Provided by: drbd-utils_8.9.6-1_amd64 bug


       drbd.conf - Configuration file for DRBD´s devices .


       The file /etc/drbd.conf is read by drbdadm.

       The file format was designed as to allow to have a verbatim copy of the file on both nodes
       of the cluster. It is highly recommended to do so in order to keep your configuration
       manageable. The file /etc/drbd.conf should be the same on both nodes of the cluster.
       Changes to /etc/drbd.conf do not apply immediately.

       By convention the main config contains two include statements. The first one includes the
       file /etc/drbd.d/global_common.conf, the second one all file with a .res suffix.

       alice uses /dev/drbd1 as devices for its application, and /dev/sda7 as low-level storage
       for the data. The IP addresses are used to specify the networking interfaces to be used.
       An eventually running resync process should use about 10MByte/second of IO bandwidth. This
       sync-rate statement is valid for volume 0, but would also be valid for further volumes. In
       this example it assigns full 10MByte/second to each volume.

       There may be multiple resource sections in a single drbd.conf file. For more examples,
       please have a look at the DRBD User´s Guide[1].


       The file consists of sections and parameters. A section begins with a keyword, sometimes
       an additional name, and an opening brace (“{”). A section ends with a closing brace (“}”.
       The braces enclose the parameters.

       section [name] { parameter value; [...] }

       A parameter starts with the identifier of the parameter followed by whitespace. Every
       subsequent character is considered as part of the parameter´s value. A special case are
       Boolean parameters which consist only of the identifier. Parameters are terminated by a
       semicolon (“;”).

       Some parameter values have default units which might be overruled by K, M or G. These
       units are defined in the usual way (K = 2^10 = 1024, M = 1024 K, G = 1024 M).

       Comments may be placed into the configuration file and must begin with a hash sign (“#”).
       Subsequent characters are ignored until the end of the line.

           Comments out chunks of text, even spanning more than one line. Characters between the
           keyword skip and the opening brace (“{”) are ignored. Everything enclosed by the
           braces is skipped. This comes in handy, if you just want to comment out some ´resource
           [name] {...}´ section: just precede it with ´skip´.

           Configures some global parameters. Currently only minor-count, dialog-refresh,
           disable-ip-verification and usage-count are allowed here. You may only have one global
           section, preferably as the first section.

           All resources inherit the options set in this section. The common section might have a
           startup, a options, a handlers, a net and a disk section.

       resource name
           Configures a DRBD resource. Each resource section needs to have two (or more) on host
           sections and may have a startup, a options, a handlers, a net and a disk section. It
           might contain volumes sections.

       on host-name
           Carries the necessary configuration parameters for a DRBD device of the enclosing
           resource.  host-name is mandatory and must match the Linux host name (uname -n) of one
           of the nodes. You may list more than one host name here, in case you want to use the
           same parameters on several hosts (you´d have to move the IP around usually). Or you
           may list more than two such sections.

                    resource r1 {
                         protocol C;
                         device minor 1;
                         meta-disk internal;

                         on alice bob {
                              disk /dev/mapper/some-san;
                         on charlie {
                              disk /dev/mapper/other-san;
                         on daisy {
                              disk /dev/mapper/other-san-as-seen-from-daisy;

           See also the floating section keyword. Required statements in this section: address
           and volume. Note for backward compatibility and convenience it is valid to embed the
           statements of a single volume directly into the host section.

       volume vnr
           Defines a volume within a connection. The minor numbers of a replicated volume might
           be different on different hosts, the volume number (vnr) is what groups them together.
           Required parameters in this section: device, disk, meta-disk.

       stacked-on-top-of resource
           For a stacked DRBD setup (3 or 4 nodes), a stacked-on-top-of is used instead of an on
           section. Required parameters in this section: device and address.

       floating AF addr:port
           Carries the necessary configuration parameters for a DRBD device of the enclosing
           resource. This section is very similar to the on section. The difference to the on
           section is that the matching of the host sections to machines is done by the
           IP-address instead of the node name. Required parameters in this section: device,
           disk, meta-disk, all of which may be inherited from the resource section, in which
           case you may shorten this section down to just the address identifier.

                    resource r2 {
                         protocol C;
                         device minor 2;
                         disk      /dev/sda7;
                         meta-disk internal;

                         # short form, device, disk and meta-disk inherited

                         # longer form, only device inherited
                         floating {
                              disk /dev/sdb;
                              meta-disk /dev/sdc8;

           This section is used to fine tune DRBD´s properties in respect to the low level
           storage. Please refer to drbdsetup(8) for detailed description of the parameters.
           Optional parameters: on-io-error, size, fencing, disk-barrier, disk-flushes,
           disk-drain, md-flushes, max-bio-bvecs, resync-rate, resync-after, al-extents,
           al-updates, c-plan-ahead, c-fill-target, c-delay-target, c-max-rate, c-min-rate,
           disk-timeout, discard-zeroes-if-aligned, rs-discard-granularity, read-balancing.

