Provided by: ipsec-tools_0.8.0-14+deb7u1ubuntu0.1_amd64 bug


     setkey — manually manipulate the IPsec SA/SP database


     setkey [-knrv] file ...
     setkey [-knrv] -c
     setkey [-krv] -f filename
     setkey [-aklPrv] -D
     setkey [-Pvp] -F
     setkey [-H] -x
     setkey [-?V]


     setkey adds, updates, dumps, or flushes Security Association Database (SAD) entries as well
     as Security Policy Database (SPD) entries in the kernel.

     setkey takes a series of operations from standard input (if invoked with -c) or the file
     named filename (if invoked with -f filename).

     (no flag)
             Dump the SAD entries or SPD entries contained in the specified file.

     -?      Print short help.

     -a      setkey usually does not display dead SAD entries with -D.  If -a is also specified,
             the dead SAD entries will be displayed as well.  A dead SAD entry is one that has
             expired but remains in the system because it is referenced by some SPD entries.

     -D      Dump the SAD entries.  If -P is also specified, the SPD entries are dumped.  If -p
             is specified, the ports are displayed.

     -F      Flush the SAD entries.  If -P is also specified, the SPD entries are flushed.

     -H      Add hexadecimal dump in -x mode.

     -h      On NetBSD, synonym for -H.  On other systems, synonym for -?.

     -k      Use semantics used in kernel.  Available only in Linux.  See also -r.

     -l      Loop forever with short output on -D.

     -n      No action.  The program will check validity of the input, but no changes to the SPD
             will be made.

     -r      Use semantics described in IPsec RFCs.  This mode is default.  For details see
             section RFC vs Linux kernel semantics.  Available only in Linux.  See also -k.

     -x      Loop forever and dump all the messages transmitted to the PF_KEY socket.  -xx prints
             the unformatted timestamps.

     -V      Print version string.

     -v      Be verbose.  The program will dump messages exchanged on the PF_KEY socket,
             including messages sent from other processes to the kernel.

   Configuration syntax
     With -c or -f on the command line, setkey accepts the following configuration syntax.  Lines
     starting with hash signs (‘#’) are treated as comment lines.

     add [-46n] src dst protocol spi [extensions] algorithm ... ;
             Add an SAD entry.  add can fail for multiple reasons, including when the key length
             does not match the specified algorithm.

     get [-46n] src dst protocol spi ;
             Show an SAD entry.

     delete [-46n] src dst protocol spi ;
             Remove an SAD entry.

     deleteall [-46n] src dst protocol ;
             Remove all SAD entries that match the specification.

     flush [protocol] ;
             Clear all SAD entries matched by the options.  -F on the command line achieves the
             same functionality.

     dump [protocol] ;
             Dumps all SAD entries matched by the options.  -D on the command line achieves the
             same functionality.

     spdadd [-46n] src_range dst_range upperspec label policy ;
             Add an SPD entry.

     spdadd tagged tag policy ;
             Add an SPD entry based on a PF tag.  tag must be a string surrounded by double

     spdupdate [-46n] src_range dst_range upperspec label policy ;
             Updates an SPD entry.

     spdupdate tagged tag policy ;
             Update an SPD entry based on a PF tag.  tag must be a string surrounded by double

     spddelete [-46n] src_range dst_range upperspec -P direction ;
             Delete an SPD entry.

     spdflush ;
             Clear all SPD entries.  -FP on the command line achieves the same functionality.

     spddump ;
             Dumps all SPD entries.  -DP on the command line achieves the same functionality.

