Provided by: cuyo-data_2.0.0brl1-3_all bug


       Cual - Cuyo Animation Language

       Cual is the main language used to describe the animations in cuyo.  Strictly speaking it's
       the stuff between the << >> brackets in the level description files (xxx.ld).

       On the other hand this man page aims at being a  complete  description  of  how  to  write
       levels  for cuyo.  But it's still under construction.  See the file "example.ld" to get an
       idea of how the rest of the level description works.  There's also a bit of  example  Cual
       code in "example.ld".  And of course, all the existing levels are examples.

       Note  that Cual is probably still very buggy.  So if strange things happen and you're sure
       it's not your fault, tell me (


       The level description is organized in sections.  There is a global section and every level
       has  its  own section, which is a subsection of the global section.  It is common practice
       to place each level in a separate file, which then basically starts by opening its section
       and ends by closing it.

       A  section  is  defined  by  name  =  {contents}.  name is the name of the new section and
       contents contains the definitions that pertain to that section.  This  is  a  sequence  of
       definitions of the form name = stuff.  Here stuff can be {contents} as above, or it can be
       a single datum, or it can be a comma-separated list of data.  Inside such a list, datum  *
       number  can be used as a shorthand for datum, ..., datum, i.e. a number-fold repetition of
       datum.  A datum can be an identifier, a string (enclosed by '"'), a word, or a number.  In
       place  of  a  number <expression> can be used, where expression is an arbitrary expression
       made up from literal numbers, previously defined numeric data, and the operators +, -,  *,
       / and %.

       Definitions can also depend on versions.  See section VERSIONING below.

       Apart  from  definitions,  a section can also contain cual definitions (see below).  These
       have to be enclosed in << and >>.

       Each blob has its own (main) Cual procedure which  does  the  drawing  and  the  animation
       stuff.   The  procedure  only depends on the kind of the blob, that is, it is the same for
       blobs of the same kind.  However each blob has its own instance of the variables.

       In every game step, the procedure of each of the blobs is called once.   (There  are  12.5
       game  steps  per second.)  It has to draw the blob each time, even if nothing has changed.
       (However, there's an internal routine in cuyo which checks if the same is drawn as in  the
       last step and which then supresses the drawing.)

       There  may be other procedures associated to a kind of blob, which are executed at special
       events, for example when a falling blob lands.  In contrast to the main  procedure,  these
       event handlers are not allowed to draw anything.  See section EVENT HANDLERS for a list of
       the existing events.

       The name of the main procedure of a blob (the one which draws the blob) is the name of the
       kind  of  the  blob.   Normally, that name is the word listed after pics= entry in the .ld
       file; but if that "word" contains a dot, only the part before the dot makes up  the  name.
       (E. g. with pics=redblob.xpm,greenblob.xpm, the names are "redblob" and "greenblob".)

       The  name  of  an  event  handler  procedure  is  the name of the kind, followed by a dot,
       followed by the event name.  (E.g. "" for the landing  event  of  the  redblob
       from above.)

       [Explain the default procedures.]


   String valued data
       name   The  name of the level.  This appears in the list of levels as well as in the level

              This is an optional further description of the level in its intro.

       author The name of the level author(s) for credit at the beginning of a level.

   Identifier valued data
       bgpic  Background picture (file name).  If too small, placed at bottom.  Defaults to none.

       toppic Appearance of the top border coming down (file name).  Defaults to none.

              Appearance of the explosions (file name).  Has a default.

   Number valued data
              The size that a group of blobs has to reach in order to explode.  This is only  the
              level-wide  default.   Each kind can override this.  Whether the group does explode
              is also controlled by behaviour.  See section VARIABLES AND CONSTANTS for details.

              Time the border takes to come down, in number of game steps.  Each game step  lasts
              80ms.  The default value is 50 (i.e. one pixel every four seconds).

              Placement  of  toppic  relative  to  the  actual border.  More precisely, number of
              pixels the lower border of the picture is below the actual border.  Defaults to the
              height of the picture.