           This section is used to fine tune DRBD´s properties. Please refer to drbdsetup(8) for
           a detailed description of this section´s parameters. Optional parameters: protocol,
           sndbuf-size, rcvbuf-size, timeout, connect-int, ping-int, ping-timeout, max-buffers,
           max-epoch-size, ko-count, allow-two-primaries, cram-hmac-alg, shared-secret,
           after-sb-0pri, after-sb-1pri, after-sb-2pri, data-integrity-alg, no-tcp-cork,
           on-congestion, congestion-fill, congestion-extents, verify-alg, use-rle, csums-alg,

           This section is used to fine tune DRBD´s properties. Please refer to drbdsetup(8) for
           a detailed description of this section´s parameters. Optional parameters: wfc-timeout,
           degr-wfc-timeout, outdated-wfc-timeout, wait-after-sb, stacked-timeouts and

           This section is used to fine tune the behaviour of the resource object. Please refer
           to drbdsetup(8) for a detailed description of this section´s parameters. Optional
           parameters: cpu-mask, and on-no-data-accessible.

           In this section you can define handlers (executables) that are started by the DRBD
           system in response to certain events. Optional parameters: pri-on-incon-degr,
           pri-lost-after-sb, pri-lost, fence-peer (formerly oudate-peer), local-io-error,
           initial-split-brain, split-brain, before-resync-target, after-resync-target.

           The interface is done via environment variables:

           •   DRBD_RESOURCE is the name of the resource

           •   DRBD_MINOR is the minor number of the DRBD device, in decimal.

           •   DRBD_CONF is the path to the primary configuration file; if you split your
               configuration into multiple files (e.g. in /etc/drbd.conf.d/), this will not be

           •   DRBD_PEER_AF , DRBD_PEER_ADDRESS , DRBD_PEERS are the address family (e.g.  ipv6),
               the peer´s address and hostnames.

               DRBD_PEER is deprecated.

               Please note that not all of these might be set for all handlers, and that some
               values might not be useable for a floating definition.

       minor-count count
           may be a number from 1 to 1048575.

           Minor-count is a sizing hint for DRBD. It helps to right-size various memory pools. It
           should be set in the in the same order of magnitude than the actual number of minors
           you use. Per default the module loads with 11 more resources than you have currently
           in your config but at least 32.

       dialog-refresh time
           may be 0 or a positive number.

           The user dialog redraws the second count every time seconds (or does no redraws if
           time is 0). The default value is 1.

           Use disable-ip-verification if, for some obscure reasons, drbdadm can/might not use ip
           or ifconfig to do a sanity check for the IP address. You can disable the IP
           verification with this option.

       usage-count val
           Please participate in DRBD´s online usage counter[2]. The most convenient way to do so
           is to set this option to yes. Valid options are: yes, no and ask.

       protocol prot-id
           On the TCP/IP link the specified protocol is used. Valid protocol specifiers are A, B,
           and C.

           Protocol A: write IO is reported as completed, if it has reached local disk and local
           TCP send buffer.

           Protocol B: write IO is reported as completed, if it has reached local disk and remote
           buffer cache.

           Protocol C: write IO is reported as completed, if it has reached both local and remote

       device name minor nr
           The name of the block device node of the resource being described. You must use this
           device with your application (file system) and you must not use the low level block
           device which is specified with the disk parameter.

           One can ether omit the name or minor and the minor number. If you omit the name a
           default of /dev/drbdminor will be used.

           Udev will create additional symlinks in /dev/drbd/by-res and /dev/drbd/by-disk.

       disk name
           DRBD uses this block device to actually store and retrieve the data. Never access such
           a device while DRBD is running on top of it. This also holds true for dumpe2fs(8) and
           similar commands.

       address AF addr:port
           A resource needs one IP address per device, which is used to wait for incoming
           connections from the partner device respectively to reach the partner device.  AF must
           be one of ipv4, ipv6, ssocks or sdp (for compatibility reasons sci is an alias for
           ssocks). It may be omited for IPv4 addresses. The actual IPv6 address that follows the
           ipv6 keyword must be placed inside brackets: ipv6 [fd01:2345:6789:abcd::1]:7800.

           Each DRBD resource needs a TCP port which is used to connect to the node´s partner
           device. Two different DRBD resources may not use the same addr:port combination on the
           same node.

       meta-disk internal,
       meta-disk device,
       meta-disk device [index]
           Internal means that the last part of the backing device is used to store the
           meta-data. The size of the meta-data is computed based on the size of the device.

           When a device is specified, either with or without an index, DRBD stores the meta-data
           on this device. Without index, the size of the meta-data is determined by the size of
           the data device. This is usually used with LVM, which allows to have many variable
           sized block devices. The meta-data size is 36kB + Backing-Storage-size / 32k, rounded
           up to the next 4kb boundary. (Rule of the thumb: 32kByte per 1GByte of storage,
           rounded up to the next MB.)