     Meta-arguments are as follows:

     dst     Source/destination of the secure communication is specified as an IPv4/v6 address,
             and an optional port number between square brackets.  setkey can resolve a FQDN into
             numeric addresses.  If the FQDN resolves into multiple addresses, setkey will
             install multiple SAD/SPD entries into the kernel by trying all possible
             combinations.  -4, -6, and -n restrict the address resolution of FQDN in certain
             ways.  -4 and -6 restrict results into IPv4/v6 addresses only, respectively.  -n
             avoids FQDN resolution and requires addresses to be numeric addresses.

             protocol is one of following:
             esp         ESP based on rfc2406
             esp-old     ESP based on rfc1827
             esp-udp     ESP-UDP based on rfc3948
             ah          AH based on rfc2402
             ah-old      AH based on rfc1826
             ipcomp      IPComp
             tcp         TCP-MD5 based on rfc2385

     spi     Security Parameter Index (SPI) for the SAD and the SPD.  spi must be a decimal
             number, or a hexadecimal number with a “0x” prefix.  SPI values between 0 and 255
             are reserved for future use by IANA and cannot be used.  TCP-MD5 associations must
             use 0x1000 and therefore only have per-host granularity at this time.

             take some of the following:
             -m mode     Specify a security protocol mode for use.  mode is one of following:
                         transport, tunnel, or any.  The default value is any.
             -r size     Specify window size of bytes for replay prevention.  size must be
                         decimal number in 32-bit word.  If size is zero or not specified, replay
                         checks don't take place.
             -u id       Specify the identifier of the policy entry in the SPD.  See policy.
             -f pad_option
                         defines the content of the ESP padding.  pad_option is one of following:
                         zero-pad    All the paddings are zero.
                         random-pad  A series of randomized values are used.
                         seq-pad     A series of sequential increasing numbers started from 1 are
             -f nocyclic-seq
                         Don't allow cyclic sequence numbers.
             -lh time
             -ls time    Specify hard/soft life time duration of the SA measured in seconds.
             -bh bytes
             -bs bytes   Specify hard/soft life time duration of the SA measured in bytes
             -ctx doi algorithm context-name
                         Specify an access control label.  The access control label is
                         interpreted by the LSM (e.g., SELinux).  Ultimately, it enables MAC on
                         network communications.
                         doi         The domain of interpretation, which is used by the IKE
                                     daemon to identify the domain in which negotiation takes
                         algorithm   Indicates the LSM for which the label is generated (e.g.,
                                     The string representation of the label that is interpreted
                                     by the LSM.

             -E ealgo key
                         Specify an encryption algorithm ealgo for ESP.
             -E ealgo key -A aalgo key
                         Specify an encryption algorithm ealgo, as well as a payload
                         authentication algorithm aalgo, for ESP.
             -A aalgo key
                         Specify an authentication algorithm for AH.
             -C calgo [-R]
                         Specify a compression algorithm for IPComp.  If -R is specified, the spi
                         field value will be used as the IPComp CPI (compression parameter index)
                         on wire as-is.  If -R is not specified, the kernel will use well-known
                         CPI on wire, and spi field will be used only as an index for kernel
                         internal usage.

             key must be a double-quoted character string, or a series of hexadecimal digits
             preceded by “0x”.

             Possible values for ealgo, aalgo, and calgo are specified in the Algorithms

             These select the communications that should be secured by IPsec.  They can be an
             IPv4/v6 address or an IPv4/v6 address range, and may be accompanied by a TCP/UDP
             port specification.  This takes the following form:


             prefixlen and port must be decimal numbers.  The square brackets around port are
             really necessary, they are not man page meta-characters.  For FQDN resolution, the
             rules applicable to src and dst apply here as well.

             Upper-layer protocol to be used.  You can use one of the words in /etc/protocols as
             upperspec, or icmp6, ip4, gre, or any.  any stands for “any protocol”.  You can also
             use the protocol number.  Additional specification can be placed after the protocol
             name for some protocols.  You can specify a type and/or a code of ICMP or ICMPv6.
             The type is separated from a code by single comma and the code must always be
             specified.  GRE key can be specified in dotted-quad format or as plain number.  When
             a zero is specified, the kernel deals with it as a wildcard.  Note that the kernel
             can not distinguish a wildcard from an ICPMv6 type of zero.

