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       dup, dup2, dup3 - duplicate a file descriptor


       #include <unistd.h>

       int dup(int oldfd);
       int dup2(int oldfd, int newfd);

       #define _GNU_SOURCE             /* See feature_test_macros(7) */
       #include <fcntl.h>              /* Obtain O_* constant definitions */
       #include <unistd.h>

       int dup3(int oldfd, int newfd, int flags);


       The  dup()  system  call  creates  a  copy of the file descriptor oldfd, using the lowest-
       numbered unused descriptor for the new descriptor.

       After a successful return, the old and new file descriptors may be  used  interchangeably.
       They  refer to the same open file description (see open(2)) and thus share file offset and
       file status flags; for example, if the file offset is modified by using lseek(2) on one of
       the descriptors, the offset is also changed for the other.

       The  two  descriptors  do  not  share file descriptor flags (the close-on-exec flag).  The
       close-on-exec flag (FD_CLOEXEC; see fcntl(2)) for the duplicate descriptor is off.

       The dup2() system call performs the same task as dup(), but instead of using  the  lowest-
       numbered unused file descriptor, it uses the descriptor number specified in newfd.  If the
       descriptor newfd was previously open, it is silently closed before being reused.

       The steps of closing and reusing the file descriptor newfd are performed atomically.  This
       is  important,  because  trying  to  implement equivalent functionality using close(2) and
       dup() would be subject to race conditions, whereby newfd might be reused between  the  two
       steps.   Such  reuse  could  happen  because  the  main program is interrupted by a signal
       handler that allocates a file descriptor, or because a parallel thread  allocates  a  file

       Note the following points:

       *  If oldfd is not a valid file descriptor, then the call fails, and newfd is not closed.

       *  If oldfd is a valid file descriptor, and newfd has the same value as oldfd, then dup2()
          does nothing, and returns newfd.

       dup3() is the same as dup2(), except that:

       *  The caller can force the close-on-exec flag to be set for the new  file  descriptor  by
          specifying  O_CLOEXEC  in  flags.   See the description of the same flag in open(2) for
          reasons why this may be useful.

       *  If oldfd equals newfd, then dup3() fails with the error EINVAL.


       On success, these system calls return the new descriptor.  On error, -1 is  returned,  and
       errno is set appropriately.


       EBADF  oldfd isn't an open file descriptor.

       EBADF  newfd  is  out  of  the  allowed  range for file descriptors (see the discussion of
              RLIMIT_NOFILE in getrlimit(2)).

       EBUSY  (Linux only) This may be returned by dup2() or dup3() during a race condition  with
              open(2) and dup().

       EINTR  The dup2() or dup3() call was interrupted by a signal; see signal(7).

       EINVAL (dup3()) flags contain an invalid value.

       EINVAL (dup3()) oldfd was equal to newfd.

       EMFILE The  per-process limit on the number of open file descriptors has been reached (see
              the discussion of RLIMIT_NOFILE in getrlimit(2)).


       dup3() was added to Linux in version 2.6.27; glibc  support  is  available  starting  with
       version 2.9.


       dup(), dup2(): POSIX.1-2001, POSIX.1-2008, SVr4, 4.3BSD.

       dup3() is Linux-specific.


       The  error  returned by dup2() is different from that returned by fcntl(..., F_DUPFD, ...)
       when newfd is out of range.  On some systems, dup2() also sometimes  returns  EINVAL  like

       If newfd was open, any errors that would have been reported at close(2) time are lost.  If
       this is of concern, then—unless the program is single-threaded and does not allocate  file
       descriptors  in  signal handlers—the correct approach is not to close newfd before calling
       dup2(), because of the race condition described above.  Instead, code something  like  the
       following could be used:

           /* Obtain a duplicate of 'newfd' that can subsequently
              be used to check for close() errors; an EBADF error
              means that 'newfd' was not open. */

           tmpfd = dup(newfd);
           if (tmpfd == -1 && errno != EBADF) {
               /* Handle unexpected dup() error */

           /* Atomically duplicate 'oldfd' on 'newfd' */

           if (dup2(oldfd, newfd) == -1) {
               /* Handle dup2() error */

           /* Now check for close() errors on the file originally
              referred to by 'newfd' */

           if (tmpfd != -1) {
               if (close(tmpfd) == -1) {
                   /* Handle errors from close */


       close(2), fcntl(2), open(2)


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