           When an index is specified, each index number refers to a fixed slot of meta-data of
           128 MB, which allows a maximum data size of 4 TiB. This way, multiple DBRD devices can
           share the same meta-data device. For example, if /dev/sde6[0] and /dev/sde6[1] are
           used, /dev/sde6 must be at least 256 MB big. Because of the hard size limit, use of
           meta-disk indexes is discouraged.

       on-io-error handler
           is taken, if the lower level device reports io-errors to the upper layers.

           handler may be pass_on, call-local-io-error or detach.

           pass_on: The node downgrades the disk status to inconsistent, marks the erroneous
           block as inconsistent in the bitmap and retries the IO on the remote node.

           call-local-io-error: Call the handler script local-io-error.

           detach: The node drops its low level device, and continues in diskless mode.

       fencing fencing_policy
           By fencing we understand preventive measures to avoid situations where both nodes are
           primary and disconnected (AKA split brain).

           Valid fencing policies are:

               This is the default policy. No fencing actions are taken.

               If a node becomes a disconnected primary, it tries to fence the peer´s disk. This
               is done by calling the fence-peer handler. The handler is supposed to reach the
               other node over alternative communication paths and call ´drbdadm outdate res´

               If a node becomes a disconnected primary, it freezes all its IO operations and
               calls its fence-peer handler. The fence-peer handler is supposed to reach the peer
               over alternative communication paths and call ´drbdadm outdate res´ there. In case
               it cannot reach the peer it should stonith the peer. IO is resumed as soon as the
               situation is resolved. In case your handler fails, you can resume IO with the
               resume-io command.

           DRBD has four implementations to express write-after-write dependencies to its backing
           storage device. DRBD will use the first method that is supported by the backing
           storage device and that is not disabled. By default the flush method is used.

           Since drbd-8.4.2 disk-barrier is disabled by default because since linux-2.6.36 (or
           2.6.32 RHEL6) there is no reliable way to determine if queuing of IO-barriers works.
           Dangerous only enable if you are told so by one that knows for sure.

           When selecting the method you should not only base your decision on the measurable
           performance. In case your backing storage device has a volatile write cache (plain
           disks, RAID of plain disks) you should use one of the first two. In case your backing
           storage device has battery-backed write cache you may go with option 3. Option 4
           (disable everything, use "none") is dangerous on most IO stacks, may result in
           write-reordering, and if so, can theoretically be the reason for data corruption, or
           disturb the DRBD protocol, causing spurious disconnect/reconnect cycles.  Do not use

           Unfortunately device mapper (LVM) might not support barriers.

           The letter after "wo:" in /proc/drbd indicates with method is currently in use for a
           device: b, f, d, n. The implementations are:

               The first requires that the driver of the backing storage device support barriers
               (called ´tagged command queuing´ in SCSI and ´native command queuing´ in SATA
               speak). The use of this method can be enabled by setting the disk-barrier options
               to yes.

               The second requires that the backing device support disk flushes (called ´force
               unit access´ in the drive vendors speak). The use of this method can be disabled
               setting disk-flushes to no.

               The third method is simply to let write requests drain before write requests of a
               new reordering domain are issued. This was the only implementation before 8.0.9.

               The fourth method is to not express write-after-write dependencies to the backing
               store at all, by also specifying no-disk-drain. This is dangerous on most IO
               stacks, may result in write-reordering, and if so, can theoretically be the reason
               for data corruption, or disturb the DRBD protocol, causing spurious
               disconnect/reconnect cycles.  Do not use no-disk-drain.

           Disables the use of disk flushes and barrier BIOs when accessing the meta data device.
           See the notes on disk-flushes.

           In some special circumstances the device mapper stack manages to pass BIOs to DRBD
           that violate the constraints that are set forth by DRBD´s merge_bvec() function and
           which have more than one bvec. A known example is: phys-disk -> DRBD -> LVM -> Xen ->
           misaligned partition (63) -> DomU FS. Then you might see "bio would need to, but
           cannot, be split:" in the Dom0´s kernel log.

           The best workaround is to proper align the partition within the VM (E.g. start it at
           sector 1024). This costs 480 KiB of storage. Unfortunately the default of most Linux
           partitioning tools is to start the first partition at an odd number (63). Therefore
           most distribution´s install helpers for virtual linux machines will end up with
           misaligned partitions. The second best workaround is to limit DRBD´s max bvecs per BIO
           (= max-bio-bvecs) to 1, but that might cost performance.

           The default value of max-bio-bvecs is 0, which means that there is no user imposed

           If the lower-level device on which a DRBD device stores its data does not finish an
           I/O request within the defined disk-timeout, DRBD treats this as a failure. The
           lower-level device is detached, and the device´s disk state advances to Diskless. If
           DRBD is connected to one or more peers, the failed request is passed on to one of

           This option is dangerous and may lead to kernel panic!

