Provided by: debootstrap_1.0.59_all bug


       debootstrap - Bootstrap a basic Debian system


       debootstrap [OPTION...]  SUITE TARGET [MIRROR [SCRIPT]]

       debootstrap [OPTION...]  --second-stage


       debootstrap  bootstraps  a basic Debian system of SUITE into TARGET from MIRROR by running
       SCRIPT.  MIRROR can be an http:// or https:// URL, a file:/// URL, or an ssh:/// URL.

       The SUITE may be a release code name (eg, sid, jessie, wheezy) or  a  symbolic  name  (eg,
       unstable, testing, stable, oldstable)

       Notice that file:/ URLs are translated to file:/// (correct scheme as described in RFC1738
       for local filenames), and file:// will not work.  ssh://USER@HOST/PATH URLs are  retrieved
       using scp; use of ssh-agent or similar is strongly recommended.

       Debootstrap  can  be used to install Debian in a system without using an installation disk
       but can also be used to run a different Debian flavor in a chroot environment.   This  way
       you can create a full (minimal) Debian installation which can be used for testing purposes
       (see the EXAMPLES section).  If you are looking for a  chroot  system  to  build  packages
       please take a look at pbuilder.


              Set the target architecture (use if dpkg isn't installed).  See also --foreign.

              Comma separated list of packages which will be added to download and extract lists.

              Comma  separated  list  of packages which will be removed from download and extract
              lists.  WARNING: you can and probably will exclude essential packages,  be  careful
              using this option.

              Use packages from the listed components of the archive.

              By   default,  debootstrap  will  attempt  to  automatically  resolve  any  missing
              dependencies, warning if  any  are  found.   Note  that  this  is  not  a  complete
              dependency  resolve  in  the  sense  of  dpkg  or apt, and that it is far better to
              specify the entire base system than rely on this option.   With  this  option  set,
              this behaviour is disabled.

              Name of the bootstrap script variant to use.  Currently, the variants supported are
              minbase, which only includes essential packages and apt; buildd, which installs the
              build-essential  packages  into TARGET; and fakechroot, which installs the packages
              without root privileges.   Finally  there  is  variant  scratchbox,  which  is  for
              creating  targets for scratchbox usage.  The default, with no --variant=X argument,
              is to create a base Debian installation in TARGET.

              Override the default keyring for  the  distribution  being  bootstrapped,  and  use
              KEYRING to check signatures of retrieved Release files.

              Disables checking gpg signatures of retrieved Release files.

              Produce more info about downloading.

              Print the packages to be installed, and exit.  Note that a TARGET directory must be
              specified so debootstrap can download Packages files to  determine  which  packages
              should  be  installed,  and  to resolve dependencies.  The TARGET directory will be
              deleted unless --keep-debootstrap-dir is specified.

              Download packages, but don't perform installation.

              Do the initial unpack phase of  bootstrapping  only,  for  example  if  the  target
              architecture  does  not  match  the  host  architecture.   A  copy  of  debootstrap
              sufficient  for  completing  the   bootstrap   process   will   be   installed   as
              /debootstrap/debootstrap  in  the  target  filesystem.   You  can  run  it with the
              --second-stage option to complete the bootstrapping process.

              Complete the bootstrapping process.  Other arguments are generally not needed.

              Run second stage in a subdirectory instead of  root.  (can  be  used  to  create  a
              foreign chroot) (requires --second-stage)

              Don't  delete  the  /debootstrap  directory  in  the  target  after  completing the

              Acquire .debs from tarball FILE instead of downloading via http.

              Instead of bootstrapping, make a  tarball  (written  to  FILE)  of  the  downloaded
              packages.  The resulting tarball may be passed to a later --unpack-tarball.

              Used for internal purposes by the debian-installer

              Override  automatic  .deb  extractor  selection to TYPE.  Supported extractors are:
              dpkg-deb and ar.

              Do not check certificate against certificate authorities

              Use the client certificate stored in file (PEM)

              Read the private key from file


       To setup a wheezy system:

            debootstrap wheezy ./wheezy-chroot

            debootstrap wheezy ./wheezy-chroot file:///LOCAL_MIRROR/debian

       Full process to create a complete Debian installation of sid (unstable) in a chroot:

            main # debootstrap sid sid-root
            [ ... watch it download the whole system ]
            main # echo "proc sid-root/proc proc defaults 0 0" >> /etc/fstab
            main # mount proc sid-root/proc -t proc
            main # echo "sysfs sid-root/sys sysfs defaults 0 0" >> /etc/fstab
            main # mount sysfs sid-root/sys -t sysfs
            main # cp /etc/hosts sid-root/etc/hosts
            main # chroot sid-root /bin/bash


       debootstrap was written by Anthony Towns <>.  This manpage  was  written  by
       Matt Kraai <>.