Provided by: coreutils_8.21-1ubuntu5_amd64 bug


       tail - output the last part of files


       tail [OPTION]... [FILE]...


       Print the last 10 lines of each FILE to standard output.  With more than one FILE, precede
       each with a header giving the file name.  With no FILE, or when FILE is -,  read  standard

       Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

       -c, --bytes=K
              output the last K bytes; alternatively, use -c +K to output bytes starting with the
              Kth of each file

       -f, --follow[={name|descriptor}]
              output appended data as the file grows; -f, --follow, and  --follow=descriptor  are

       -F     same as --follow=name --retry

       -n, --lines=K
              output  the  last  K  lines,  instead  of the last 10; or use -n +K to output lines
              starting with the Kth

              with --follow=name, reopen a FILE which has not changed size after  N  (default  5)
              iterations  to  see  if  it has been unlinked or renamed (this is the usual case of
              rotated log files).  With inotify, this option is rarely useful.

              with -f, terminate after process ID, PID dies

       -q, --quiet, --silent
              never output headers giving file names

              keep trying to open a file even when it is or  becomes  inaccessible;  useful  when
              following by name, i.e., with --follow=name

       -s, --sleep-interval=N
              with  -f, sleep for approximately N seconds (default 1.0) between iterations.  With
              inotify and --pid=P, check process P at least once every N seconds.

       -v, --verbose
              always output headers giving file names

       --help display this help and exit

              output version information and exit

       If the first character of K (the number of bytes or lines) is a '+', print beginning  with
       the  Kth  item from the start of each file, otherwise, print the last K items in the file.
       K may have a multiplier suffix: b 512, kB 1000, K 1024,  MB  1000*1000,  M  1024*1024,  GB
       1000*1000*1000, G 1024*1024*1024, and so on for T, P, E, Z, Y.

       With  --follow (-f), tail defaults to following the file descriptor, which means that even
       if a tail'ed file is renamed, tail will continue to track its end.  This default  behavior
       is  not  desirable when you really want to track the actual name of the file, not the file
       descriptor (e.g., log rotation).  Use --follow=name in that case.   That  causes  tail  to
       track the named file in a way that accommodates renaming, removal and creation.


       Written by Paul Rubin, David MacKenzie, Ian Lance Taylor, and Jim Meyering.


       Report tail bugs to
       GNU coreutils home page: <>
       General help using GNU software: <>
       Report tail translation bugs to <>


       Copyright  ©  2013  Free  Software  Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or
       later <>.
       This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.  There is NO  WARRANTY,
       to the extent permitted by law.


       The  full  documentation for tail is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If the info and tail
       programs are properly installed at your site, the command

              info coreutils 'tail invocation'

       should give you access to the complete manual.