           "Aborting" requests, or force-detaching the disk, is intended for completely
           blocked/hung local backing devices which do no longer complete requests at all, not
           even do error completions. In this situation, usually a hard-reset and failover is the
           only way out.

           By "aborting", basically faking a local error-completion, we allow for a more graceful
           swichover by cleanly migrating services. Still the affected node has to be rebooted

           By completing these requests, we allow the upper layers to re-use the associated data

           If later the local backing device "recovers", and now DMAs some data from disk into
           the original request pages, in the best case it will just put random data into unused
           pages; but typically it will corrupt meanwhile completely unrelated data, causing all
           sorts of damage.

           Which means delayed successful completion, especially for READ requests, is a reason
           to panic(). We assume that a delayed *error* completion is OK, though we still will
           complain noisily about it.

           The default value of disk-timeout is 0, which stands for an infinite timeout. Timeouts
           are specified in units of 0.1 seconds. This option is available since DRBD 8.3.12.

       discard-zeroes-if-aligned {yes | no}
           There are several aspects to discard/trim/unmap support on linux block devices. Even
           if discard is supported in general, it may fail silently, or may partially ignore
           discard requests. Devices also announce whether reading from unmapped blocks returns
           defined data (usually zeroes), or undefined data (possibly old data, possibly

           If on different nodes, DRBD is backed by devices with differing discard
           characteristics, discards may lead to data divergence (old data or garbage left over
           on one backend, zeroes due to unmapped areas on the other backend). Online verify
           would now potentially report tons of spurious differences. While probably harmless for
           most use cases (fstrim on a file system), DRBD cannot have that.

           To play safe, we have to disable discard support, if our local backend (on a Primary)
           does not support "discard_zeroes_data=true". We also have to translate discards to
           explicit zero-out on the receiving side, unless the receiving side (Secondary)
           supports "discard_zeroes_data=true", thereby allocating areas what were supposed to be

           There are some devices (notably the LVM/DM thin provisioning) that are capable of
           discard, but announce discard_zeroes_data=false. In the case of DM-thin, discards
           aligned to the chunk size will be unmapped, and reading from unmapped sectors will
           return zeroes. However, unaligned partial head or tail areas of discard requests will
           be silently ignored.

           If we now add a helper to explicitly zero-out these unaligned partial areas, while
           passing on the discard of the aligned full chunks, we effectively achieve
           discard_zeroes_data=true on such devices.

           Setting discard-zeroes-if-aligned to yes will allow DRBD to use discards, and to
           announce discard_zeroes_data=true, even on backends that announce

           Setting discard-zeroes-if-aligned to no will cause DRBD to always fall-back to
           zero-out on the receiving side, and to not even announce discard capabilities on the
           Primary, if the respective backend announces discard_zeroes_data=false.

           We used to ignore the discard_zeroes_data setting completely. To not break established
           and expected behaviour, and suddenly cause fstrim on thin-provisioned LVs to run
           out-of-space instead of freeing up space, the default value is yes.

           This option is available since 8.4.7.

       read-balancing method
           The supported methods for load balancing of read requests are prefer-local,
           prefer-remote, round-robin, least-pending, when-congested-remote, 32K-striping,
           64K-striping, 128K-striping, 256K-striping, 512K-striping and 1M-striping.

           The default value of is prefer-local. This option is available since 8.4.1.

       rs-discard-granularity byte
           When rs-discard-granularity is set to a non zero, positive value then DRBD tries to do
           a resync operation in requests of this size. In case such a block contains only zero
           bytes on the sync source node, the sync target node will issue a discard/trim/unmap
           command for the area.

           The value is constrained by the discard granularity of the backing block device. In
           case rs-discard-granularity is not a multiplier of the discard granularity of the
           backing block device DRBD rounds it up. The feature only gets active if the backing
           block device reads back zeroes after a discard command.

           The default value of is 0. This option is available since 8.4.7.

       sndbuf-size size
           is the size of the TCP socket send buffer. The default value is 0, i.e. autotune. You
           can specify smaller or larger values. Larger values are appropriate for reasonable
           write throughput with protocol A over high latency networks. Values below 32K do not
           make sense. Since 8.0.13 resp. 8.2.7, setting the size value to 0 means that the
           kernel should autotune this.

       rcvbuf-size size
           is the size of the TCP socket receive buffer. The default value is 0, i.e. autotune.
           You can specify smaller or larger values. Usually this should be left at its default.
           Setting the size value to 0 means that the kernel should autotune this.

       timeout time
           If the partner node fails to send an expected response packet within time tenths of a
           second, the partner node is considered dead and therefore the TCP/IP connection is
           abandoned. This must be lower than connect-int and ping-int. The default value is 60 =
           6 seconds, the unit 0.1 seconds.

       connect-int time
           In case it is not possible to connect to the remote DRBD device immediately, DRBD
           keeps on trying to connect. With this option you can set the time between two retries.
           The default value is 10 seconds, the unit is 1 second.