             For example, the following means that the policy doesn't require IPsec for any
             inbound Neighbor Solicitation.
                   spdadd ::/0 ::/0 icmp6 135,0 -P in none;

             A second example of requiring transport mode encryption of specific GRE tunnel:
                   spdadd gre 1234 ipsec esp/transport//require;

             Note: upperspec does not work against forwarding case at this moment, as it requires
             extra reassembly at the forwarding node (not implemented at this moment).  There are
             many protocols in /etc/protocols, but all protocols except of TCP, UDP, GRE, and
             ICMP may not be suitable to use with IPsec.  You have to consider carefully what to

     label   label is the access control label for the policy.  This label is interpreted by the
             LSM (e.g., SELinux).  Ultimately, it enables MAC on network communications.  When a
             policy contains an access control label, SAs negotiated with this policy will
             contain the label.  Its format:
             -ctx doi algorithm context-name
                         doi         The domain of interpretation, which is used by the IKE
                                     daemon to identify the domain in which negotiation takes
                         algorithm   Indicates the LSM for which the label is generated (e.g.,
                                     The string representation of the label that is interpreted
                                     by the LSM.

     policy  policy is in one of the following three formats:
             -P direction [priority specification] discard
             -P direction [priority specification] none
             -P direction [priority specification] ipsec protocol/mode/src-dst/level [...]

             You must specify the direction of its policy as direction.  Either out, in, or fwd
             can be used.

             priority specification is used to control the placement of the policy within the
             SPD.  Policy position is determined by a signed integer where higher priorities
             indicate the policy is placed closer to the beginning of the list and lower
             priorities indicate the policy is placed closer to the end of the list.  Policies
             with equal priorities are added at the end of groups of such policies.

             Priority can only be specified when setkey has been compiled against kernel headers
             that support policy priorities (Linux >= 2.6.6).  If the kernel does not support
             priorities, a warning message will be printed the first time a priority
             specification is used.  Policy priority takes one of the following formats:

             {priority,prio} offset
                      offset is an integer in the range from -2147483647 to 214783648.

             {priority,prio} base {+,-} offset
                      base is either low (-1073741824), def (0), or high (1073741824)

                      offset is an unsigned integer.  It can be up to 1073741824 for positive
                      offsets, and up to 1073741823 for negative offsets.

             discard means the packet matching indexes will be discarded.  none means that IPsec
             operation will not take place onto the packet.  ipsec means that IPsec operation
             will take place onto the packet.

             The protocol/mode/src-dst/level part specifies the rule how to process the packet.
             Either ah, esp, or ipcomp must be used as protocol.  mode is either transport or
             tunnel.  If mode is tunnel, you must specify the end-point addresses of the SA as
             src and dst with ‘-’ between these addresses, which is used to specify the SA to
             use.  If mode is transport, both src and dst can be omitted.  level is to be one of
             the following: default, use, require, or unique.  If the SA is not available in
             every level, the kernel will ask the key exchange daemon to establish a suitable SA.
             default means the kernel consults the system wide default for the protocol you
             specified, e.g. the esp_trans_deflev sysctl variable, when the kernel processes the
             packet.  use means that the kernel uses an SA if it's available, otherwise the
             kernel keeps normal operation.  require means SA is required whenever the kernel
             sends a packet matched with the policy.  unique is the same as require; in addition,
             it allows the policy to match the unique out-bound SA.  You just specify the policy
             level unique, racoon(8) will configure the SA for the policy.  If you configure the
             SA by manual keying for that policy, you can put a decimal number as the policy
             identifier after unique separated by a colon ‘:’ like: unique:number in order to
             bind this policy to the SA.  number must be between 1 and 32767.  It corresponds to
             extensions -u of the manual SA configuration.  When you want to use SA bundle, you
             can define multiple rules.  For example, if an IP header was followed by an AH
             header followed by an ESP header followed by an upper layer protocol header, the
             rule would be:
                   esp/transport//require ah/transport//require;
             The rule order is very important.

             When NAT-T is enabled in the kernel, policy matching for ESP over UDP packets may be
             done on endpoint addresses and port (this depends on the system.  System that do not
             perform the port check cannot support multiple endpoints behind the same NAT).  When
             using ESP over UDP, you can specify port numbers in the endpoint addresses to get
             the correct matching.  Here is an example:

             spdadd[any][any] any -P out ipsec
                 esp/tunnel/[4500]-[30000]/require ;

             These ports must be left unspecified (which defaults to 0) for anything other than
             ESP over UDP.  They can be displayed in SPD dump using setkey -DPp.