              When the border comes down at the end of the level, number of pixels it should stop
              before the bottom.  Set this to the same value  as  topoverlap  if  you  want  your
              toppic to be comletely visible at the end.  Defaults to 0.

              Must  be  0  or  1.   If set to 1, chain reactions are necessary to kill the grass.
              Defaults to 0.  More precisely, chaingrass only controls the default for  behaviour
              for grass blobs.  See section VARIABLES AND CONSTANTS for details.

       mirror Must be 0 or 1.  If set to 1, the level appears upside-down.  Defaults to 0.

              Must be 0 or 1.  If set to 1, the initial fall position is randomized horizontally.
              Defaults to 0.

              Determines in which directions the blobs can connect to each other in order to form
              groups.   This  is  only the level-wide default.  Each kind can override this.  See
              section VARIABLES AND CONSTANTS for values.  Defaults to neighbours_rect.

              The expected time between two randomly appearing greys in game steps  (80ms).   Use
              -1 for none at all, which is the default.

              The  probability  that  a  grey  does  not  appear.  See greyprob and colourprob in
              section KIND DATA for details.  The default is 0.

       aiu_color, aiu_grass, aiu_grey, aiu_two_above, aiu_monochromic_vertical, aiu_height
              Parameters  for  the  AI  player's  utility  function.   Default  respectively   to
              <10*(number  of  kinds)>,  20, 10, <aiu_color/2>, <aiu_color>, and 10.  See section
              THE AI UTILITY FUNCTION for details.

   Colour valued data
       (A colour is an RGB triple of numbers between 0 and 255.)

              The background colour.  Defaults to white.

              Colour of any text.  This includes the beginning-of-level information,  message()s,
              and score.  Defaults to a certain shade of dark grey.

              The  colour  of  the  top  border  comming  down  (where not determined by toppic).
              Defaults to a certain shade of light grey.

   Other data
              Distribution of blobs at the beginning of the level.  It is a list of strings,  the
              format of which is described in the section STARTDIST.

       pics, greypic, startpic, emptypic
              Lists  of  kinds.   These  can  be either file names referring to the picture to be
              used, or declarations of kinds that have to be defined  later  on.   The  different
              keywords  (e.g. pics, emptypic) define different defaults.  In fact, only the first
              three may be real lists, emptypic is limited to exactly one entry.  In these lists,
              it  is  advisable  to  use * whenever possible.  Besides being shorter to write, it
              also speeds up loading of the level and cuts down memory usage.   This  is  because
              cuyo does some initializations only once for each entry with multiplier.

              The  intentions  of  these  lists  are normal blob kinds resp. grey blob kind resp.
              grass blob kind resp. nothing-blob.  However, the only  differences  between  pics,
              greypic  and  startpic  are the default values for behaviour, colourprob, goalprob,
              greyprob, versions and distkey (see there).  All of these can  also  be  overridden
              individually.   Also,  the default drawing code is different.  (The default drawing
              code for startpic does not draw connections.)

       kind   Each kind can have its own section.  See KIND DATA below for the  entries  of  that


       numexplode, neighbours
              Defining these data in the section of a kind overrides the level-wide value for the
              kind.  See section LEVEL DATA for a description of these data.

       pics   A list of file names of pictures to be used for this kind.  The nth entry can later
              be accessed in cual with file=n-1.

              The  probability  that  this  kind appears as one of the two steered falling blobs.
              More precisely, this is a nonnegative integer weight.  For determining  the  actual
              probability, the value is divided by the sum of the colourprobs of all kinds.  This
              sum must be positive.  The default is 1 for kinds declared with pics= and 0 for all
              other  kinds.   The  probability is also used for + in startdist.  For more details
              see section STARTDIST.

