note: EncFS reads at most 2k of data from the password program, and it removes any
           trailing newline.  Versions before 1.4.x accepted only 64 bytes of text.

       -S, --stdinpass
           Read password from standard input, without prompting.  This may be useful for
           scripting encfs mounts.

           Note that you should make sure the filesystem and mount points exist first.  Otherwise
           encfs will prompt for the filesystem creation options, which may interfere with your

           Turn off key validation checking.  This allows EncFS to be used with secondary
           passwords.  This could be used to store a separate set of files in an encrypted
           filesystem.  EncFS ignores files which do not decode properly, so files created with
           separate passwords will only be visible when the filesystem is mounted with their
           associated password.

           Note that if the primary password is changed (using encfsctl), the other passwords
           will not be usable unless the primary password is set back to what it was, as the
           other passwords rely on an invalid decoding of the volume key, which will not remain
           the same if the primary password is changed.

           Warning: Use this option at your own risk.


       Create a new encrypted filesystem.  Store the raw (encrypted) data in "~/.crypt" , and
       make the unencrypted data visible in "~/crypt".  Both directories are in the home
       directory in this example.  This example shows the full output of encfs as it asks the
       user if they wish to create the filesystem:

           % encfs ~/.crypt ~/crypt
           Directory "/home/me/.crypt" does not exist, create (y,n)?y
           Directory "/home/me/crypt" does not exist, create (y,n)?y
           Creating new encrypted volume.
           Please choose from one of the following options:
            enter "x" for expert configuration mode,
            enter "p" for pre-configured paranoia mode,
            anything else, or an empty line will select standard mode.

           Standard configuration selected.
           Using cipher Blowfish, key size 160, block size 512
           New Password: <password entered here>
           Verify: <password entered here>

       The filesystem is now mounted and visible in ~/crypt.  If files are created there, they
       can be seen in encrypted form in ~/.crypt.  To unmount the filesystem, use fusermount with
       the -u (unmount) option:

           % fusermount -u ~/crypt

       Another example.  To mount the same filesystem, but have fusermount name the mount point
       '/dev/foo' (as shown in df and other tools which read /etc/mtab), and also request kernel-
       level caching of file data (which are both special arguments to fusermount):

           % encfs ~/.crypt ~/crypt -- -n /dev/foo -c

       Or, if you find strange behavior under some particular program when working in an
       encrypted filesystem, it may be helpful to run in verbose mode while reproducing the
       problem and send along the output with the problem report:

           % encfs -v -f ~/.crypt ~/crypt 2> encfs-report.txt

       In order to avoid leaking sensitive information through the debugging channels, all
       warnings and debug messages (as output in verbose mode) contain only encrypted filenames.
       You can use the encfsctl program's decode function to decode filenames if desired.


       EncFS is not a true filesystem.  It does not deal with any of the actual storage or
       maintenance of files.  It simply translates requests (encrypting or decrypting as
       necessary) and passes the requests through to the underlying host filesystem.  Therefor
       any limitations of the host filesystem will likely be inherited by EncFS (or possibly be
       further limited).

       One such limitation is filename length.  If your underlying filesystem limits you to N
       characters in a filename, then EncFS will limit you to approximately 3*(N-2)/4.  For
       example if the host filesystem limits to 256 characters, then EncFS will be limited to 190
       character filenames.  This is because encrypted filenames are always longer then plaintext


       When EncFS is given a root directory which does not contain an existing EncFS filesystem,
       it will give the option to create one.  Note that options can only be set at filesystem
       creation time.  There is no support for modifying a filesystem's options in-place.

       If you want to upgrade a filesystem to use newer features, then you need to create a new
       filesystem and mount both the old filesystem and new filesystem at the same time and copy
       the old to the new.

       Multiple instances of encfs can be run at the same time, including different versions of
       encfs, as long as they are compatible with the current FUSE module on your system.

       A choice is provided for two pre-configured settings ('standard' and 'paranoia'), along
       with an expert configuration mode.

