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       spu_create - create a new spu context


       #include <sys/types.h>
       #include <sys/spu.h>

       int spu_create(const char *pathname, int flags, mode_t mode);
       int spu_create(const char *pathname, int flags, mode_t mode,
                      int neighbor_fd);

       Note: There is no glibc wrapper for this system call; see NOTES.


       The spu_create() system call is used on PowerPC machines that implement the Cell Broadband
       Engine Architecture in order to access Synergistic Processor Units (SPUs).  It  creates  a
       new  logical  context for an SPU in pathname and returns a file descriptor associated with
       it.  pathname must refer to a  nonexistent  directory  in  the  mount  point  of  the  SPU
       filesystem (spufs).  If spu_create() is successful, a directory is created at pathname and
       it is populated with the files described in spufs(7).

       When a context is created, the returned file descriptor can only be passed to  spu_run(2),
       used as the dirfd argument to the *at family of system calls (e.g., openat(2)), or closed;
       other operations are not defined.  A logical SPU context  is  destroyed  (along  with  all
       files  created  within  the  context's  pathname directory) once the last reference to the
       context has gone; this usually occurs when the file descriptor returned by spu_create() is

       The  flags  argument  can  be  zero  or  any  bitwise  OR-ed  combination of the following

              Rather than using signals for reporting DMA  errors,  use  the  event  argument  to

              Create  an  SPU gang instead of a context.  (A gang is a group of SPU contexts that
              are  functionally  related  to  each  other  and  which  share  common   scheduling
              parameters—priority  and policy.  In the future, gang scheduling may be implemented
              causing the group to be switched in and out as a single unit.)

              A new directory will be created at the location specified by the pathname argument.
              This  gang  may be used to hold other SPU contexts, by providing a pathname that is
              within the gang directory to further calls to spu_create().

              Create a context that is not affected by the SPU scheduler.  Once  the  context  is
              run, it will not be scheduled out until it is destroyed by the creating process.

              Because  the context cannot be removed from the SPU, some functionality is disabled
              for SPU_CREATE_NOSCHED contexts.  Only a subset of the files will be  available  in
              this  context directory in spufs.  Additionally, SPU_CREATE_NOSCHED contexts cannot
              dump a core file when crashing.

              Creating SPU_CREATE_NOSCHED contexts requires the CAP_SYS_NICE capability.

              Create an isolated SPU context.  Isolated contexts  are  protected  from  some  PPE
              (PowerPC  Processing Element) operations, such as access to the SPU local store and
              the NPC register.

              Creating SPU_CREATE_ISOLATE contexts also requires the SPU_CREATE_NOSCHED flag.

              Create a context with affinity to another SPU context.  This  affinity  information
              is  used within the SPU scheduling algorithm.  Using this flag requires that a file
              descriptor referring to  the  other  SPU  context  be  passed  in  the  neighbor_fd

              Create a context with affinity to system memory.  This affinity information is used
              within the SPU scheduling algorithm.

       The mode argument (minus any bits set in the process's umask(2)) specifies the permissions
       used for creating the new directory in spufs.  See stat(2) for a full list of the possible
       mode values.


       On success, spu_create() returns a new file descriptor.  On error,  -1  is  returned,  and
       errno is set to one of the error codes listed below.


       EACCES The current user does not have write access to the spufs(7) mount point.

       EEXIST An SPU context already exists at the given pathname.

       EFAULT pathname is not a valid string pointer in the calling process's address space.

       EINVAL pathname is not a directory in the spufs(7) mount point, or invalid flags have been

       ELOOP  Too many symbolic links were found while resolving pathname.

       EMFILE The per-process limit on the number of open file descriptors has been reached.

              pathname is too long.

       ENFILE The system-wide limit on the total number of open files has been reached.

       ENODEV An isolated context was requested, but the hardware does not support SPU isolation.

       ENOENT Part of pathname could not be resolved.

       ENOMEM The kernel could not allocate all resources required.

       ENOSPC There are not enough SPU resources available to create a new context or  the  user-
              specific limit for the number of SPU contexts has been reached.

       ENOSYS The  functionality  is  not  provided  by  the  current  system, because either the
              hardware does not provide SPUs or the spufs module is not loaded.

              A part of pathname is not a directory.

       EPERM  The SPU_CREATE_NOSCHED flag has  been  given,  but  the  user  does  not  have  the
              CAP_SYS_NICE capability.


       pathname  must  point  to  a location beneath the mount point of spufs.  By convention, it
       gets mounted in /spu.


       The spu_create() system call was added to Linux in kernel 2.6.16.


       This call is Linux-specific and implemented only on the  PowerPC  architecture.   Programs
       using this system call are not portable.


       Glibc  does  not  provide  a wrapper for this system call; call it using syscall(2).  Note
       however, that spu_create() is meant to be  used  from  libraries  that  implement  a  more
       abstract   interface   to   SPUs,   not   to  be  used  from  regular  applications.   See
       ⟨⟩ for the recommended libraries.


       See spu_run(2) for an example of the use of spu_create()


       close(2), spu_run(2), capabilities(7), spufs(7)


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