       ping-int time
           If the TCP/IP connection linking a DRBD device pair is idle for more than time
           seconds, DRBD will generate a keep-alive packet to check if its partner is still
           alive. The default is 10 seconds, the unit is 1 second.

       ping-timeout time
           The time the peer has time to answer to a keep-alive packet. In case the peer´s reply
           is not received within this time period, it is considered as dead. The default value
           is 500ms, the default unit are tenths of a second.

       max-buffers number
           Limits the memory usage per DRBD minor device on the receiving side, or for internal
           buffers during resync or online-verify. Unit is PAGE_SIZE, which is 4 KiB on most
           systems. The minimum possible setting is hard coded to 32 (=128 KiB). These buffers
           are used to hold data blocks while they are written to/read from disk. To avoid
           possible distributed deadlocks on congestion, this setting is used as a throttle
           threshold rather than a hard limit. Once more than max-buffers pages are in use,
           further allocation from this pool is throttled. You want to increase max-buffers if
           you cannot saturate the IO backend on the receiving side.

       ko-count number
           In case the secondary node fails to complete a single write request for count times
           the timeout, it is expelled from the cluster. (I.e. the primary node will kill and
           restart the connection.) To disable this feature, you should explicitly set it to 0;
           defaults may change between versions.

       max-epoch-size number
           The highest number of data blocks between two write barriers. If you set this smaller
           than 10, you might decrease your performance.

           With this option set you may assign the primary role to both nodes. You only should
           use this option if you use a shared storage file system on top of DRBD. At the time of
           writing the only ones are: OCFS2 and GFS. If you use this option with any other file
           system, you are going to crash your nodes and to corrupt your data!

       unplug-watermark number
           This setting has no effect with recent kernels that use explicit on-stack plugging
           (upstream Linux kernel 2.6.39, distributions may have backported).

           When the number of pending write requests on the standby (secondary) node exceeds the
           unplug-watermark, we trigger the request processing of our backing storage device.
           Some storage controllers deliver better performance with small values, others deliver
           best performance when the value is set to the same value as max-buffers, yet others
           don´t feel much effect at all. Minimum 16, default 128, maximum 131072.

           You need to specify the HMAC algorithm to enable peer authentication at all. You are
           strongly encouraged to use peer authentication. The HMAC algorithm will be used for
           the challenge response authentication of the peer. You may specify any digest
           algorithm that is named in /proc/crypto.

           The shared secret used in peer authentication. May be up to 64 characters. Note that
           peer authentication is disabled as long as no cram-hmac-alg (see above) is specified.

       after-sb-0pri  policy
           possible policies are:

               No automatic resynchronization, simply disconnect.

               Auto sync from the node that was primary before the split-brain situation

               Auto sync from the node that became primary as second during the split-brain

               In case one node did not write anything since the split brain became evident, sync
               from the node that wrote something to the node that did not write anything. In
               case none wrote anything this policy uses a random decision to perform a "resync"
               of 0 blocks. In case both have written something this policy disconnects the

               Auto sync from the node that touched more blocks during the split brain situation.

               Auto sync to the named node.

       after-sb-1pri  policy
           possible policies are:

               No automatic resynchronization, simply disconnect.

               Discard the version of the secondary if the outcome of the after-sb-0pri algorithm
               would also destroy the current secondary´s data. Otherwise disconnect.

               Always take the decision of the after-sb-0pri algorithm, even if that causes an
               erratic change of the primary´s view of the data. This is only useful if you use a
               one-node FS (i.e. not OCFS2 or GFS) with the allow-two-primaries flag, AND if you
               really know what you are doing. This is DANGEROUS and MAY CRASH YOUR MACHINE if
               you have an FS mounted on the primary node.

               Discard the secondary´s version.

               Always honor the outcome of the after-sb-0pri algorithm. In case it decides the
               current secondary has the right data, it calls the "pri-lost-after-sb" handler on
               the current primary.

       after-sb-2pri  policy
           possible policies are:

               No automatic resynchronization, simply disconnect.

               Always take the decision of the after-sb-0pri algorithm, even if that causes an
               erratic change of the primary´s view of the data. This is only useful if you use a
               one-node FS (i.e. not OCFS2 or GFS) with the allow-two-primaries flag, AND if you
               really know what you are doing. This is DANGEROUS and MAY CRASH YOUR MACHINE if
               you have an FS mounted on the primary node.

               Call the "pri-lost-after-sb" helper program on one of the machines. This program
               is expected to reboot the machine, i.e. make it secondary.

           Normally the automatic after-split-brain policies are only used if current states of
           the UUIDs do not indicate the presence of a third node.

           With this option you request that the automatic after-split-brain policies are used as
           long as the data sets of the nodes are somehow related. This might cause a full sync,
           if the UUIDs indicate the presence of a third node. (Or double faults led to strange
           UUID sets.)

       rr-conflict  policy
           This option helps to solve the cases when the outcome of the resync decision is
           incompatible with the current role assignment in the cluster.