              This affects the semantics of * in startdist in the same way,  as  colourprob  does
              for  +.   The  default  is  1 for kinds declared with startpic= and 0 for all other

              The probability that this kind  appears  as  a  grey  blob.   This  is  similar  to
              colourprob,  but there is a difference: For greyprob, nogreyprob is included in the
              sum, so that it might happen that no blob appears  at  all.   There  is  a  notable
              difference  between  a positive nogreyprob and a positive greyprob in kind nothing,
              when several lines of grey blobs appear: In the latter case, empty blobs appear  in
              the  wall  of greys, making holes.  In the former case, the wall is made less high.
              Usually this is preferable.  The default is 1 for kinds declared with greypic=  and
              0 for all other kinds.  The value also affects the semantics of - in startdist.  In
              this case, nogreyprob is not included in the sum.

              At the creation of a blob, its version variable is  initialized.   Usually,  it  is
              chosen  at  random  from 0 to versions-1, but startdist provides the possibility to
              specify it exactly.  See section STARTDIST for details.   The  default  is  52  for
              kinds declared with startpic and 1 for all other kinds.

              An  alphanumerical  key,  which is used in startdist to identify this kind of blob.
              The default is A for kinds declared with  startpic  and  undefined  for  all  other
              kinds.  See section STARTDIST for details.


       Inside << >>, variable and procedure definitions are expected.

       procname = code ;
              Defines a "procedure".  The next section describes how code looks like.  Example:

                redblob = {
                  schema16; 0*;
                  1; A,B,C; *;

       var varname1 [= def1 [: reapply]], varname2 [= def2 [: reapply]], ... ;
              Defines  variables  with default values.  If no default is specified, zero is used.
              See section VARIABLES AND CONSTANTS about the meaning of the default value and  the
              optional suffix : reapply.

       default varname1 = def1 [: reapply], varname2 = def2 [: reapply], ... ;
              Changes  the default for already defined variables.  Again, the suffix : reapply is
              optional.  This is useful to give to a  single  kind  a  different  default  for  a
              variable  than  to  the other kinds.  Also, the default of a system variable can be
              changed this way.


       A code fragment can be one of the following:

       { code; code; ...}
              Executes one command after the other.

       code, code, ...
              This is useful for simple animations.  Executes exactly one of the commands: In the
              n-th  call,  the n-th command is executed. After the last command, the first one is
              executed again.  However, if one of the commands is "busy" (see section BUSIENESS),
              this  one will be executed until it stops being busy, and only after that, the next
              command will be executed.

              Executes the procedure procname, which has to be already defined.   The  result  is
              the same as if the code from procname would have been inserted in that place.

              Executes  the procedure procname; however, every instance of such a procname is the
              same.  This concerns busieness and  the  state  of  an  animation  sequence.   (See
              sections BUSIENESS and AMPERSAND-CALL.)

       busy   Does nothing except being busy.  (See section BUSIENESS.)

       varname = expr
              Sets the variable.  See section VARIABLES AND CONSTANTS for details.

       The same with +=, -=, *=, /=, %=, .+=, .-=.
              Does what you would expect.

       [ varname = expr ] code
              Sets  the  variable  varname to expr, executes code and then resets the variable to
              the old value.

       number A shortcut for file = number.

       letter A shortcut for pos = number, where different letters mean different numbers: A:  0,
              B: 1, ..., Z: 25, a: 26, ..., z: 51

       *      Draw  the icon specified by the variables kind, file and pos.  May also draw only a
              part of the icon, if specified by  the  variable  qu  (see  section  VARIABLES  AND

              Like *, but draws the icon at some other position.  This drawing is performed after
              all drawing by *.  If *@ is used from several blobs, the further order  of  drawing
              is  not specified.  It is guaranteed, however, that at any given time this order is
              the same for all positions.  (See section VARIABLES AND CONSTANTS for more  details
              about @.)

