Provided by: groff-base_1.22.2-5_amd64 bug


       troff - the troff processor of the groff text formatting system


       troff [-abcivzCERU] [-d cs] [-f fam] [-F dir] [-I dir] [-m name] [-M dir] [-n num]
             [-o list] [-r cn] [-T name] [-w name] [-W name] [file ...]


       This manual page describes the GNU version of troff.  It is part  of  the  groff  document
       formatting  system.   It  is  functionally  compatible  with  UNIX  troff,  but  has  many
       extensions, see groff_diff(7).  Usually it should be invoked using  the  groff(1)  command
       which will also run preprocessors and postprocessors in the appropriate order and with the
       appropriate options.


       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its parameter.

       -a        Generate an ASCII approximation of the typeset output.

       -b        Print a backtrace with each warning or error  message.   This  backtrace  should
                 help track down the cause of the error.  The line numbers given in the backtrace
                 may not always be correct, for troff's idea of line numbers gets confused by  as
                 or am requests.

       -c        Disable color output (always disabled in compatibility mode).

       -C        Enable compatibility mode.

       -dname=s  Define c or name to be a string s; c must be a one letter name.

       -E        Inhibit  all  error  messages  of troff.  Note that this doesn't affect messages
                 output to standard error by macro packages using the tm or tm1 requests.

       -ffam     Use fam as the default font family.

       -Fdir     Search in directory (or directory path) dir for subdirectories devname (name  is
                 the  name  of  the  device)  and there for the DESC file and font files.  dir is
                 scanned before all other font directories.

       -i        Read the standard input after all the named input files have been processed.

       -Idir     This option may be used to add a directory to the search path  for  files  (both
                 those  on  the command line and those named in .psbb requests).  The search path
                 is initialized with the current directory.  This option may  be  specified  more
                 than  once; the directories are then searched in the order specified (but before
                 the current directory).  If you want to  make  the  current  directory  be  read
                 before other directories, add -I. at the appropriate place.

                 No directory search is performed for files with an absolute file name.

       -mname    Read  in the file name.tmac.  If it isn't found, try instead.  It will
                 be first searched for in directories given with the -M command line option, then
                 in  directories  given  in the GROFF_TMAC_PATH environment variable, then in the
                 current  directory   (only   if   in   unsafe   mode),   the   home   directory,
                 /usr/lib/groff/site-tmac,             /usr/share/groff/site-tmac,            and

       -Mdir     Search directory (or directory path) dir  for  macro  files.   This  is  scanned
                 before all other macro directories.

       -nnum     Number the first page num.

       -olist    Output  only  pages  in  list, which is a comma-separated list of page ranges; n
                 means print page n, m-n means print every page between m and n, -n  means  print
                 every  page  up  to  n, n- means print every page from n.  troff will exit after
                 printing the last page in the list.

       -rname=n  Set number register c or name to n; c must be a one character name; n can be any
                 troff numeric expression.

       -R        Don't load troffrc and troffrc-end.

       -Tname    Prepare  output  for device name, rather than the default ps; see groff(1) for a
                 more detailed description.

       -U        Unsafe mode.  This will enable the following requests: open, opena, pso, sy, and
                 pi.   For  security  reasons,  these potentially dangerous requests are disabled
                 otherwise.  It will also add the current directory to the macro search path.

       -v        Print the version number.

       -wname    Enable warning name.  Available warnings are described in the  section  WARNINGS
                 below.   For  example,  to enable all warnings, use -w all.  Multiple -w options
                 are allowed.

       -Wname    Inhibit warning name.  Multiple -W options are allowed.

       -z        Suppress formatted output.


       The warnings that can be given by troff are divided into the  following  categories.   The
       name  associated with each warning is used by the -w and -W options; the number is used by
       the warn request, and by the .warn register; it is always a power of 2  to  allow  bitwise

                          │Bit   Code   Warning │ Bit    Code       Warning   │
                          │  0      1   char    │  10      1024   reg         │
                          │  1      2   number  │  11      2048   tab         │
                          │  2      4   break   │  12      4096   right-brace │
                          │  3      8   delim   │  13      8192   missing     │
                          │  4     16   el      │  14     16384   input       │
                          │  5     32   scale   │  15     32768   escape      │
                          │  6     64   range   │  16     65536   space       │
                          │  7    128   syntax  │  17    131072   font        │
                          │  8    256   di      │  18    262144   ig          │
                          │  9    512   mac     │  19    524288   color       │
                          │                     │  20   1048576   file        │
       break           4   In fill mode, lines which could not be broken so that their length was
                           less than the line length.  This is enabled by default.