               No automatic resynchronization, simply disconnect.

               Sync to the primary node is allowed, violating the assumption that data on a block
               device are stable for one of the nodes.  Dangerous, do not use.

               Call the pri-lost-after-sb helper program on one of the machines unless that
               machine can demote to secondary. The helper program is expected to reboot the
               machine, which brings the node into a secondary role. Which machine runs the
               helper program is determined by the after-sb-0pri strategy.

       data-integrity-alg  alg
           DRBD can ensure the data integrity of the user´s data on the network by comparing hash
           values. Normally this is ensured by the 16 bit checksums in the headers of TCP/IP

           This option can be set to any of the kernel´s data digest algorithms. In a typical
           kernel configuration you should have at least one of md5, sha1, and crc32c available.
           By default this is not enabled.

           See also the notes on data integrity.

           DRBD usually uses the TCP socket option TCP_CORK to hint to the network stack when it
           can expect more data, and when it should flush out what it has in its send queue. It
           turned out that there is at least one network stack that performs worse when one uses
           this hinting method. Therefore we introducted this option. By setting tcp-cork to no
           you can disable the setting and clearing of the TCP_CORK socket option by DRBD.

       on-congestion congestion_policy,
       congestion-fill fill_threshold,
       congestion-extents active_extents_threshold
           By default DRBD blocks when the available TCP send queue becomes full. That means it
           will slow down the application that generates the write requests that cause DRBD to
           send more data down that TCP connection.

           When DRBD is deployed with DRBD-proxy it might be more desirable that DRBD goes into
           AHEAD/BEHIND mode shortly before the send queue becomes full. In AHEAD/BEHIND mode
           DRBD does no longer replicate data, but still keeps the connection open.

           The advantage of the AHEAD/BEHIND mode is that the application is not slowed down,
           even if DRBD-proxy´s buffer is not sufficient to buffer all write requests. The
           downside is that the peer node falls behind, and that a resync will be necessary to
           bring it back into sync. During that resync the peer node will have an inconsistent

           Available congestion_policys are block and pull-ahead. The default is block.
           Fill_threshold might be in the range of 0 to 10GiBytes. The default is 0 which
           disables the check.  Active_extents_threshold has the same limits as al-extents.

           The AHEAD/BEHIND mode and its settings are available since DRBD 8.3.10.

       wfc-timeout time
           Wait for connection timeout.  The init script drbd(8) blocks the boot process until
           the DRBD resources are connected. When the cluster manager starts later, it does not
           see a resource with internal split-brain. In case you want to limit the wait time, do
           it here. Default is 0, which means unlimited. The unit is seconds.

       degr-wfc-timeout time
           Wait for connection timeout, if this node was a degraded cluster. In case a degraded
           cluster (= cluster with only one node left) is rebooted, this timeout value is used
           instead of wfc-timeout, because the peer is less likely to show up in time, if it had
           been dead before. Value 0 means unlimited.

       outdated-wfc-timeout time
           Wait for connection timeout, if the peer was outdated. In case a degraded cluster (=
           cluster with only one node left) with an outdated peer disk is rebooted, this timeout
           value is used instead of wfc-timeout, because the peer is not allowed to become
           primary in the meantime. Value 0 means unlimited.

           By setting this option you can make the init script to continue to wait even if the
           device pair had a split brain situation and therefore refuses to connect.

       become-primary-on node-name
           Sets on which node the device should be promoted to primary role by the init script.
           The node-name might either be a host name or the keyword both. When this option is not
           set the devices stay in secondary role on both nodes. Usually one delegates the role
           assignment to a cluster manager (e.g. heartbeat).

           Usually wfc-timeout and degr-wfc-timeout are ignored for stacked devices, instead
           twice the amount of connect-int is used for the connection timeouts. With the
           stacked-timeouts keyword you disable this, and force DRBD to mind the wfc-timeout and
           degr-wfc-timeout statements. Only do that if the peer of the stacked resource is
           usually not available or will usually not become primary. By using this option
           incorrectly, you run the risk of causing unexpected split brain.

       resync-rate rate
           To ensure a smooth operation of the application on top of DRBD, it is possible to
           limit the bandwidth which may be used by background synchronizations. The default is
           250 KB/sec, the default unit is KB/sec. Optional suffixes K, M, G are allowed.

           During resync-handshake, the dirty-bitmaps of the nodes are exchanged and merged
           (using bit-or), so the nodes will have the same understanding of which blocks are
           dirty. On large devices, the fine grained dirty-bitmap can become large as well, and
           the bitmap exchange can take quite some time on low-bandwidth links.

           Because the bitmap typically contains compact areas where all bits are unset (clean)
           or set (dirty), a simple run-length encoding scheme can considerably reduce the
           network traffic necessary for the bitmap exchange.