              Like  *,  but  draws  the  icon  at some other position.  This drawing is performed
              before all drawing by *.  If @* is used from several blobs, the  further  order  of
              drawing  is  not specified.  It is guaranteed, however, that at any given time this
              order is the same for all positions.  (See section VARIABLES AND CONSTANTS for more
              details about @.)

       if expr if-arrow if-code ;
       if expr if-arrow if-code else [else-arrow] else-code ;
              The  arrows  can  be  either "->" or "=>".  If you use "->" arrows, it does exactly
              what you would expect.  If the if-arrow  is "=>", then  once  the  expression  gets
              true,  the  if-code  will  be  executed  every subsequent time (without testing the
              condition), as long as it is "busy".  For more details see section  BUSIENESS.   If
              the  else-arrow is "=>", then once the expression gets false, the else-code will be
              executed every subsequent time as long as it is busy.  The else-arrow may  only  be
              omitted,  if  the  if-arrow  is "->".  Then the else-arrow also is "->".  (But this
              might change in the future.)

       switch {
         expr1 arrow1 code1 ;
         expr2 arrow2 code2 ;
       }      The arrows can be either "->" or "=>".  Does the same as:

                if expr1 arrow1 code1
                else => if expr2 arrow2 code2

              The last expr may be omitted.  This is equivalent to setting it to true.

              The player gets expr bonus points.

              The string is displayed (blinking)  on  the  screen.   To  be  used  together  with
              bonus(...).  Example:

                message("You get 50 bonus points");

              Makes  the blob explode.  For the next 8 steps or so, the blob is still what it was
              before, but the explosion is drawn over the graphics.  After that, it's changed  to
              a nothing-blob.

       lose   The players immediately lose the level.

              Plays the given sound file.

       You  can  also  omit the code completely.  Then, of course, it does not do anything.  This
       can be useful as part of ,-sequences.

       There's a shortcut for drawing: You may omit the ";" between a number, a  letter  and  the


       The only data type in cual is int.  Bools are represented by 0 and 1, like in C.  (And any
       number other than 0 is interpreted as true, if a boolean is expected.)

       Of course, variables, constants and numbers are expressions, and you can use  parentheses.
       There are the following operators (listed here in order of increasing precedence):

              ||     Boolean or

              &&     Boolean and

              ==, !=, <, >, <=, >=

              ==..   A special comparison

              !      Boolean not

              +, -   Add, substract

              :      Special operator

              *, /, %
                     Multiply, divide, modulo

              &, |, .+, .-
                     Bitwise  and, bitwise or, setting of bits (same as bitwise or), unsetting of

              -      Unary minus

              .      Testing of bits (a.b is the same as a&b != 0)

       / and % work mathematically correct and do not make funny changes when  the  sign  of  the
       numerator changes.  More specifically, if b is positive, then a/b is the largest integer n
       such that n*b<=a.  If b is negative, then a/b is the largest integer n such  that  n*b>=a.
       In both cases a%b is such that (a/b)*b+a%b = a.  Examples:

       13/5=2       13%5=3
       -13/5=-3     -13%5=2
       13/-5=-3     13%-5=-2
       -13/-5=2     -13%-5=-3

       The following are the special operators:

       expr1 == expr2 .. expr3
              Is true, if expr1 lies between expr2 and expr3.  You may also omit one of expr2 and
              expr3.  (Then, it does the same as <=  resp.  >=.)   The  precedence  implies  that
              x==y==2..3   is   the   same  as  x==(y==2..3)  and  is  neither  (x==y)==2..3  nor
              x==(y==2)..3.  Note that this operator might change in the future. (I plan to  make
              something like "expr in set" in Pascal.)

       expr1 : expr2
              Is true (that is, 1) with probability expr1/expr2

              neighbour_pattern  is a sequence of six or eight characters 0, 1 and ?.  It is true
              if the sequence fits to the neighbour sequence of the blob.  The neighbour sequence
              is  a  string  of  "0"s  and  "1"s  with a "1" for each neighbour of the same kind,
              starting above and going clockwise.  This way, you get a string of  "0"s  and  "1"s
              (six or eight, depending on wether this level is in hex mode).

              Example:  1???0??? is true iff the blob above this blob is of the same kind and the
              blob below it is of different kind.

              For an empty blob the semantics is slightly different: If in some  direction  there
              is  no neighbour, because the field ends there, the entry in the neighbour sequence
              is 1 nevertheless.  So for an empty blob 1???0??? is true, iff the blob above  this
              blob does not exist or is empty as well, and the blob below this blob exists and is
              not empty.