             Note that “discard” and “none” are not in the syntax described in
             ipsec_set_policy(3).  There are a few differences in the syntax.  See
             ipsec_set_policy(3) for detail.

     The following list shows the supported algorithms.  protocol and algorithm are almost
     orthogonal.  These authentication algorithms can be used as aalgo in -A aalgo of the
     protocol parameter:

           algorithm       keylen (bits)
           hmac-md5        128             ah: rfc2403
                           128             ah-old: rfc2085
           hmac-sha1       160             ah: rfc2404
                           160             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
           keyed-md5       128             ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
                           128             ah-old: rfc1828
           keyed-sha1      160             ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
                           160             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
           null            0 to 2048       for debugging
           hmac-sha256     256             ah: 96bit ICV
                           256             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
           hmac-sha384     384             ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
                           384             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
           hmac-sha512     512             ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
                           512             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
           hmac-ripemd160  160             ah: 96bit ICV (RFC2857)
                                           ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
           aes-xcbc-mac    128             ah: 96bit ICV (RFC3566)
                           128             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
           tcp-md5         8 to 640        tcp: rfc2385 (tcp-md5 support only on BSD)

     These encryption algorithms can be used as ealgo in -E ealgo of the protocol parameter:

           algorithm       keylen (bits)
           des-cbc         64              esp-old: rfc1829, esp: rfc2405
           3des-cbc        192             rfc2451
           null            0 to 2048       rfc2410
           blowfish-cbc    40 to 448       rfc2451
           cast128-cbc     40 to 128       rfc2451
           des-deriv       64              ipsec-ciph-des-derived-01
           3des-deriv      192             no document
           rijndael-cbc    128/192/256     rfc3602
           twofish-cbc     0 to 256        draft-ietf-ipsec-ciph-aes-cbc-01
           aes-ctr         160/224/288     draft-ietf-ipsec-ciph-aes-ctr-03
           camellia-cbc    128/192/256     rfc4312

     Note that the first 128 bits of a key for aes-ctr will be used as AES key, and the remaining
     32 bits will be used as nonce.

     These compression algorithms can be used as calgo in -C calgo of the protocol parameter:

           deflate         rfc2394

   RFC vs Linux kernel semantics
     The Linux kernel uses the fwd policy instead of the in policy for packets what are forwarded
     through that particular box.

     In kernel mode, setkey manages and shows policies and SAs exactly as they are stored in the

     In RFC mode, setkey

     creates fwd policies for every in policy inserted

     (not implemented yet) filters out all fwd policies


     The command exits with 0 on success, and non-zero on errors.


     add 3ffe:501:4819::1 3ffe:501:481d::1 esp 123457
             -E des-cbc 0x3ffe05014819ffff ;

     add -6 ah 123456
             -A hmac-sha1 "AH SA configuration!" ;

     add esp 0x10001
             -E des-cbc 0x3ffe05014819ffff
             -A hmac-md5 "authentication!!" ;

     get 3ffe:501:4819::1 3ffe:501:481d::1 ah 123456 ;

     flush ;

     dump esp ;

     spdadd[21][any] any
             -P out ipsec esp/tunnel/ ;

     add tcp 0x1000 -A tcp-md5 "TCP-MD5 BGP secret" ;

     add esp 0x10001
             -ctx 1 1 "system_u:system_r:unconfined_t:SystemLow-SystemHigh"
             -E des-cbc 0x3ffe05014819ffff;

     spdadd any
             -ctx 1 1 "system_u:system_r:unconfined_t:SystemLow-SystemHigh"
             -P out ipsec esp/transport//require ;


     ipsec_set_policy(3), racoon(8), sysctl(8)

     Changed manual key configuration for IPsec,,
     October 1999.


     The setkey command first appeared in the WIDE Hydrangea IPv6 protocol stack kit.  The
     command was completely re-designed in June 1998.


     setkey should report and handle syntax errors better.

     For IPsec gateway configuration, src_range and dst_range with TCP/UDP port numbers does not
     work, as the gateway does not reassemble packets (it cannot inspect upper-layer headers).