           For backward compatibilty reasons, and because on fast links this possibly does not
           improve transfer time but consumes cpu cycles, this defaults to off.

       socket-check-timeout value
           In setups involving a DRBD-proxy and connections that experience a lot of buffer-bloat
           it might be necessary to set ping-timeout to an unusual high value. By default DRBD
           uses the same value to wait if a newly established TCP-connection is stable. Since the
           DRBD-proxy is usually located in the same data center such a long wait time may hinder
           DRBD´s connect process.

           In such setups socket-check-timeout should be set to at least to the round trip time
           between DRBD and DRBD-proxy. I.e. in most cases to 1.

           The default unit is tenths of a second, the default value is 0 (which causes DRBD to
           use the value of ping-timeout instead). Introduced in 8.4.5.

       resync-after res-name
           By default, resynchronization of all devices would run in parallel. By defining a
           resync-after dependency, the resynchronization of this resource will start only if the
           resource res-name is already in connected state (i.e., has finished its

       al-extents extents
           DRBD automatically performs hot area detection. With this parameter you control how
           big the hot area (= active set) can get. Each extent marks 4M of the backing storage
           (= low-level device). In case a primary node leaves the cluster unexpectedly, the
           areas covered by the active set must be resynced upon rejoining of the failed node.
           The data structure is stored in the meta-data area, therefore each change of the
           active set is a write operation to the meta-data device. A higher number of extents
           gives longer resync times but less updates to the meta-data. The default number of
           extents is 1237. (Minimum: 7, Maximum: 65534)

           Note that the effective maximum may be smaller, depending on how you created the
           device meta data, see also drbdmeta(8). The effective maximum is 919 * (available
           on-disk activity-log ring-buffer area/4kB -1), the default 32kB ring-buffer effects a
           maximum of 6433 (covers more than 25 GiB of data). We recommend to keep this well
           within the amount your backend storage and replication link are able to resync inside
           of about 5 minutes.

       al-updates {yes | no}
           DRBD´s activity log transaction writing makes it possible, that after the crash of a
           primary node a partial (bit-map based) resync is sufficient to bring the node back to
           up-to-date. Setting al-updates to no might increase normal operation performance but
           causes DRBD to do a full resync when a crashed primary gets reconnected. The default
           value is yes.

       verify-alg hash-alg
           During online verification (as initiated by the verify sub-command), rather than doing
           a bit-wise comparison, DRBD applies a hash function to the contents of every block
           being verified, and compares that hash with the peer. This option defines the hash
           algorithm being used for that purpose. It can be set to any of the kernel´s data
           digest algorithms. In a typical kernel configuration you should have at least one of
           md5, sha1, and crc32c available. By default this is not enabled; you must set this
           option explicitly in order to be able to use on-line device verification.

           See also the notes on data integrity.

       csums-alg hash-alg
           A resync process sends all marked data blocks from the source to the destination node,
           as long as no csums-alg is given. When one is specified the resync process exchanges
           hash values of all marked blocks first, and sends only those data blocks that have
           different hash values.

           This setting is useful for DRBD setups with low bandwidth links. During the restart of
           a crashed primary node, all blocks covered by the activity log are marked for resync.
           But a large part of those will actually be still in sync, therefore using csums-alg
           will lower the required bandwidth in exchange for CPU cycles.

       c-plan-ahead plan_time,
       c-fill-target fill_target,
       c-delay-target delay_target,
       c-max-rate max_rate
           The dynamic resync speed controller gets enabled with setting plan_time to a positive
           value. It aims to fill the buffers along the data path with either a constant amount
           of data fill_target, or aims to have a constant delay time of delay_target along the
           path. The controller has an upper bound of max_rate.

           By plan_time the agility of the controller is configured. Higher values yield for
           slower/lower responses of the controller to deviation from the target value. It should
           be at least 5 times RTT. For regular data paths a fill_target in the area of 4k to
           100k is appropriate. For a setup that contains drbd-proxy it is advisable to use
           delay_target instead. Only when fill_target is set to 0 the controller will use
           delay_target. 5 times RTT is a reasonable starting value.  Max_rate should be set to
           the bandwidth available between the DRBD-hosts and the machines hosting DRBD-proxy, or
           to the available disk-bandwidth.

           The default value of plan_time is 0, the default unit is 0.1 seconds.  Fill_target has
           0 and sectors as default unit.  Delay_target has 1 (100ms) and 0.1 as default unit.
           Max_rate has 10240 (100MiB/s) and KiB/s as default unit.

           The dynamic resync speed controller and its settings are available since DRBD 8.3.9.

       c-min-rate min_rate
           A node that is primary and sync-source has to schedule application IO requests and
           resync IO requests. The min_rate tells DRBD use only up to min_rate for resync IO and
           to dedicate all other available IO bandwidth to application requests.