       Standard mode uses the following settings:
           Cipher: AES
           Key Size: 192 bits
           PBKDF2 with 1/2 second runtime, 160 bit salt
           Filesystem Block Size: 1024 bytes
           Filename Encoding: Block encoding with IV chaining
           Unique initialization vector file headers

       Paranoia mode uses the following settings:
           Cipher: AES
           Key Size: 256 bits
           PBKDF2 with 3 second runtime, 160 bit salt
           Filesystem Block Size: 1024 bytes
           Filename Encoding: Block encoding with IV chaining
           Unique initialization vector file headers
           Message Authentication Code block headers
           External IV Chaining

       In the expert / manual configuration mode, each of the above options is configurable.
       Here is a list of current options with some notes about what they mean:

Key Derivation Function

       As of version 1.5, EncFS now uses PBKDF2 as the default key derivation function.  The
       number of iterations in the keying function is selected based on wall clock time to
       generate the key.  In standard mode, a target time of 0.5 seconds is used, and in paranoia
       mode a target of 3.0 seconds is used.

       On a 1.6Ghz AMD 64 system, it rougly 64k iterations of the key derivation function can be
       handled in half a second.  The exact number of iterations to use is stored in the
       configuration file, as it is needed to remount the filesystem.

       If an EncFS filesystem configuration from 1.4.x is modified with version 1.5 (such as when
       using encfsctl to change the password), then the new PBKDF2 function will be used and the
       filesystem will no longer be readable by older versions.

           Which encryption algorithm to use.  The list is generated automatically based on what
           supported algorithms EncFS found in the encryption libraries.  When using a recent
           version of OpenSSL, Blowfish and AES are the typical options.

           Blowfish is an 8 byte cipher - encoding 8 bytes at a time.  AES is a 16 byte cipher.

       Cipher Key Size
           Many, if not all, of the supported ciphers support multiple key lengths.  There is not
           really much need to have enormous key lengths.  Even 160 bits (the default) is
           probably overkill.

       Filesystem Block Size
           This is the size (in bytes) that EncFS deals with at one time.  Each block gets its
           own initialization vector and is encoded in the cipher's cipher-block-chaining mode.
           A partial block at the end of a file is encoded using a stream mode to avoid having to
           store the filesize somewhere.

           Having larger block sizes reduces the overhead of EncFS a little, but it can also add
           overhead if your programs read small parts of files.  In order to read a single byte
           from a file, the entire block that contains that byte must be read and decoded, so a
           large block size adds overhead to small requests.  With write calls it is even worse,
           as a block must be read and decoded, the change applied and the block encoded and
           written back out.

           The default is 512 bytes as of version 1.0.  It was hard coded to 64 bytes in version
           0.x, which was not as efficient as the current setting for general usage.

       Filename Encoding
           New in 1.1. A choice is given between stream encoding of filename and block encoding.
           The advantage of stream encoding is that the encoded filenames will be as short as
           possible.  If you have a filename with a single letter, it will be very short in the
           encoded form, where as block encoded filenames are always rounded up to the block size
           of the encryption cipher (8 bytes for Blowfish and 16 bytes for AES).

           The advantage of block encoding mode is that filename lenths all come out as a
           multiple of the cipher block size.  This means that someone looking at your encrypted
           data can't tell as much about the length of your filenames.  It is on by default, as
           it takes a similar amount of time to using the stream cipher.  However stream cipher
           mode may be useful if you want shorter encrypted filenames for some reason.

           Prior to version 1.1, only stream encoding was supported.

       Filename Initialization Vector Chaining
           New in 1.1.  In previous versions of EncFS, each filename element in a path was
           encoded separately.  So if "foo" encoded to "XXX", then it would always encode that
           way (given the same encryption key), no matter if the path was "a/b/foo", or
           "aa/foo/cc", etc.  That meant it was possible for someone looking at the encrypted
           data to see if two files in different directories had the same name, even though they
           wouldn't know what that name decoded to.

           With initialization vector chaining, each directory gets its own initialization
           vector.  So "a/foo" and "b/foo" will have completely different encoded names for
           "foo".  This features has almost no performance impact (for most operations), and so
           is the default in all modes.