       char            1   Non-existent characters.  This is enabled by default.

       color      524288   Color related warnings.

       delim           8   Missing or mismatched closing delimiters.

       di            256   Use of di  or  da  without  an  argument  when  there  is  no  current

       el             16   Use of the el request with no matching ie request.

       escape      32768   Unrecognized  escape  sequences.  When an unrecognized escape sequence
                           is encountered, the escape character is ignored.

       file      1048576   Indicates a missing file for the mso request.  Enabled by default.

       font       131072   Non-existent fonts.  This is enabled by default.

       ig         262144   Invalid escapes in text  ignored  with  the  ig  request.   These  are
                           conditions that are errors when they do not occur in ignored text.

       input       16384   Invalid input characters.

       mac           512   Use  of  undefined  strings, macros and diversions.  When an undefined
                           string, macro or diversion  is  used,  that  string  is  automatically
                           defined  as  empty.   So,  in  most cases, at most one warning will be
                           given for each name.

       missing      8192   Requests that are missing non-optional arguments.

       number          2   Invalid numeric expressions.  This is enabled by default.

       range          64   Out of range arguments.

       reg          1024   Use of undefined number registers.  When an undefined number  register
                           is  used, that register is automatically defined to have a value of 0.
                           So, in most cases, at most one warning will be  given  for  use  of  a
                           particular name.

       right-brace  4096   Use of \} where a number was expected.

       scale          32   Meaningless scaling indicators.

       space       65536   Missing  space  between  a  request  or  macro and its argument.  This
                           warning  will  be  given  when  an  undefined  name  longer  than  two
                           characters  is  encountered,  and the first two characters of the name
                           make a defined name.  The request or macro will not be invoked.   When
                           this  warning  is  given,  no macro is automatically defined.  This is
                           enabled by default.  This warning will never  occur  in  compatibility

       syntax        128   Dubious syntax in numeric expressions.

       tab          2048   Inappropriate  use  of a tab character.  Either use of a tab character
                           where a number was expected, or use of tab character  in  an  unquoted
                           macro argument.

       There are also names that can be used to refer to groups of warnings:

       all    All warnings except di, mac, and reg.  It is intended that this covers all warnings
              that are useful with traditional macro packages.

       w      All warnings.


              A colon separated list of directories in which to search for  macro  files.   troff
              will  scan  directories  given  in  the  -M  option  before  these, and in standard
              directories   (current   directory   if   in   unsafe   mode,    home    directory,
              /usr/lib/groff/site-tmac, /usr/share/groff/site-tmac, /usr/share/groff/1.22.2/tmac)
              after these.

              Default device.

              A colon separated list of directories in which to search for the devname directory.
              troff  will  scan  directories given in the -F option before these, and in standard
              directories       (/usr/share/groff/site-font,        /usr/share/groff/1.22.2/font,
              /usr/lib/font) after these.


              Initialization file (called before any other macro package).

              Initialization file (called after any other macro package).

              Macro files

              Device description file for device name.

              Font file for font F of device name.

       Note  that  troffrc  and  troffrc-end  are neither searched in the current nor in the home
       directory by default for security reasons (even if the -U option is given).   Use  the  -M
       command  line  option or the GROFF_TMAC_PATH environment variable to add these directories
       to the search path if necessary.


       Copyright (C) 1989, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This document is distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free  Documentation  License)
       version  1.3  or  later.  You should have received a copy of the FDL on your system, it is
       also available on-line at the GNU  copyleft  site  ⟨⟩.
       This  document  was  written  by  James  Clark,  with  modifications  from  Werner Lemberg
       ⟨⟩ and Bernd Warken ⟨⟩.

       This document is part of groff, the GNU roff distribution.


              The main program of the groff system, a wrapper around troff.

              A description of the groff language, including a short but  complete  reference  of
              all  predefined  requests, registers, and escapes of plain groff.  From the command
              line, this is called by

                     man 7 groff

              The differences of the groff language and the classical troff language.  Currently,
              this is the most actual document of the groff system.

              An  overview  over  groff  and  other  roff  systems, including pointers to further
              related documentation.

       The groff info file, cf.  info(1),  presents  all  groff  documentation  within  a  single