           Note: The value 0 has a special meaning. It disables the limitation of resync IO
           completely, which might slow down application IO considerably. Set it to a value of 1,
           if you prefer that resync IO never slows down application IO.

           Note: Although the name might suggest that it is a lower bound for the dynamic resync
           speed controller, it is not. If the DRBD-proxy buffer is full, the dynamic resync
           speed controller is free to lower the resync speed down to 0, completely independent
           of the c-min-rate setting.

           Min_rate has 4096 (4MiB/s) and KiB/s as default unit.

       on-no-data-accessible ond-policy
           This setting controls what happens to IO requests on a degraded, disk less node (I.e.
           no data store is reachable). The available policies are io-error and suspend-io.

           If ond-policy is set to suspend-io you can either resume IO by attaching/connecting
           the last lost data storage, or by the drbdadm resume-io res command. The latter will
           result in IO errors of course.

           The default is io-error. This setting is available since DRBD 8.3.9.

       cpu-mask cpu-mask
           Sets the cpu-affinity-mask for DRBD´s kernel threads of this device. The default value
           of cpu-mask is 0, which means that DRBD´s kernel threads should be spread over all
           CPUs of the machine. This value must be given in hexadecimal notation. If it is too
           big it will be truncated.

       pri-on-incon-degr cmd
           This handler is called if the node is primary, degraded and if the local copy of the
           data is inconsistent.

       pri-lost-after-sb cmd
           The node is currently primary, but lost the after-split-brain auto recovery procedure.
           As as consequence, it should be abandoned.

       pri-lost cmd
           The node is currently primary, but DRBD´s algorithm thinks that it should become sync
           target. As a consequence it should give up its primary role.

       fence-peer cmd
           The handler is part of the fencing mechanism. This handler is called in case the node
           needs to fence the peer´s disk. It should use other communication paths than DRBD´s
           network link.

       local-io-error cmd
           DRBD got an IO error from the local IO subsystem.

       initial-split-brain cmd
           DRBD has connected and detected a split brain situation. This handler can alert
           someone in all cases of split brain, not just those that go unresolved.

       split-brain cmd
           DRBD detected a split brain situation but remains unresolved. Manual recovery is
           necessary. This handler should alert someone on duty.

       before-resync-target cmd
           DRBD calls this handler just before a resync begins on the node that becomes resync
           target. It might be used to take a snapshot of the backing block device.

       after-resync-target cmd
           DRBD calls this handler just after a resync operation finished on the node whose disk
           just became consistent after being inconsistent for the duration of the resync. It
           might be used to remove a snapshot of the backing device that was created by the
           before-resync-target handler.

   Other Keywords
       include file-pattern
           Include all files matching the wildcard pattern file-pattern. The include statement is
           only allowed on the top level, i.e. it is not allowed inside any section.


       There are two independent methods in DRBD to ensure the integrity of the mirrored data.
       The online-verify mechanism and the data-integrity-alg of the network section.

       Both mechanisms might deliver false positives if the user of DRBD modifies the data which
       gets written to disk while the transfer goes on. This may happen for swap, or for certain
       append while global sync, or truncate/rewrite workloads, and not necessarily poses a
       problem for the integrity of the data. Usually when the initiator of the data transfer
       does this, it already knows that that data block will not be part of an on disk data
       structure, or will be resubmitted with correct data soon enough.

       The data-integrity-alg causes the receiving side to log an error about "Digest integrity
       check FAILED: Ns +x\n", where N is the sector offset, and x is the size of the request in
       bytes. It will then disconnect, and reconnect, thus causing a quick resync. If the sending
       side at the same time detected a modification, it warns about "Digest mismatch, buffer
       modified by upper layers during write: Ns +x\n", which shows that this was a false
       positive. The sending side may detect these buffer modifications immediately after the
       unmodified data has been copied to the tcp buffers, in which case the receiving side won´t
       notice it.

       The most recent (2007) example of systematic corruption was an issue with the TCP
       offloading engine and the driver of a certain type of GBit NIC. The actual corruption
       happened on the DMA transfer from core memory to the card. Since the TCP checksum gets
       calculated on the card, this type of corruption stays undetected as long as you do not use
       either the online verify or the data-integrity-alg.

       We suggest to use the data-integrity-alg only during a pre-production phase due to its CPU
       costs. Further we suggest to do online verify runs regularly e.g. once a month during a
       low load period.


       This document was revised for version 8.4.0 of the DRBD distribution.


       Written by Philipp Reisner and Lars Ellenberg


       Report bugs to


       Copyright 2001-2008 LINBIT Information Technologies, Philipp Reisner, Lars Ellenberg. This
       is free software; see the source for copying conditions. There is NO warranty; not even


       drbd(8), drbddisk(8), drbdsetup(8), drbdmeta(8), drbdadm(8), DRBD User´s Guide[1], DRBD
       web site[3]


        1. DRBD User's Guide

        2. DRBD's online usage counter

        3. DRBD web site