           Note: One significant performance exception is directory renames.  Since the
           initialization vector for filename encoding depends on the directory path, any rename
           requires re-encoding every filename in the tree of the directory being changed.  If
           there are thousands of files, then EncFS will have to do thousands of renames.  It may
           also be possible that EncFS will come across a file that it can't decode or doesn't
           have permission to move during the rename operation, in which case it will attempt to
           undo any changes it made up to that point and the rename will fail.

       Per-File Initialization Vectors
           New in 1.1.  In previous versions of EncFS, each file was encoded in the same way.
           Each block in a file has always had its own initialization vector, but in a
           deterministic way so that block N in one file is encoded in the same was as block N in
           another file.  That made it possible for someone to tell if two files were identical
           (or parts of the file were identical) by comparing the encoded data.

           With per-file initialization vectors, each file gets its own 64bit random
           initialization vector, so that each file is encrypted in a different way.

           This option is enabled by default.

       External IV Chaining
           New in 1.1.3.  This option is closely related to Per-File Initialization Vectors and
           Filename Initialization Vector Chaining.  Basically it extends the initialization
           vector chaining from filenames to the per-file initialization vector.

           When this option is enabled, the per-file initialization vector is encoded using the
           initialization vector derived from the filename initialization vector chaining code.
           This means that the data in a file becomes tied to the filename.  If an encrypted file
           is renamed outside of encfs, it will no longer be decodable within encfs.  Note that
           unless Block MAC headers are enabled, the decoding error will not be detected and will
           result in reading random looking data.

           There is a cost associated with this.  When External IV Chaining is enabled, hard
           links will not be allowed within the filesystem, as there would be no way to properly
           decode two different filenames pointing to the same data.

           Also, renaming a file requires modifying the file header.  So renames will only be
           allowed when the user has write access to the file.

           Because of these limits, this option is disabled by default for standard mode (and
           enabled by default for paranoia mode).

       Block MAC headers
           New to 1.1.  If this is enabled, every block in every file is stored along with a
           cryptographic checksum (Message Authentication Code).  This makes it virtually
           impossible to modify a file without the change being detected by EncFS.  EncFS will
           refuse to read data which does not pass the checksum, and will log the error and
           return an IO error to the application.

           This adds substantial overhead (default being 8 bytes per filesystem block), plus
           computational overhead, and is not enabled by default except in paranoia mode.

           When this is not enabled and if EncFS is asked to read modified or corrupted data, it
           will have no way to verify that the decoded data is what was originally encoded.


       The primary goal of EncFS is to protect data off-line.  That is, provide a convenient way
       of storing files in a way that will frustrate any attempt to read them if the files are
       later intercepted.

       Some algorithms in EncFS are also meant to frustrate on-line attacks where an attacker is
       assumed to be able to modify the files.

       The most intrusive attacks, where an attacker has complete control of the user's machine
       (and can therefor modify EncFS, or FUSE, or the kernel itself) are not guarded against.
       Do not assume that encrypted files will protect your sensitive data if you enter your
       password into a compromised computer.  How you determine that the computer is safe to use
       is beyond the scope of this documentation.

       That said, here are some example attacks and data gathering techniques on the filesystem
       contents along with the algorithms EncFS supports to thwart them:

       Attack: modifying a few bytes of an encrypted file (without knowing what they will decode
           EncFS does not use any form of XOR encryption which would allow single bytes to be
           modified without affecting others.  Most modifications would affect dozens or more
           bytes.  Additionally, MAC Block headers can be used to identify any changes to files.

       Attack: copying a random block of one file to a random block of another file.
           Each block has its own [deterministic] initialization vector.

       Attack: copying block N to block N of another file.
           When the Per-File Initialization Vector support is enabled (default in 1.1.x
           filesystems), a copied block will not decode properly when copied to another file.

       Attack: copying an entire file to another file.
           Can be prevented by enabling External IV Chaining mode.

       Attack: determine if two filenames are the same by looking at encrypted names.
           Filename Initialization Vector chaining prevents this by giving each file a 64-bit
           initialization vector derived from its full path name.

       Attack: compare if two files contain the same data.
           Per-File Initialization Vector support prevents this.


       This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY;
       without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
       Please refer to the "COPYING" file distributed with EncFS for complete details.


       EncFS was written by Valient Gough <>.