              If some blob changes its kind during a step, the expression  will  still  test  the
              neighbours  as  they were at the beginning of the step.  (See the section VARIABLES
              AND CONSTANTS for details.)

       The following functions exist:

              Returns a random value between 0 and expr-1

       gcd(expr1, expr2)
              Returns the greatest common divisor of expr1 and expr2


       The following kinds of variables and constants exist:

       —  User defined variables (see section CUAL DEFINITIONS).  At the start of the  level  (or
          at  the  creation  of  the  blob)  the value is the default value you provided.  If you
          supplied the default with : reapply, whenever a blob's kind changes, the value  of  the
          variable  is  also  set to the default of the new kind.  There is a subtlety: This only
          happens if the new value of kind is in fact different from the old one.

       —  System variables.  These variables are always defined and have special  meanings,  e.g.
          file and pos.  Some of them are read-only.

       —  User  defined  constants.   These  are  defined  in the main .ld part, not in cual (not
          inside << >>).

       —  System constants.  Some of them depend on properties of  the  level,  some  are  really

       Of each variable, there's one instance in each blob.  Normally, you access the instance in
       your own blob, but with the following syntax, you can access variables of other blops:

         varname@@(x, y; side)
         varname@@(x; side)
         varname@@(; side)
         varname@(dx, dy; side)
         varname@(dx; side)

       If x and y are given, these are absolute coordinates in the grid of  blops,  that  is  the
       variable is taken from the blob with loc_x=x and loc_y=y (see under The system variables).
       If only x is given, it specifies one of the two blobs  that  are  currently  falling.   If
       there  is  only  one  such  blob  left, because the other one got stuck on some tower, the
       remaining blob's coordinate is 0.  Otherwise one of the two has coordinate 0, the other 1.

       In the @ variants, the coordinates are relative to the current  blob.   The  variant  @@(;
       side)  refers  to the semiglobal blob, the variant @() to the global blob (See section THE
       GLOBAL BLOB).  The extra part ; side is optional and specifies the side of the game.  This
       is  only  meaningful in two-player mode.  side = < specifies the left player, side = > the
       right player, side = = the player to which the current blob pertains, and  side  =  !  the
       other player.  @() and @@() can also be given as @ respectively @@.

       This  can  be  done  for  both,  reading  and writing variables.  It also works for system
       variables (but not for constants).

       In hex mode levels, for odd dx, dy should be a "half integer", that is a number ending  in
       ".5".   This is the only place in Cual where non-integers appear.  Especially, ".5" is not
       allowed in composite expressions.  Therefore, also integer dy is  always  allowed.   If  a
       half-integer  is  expected  and an integer is given, it is assumed to be rounded to above,
       that is 5 then represents 4.5 and -5 represents -5.5.

       Caution: With mirror=1 the absolute and the relative coordinates use different  coordinate
       systems.  Handle with extreme care.

       Accessing  foreign  variables  is  not  as easy as it might look at first glance; it might
       easily introduce a dependence of the internal order of execution of the blob  codes.   For
       this reason,

       —  reading  variables  with @ or @@ always returns the value of the variable it had at the
          beginning of the current step, that is, before any of the blob codes has been executed.

       —  when writing variables with @ or @@, the write operation will only be executed  at  the
          end of the current step.  (The write operations are stored in a kind of queue.)

       This is also true if a blob accesses its own variables with @(0,0).

       The  operators  +=, -=, etc.  are also performed in the future if the left hand side is an
       @-variable.  (To be more precice, the right hand side is calculated instantanousely.)

       For illustration, look at the following six statements:

       1)   X += 1
       2)   X@(0, 0) += 1
       3)   X = X + 1
       4)   X = X@(0, 0) + 1
       5)   X@(0, 0) = X + 1
       6)   X@(0, 0) = X@(0, 0) + 1

       Only 1) and 3) do the same; they simply increment X by 1.  Statement 4) sets X to one more
       than  it  was at the beginning of the step.  Statements 2), 5) and 6) cause the value of X
       to be changed in the future (after the current step): X is set to one more than:

       2)     the value of X just before the change (that is, X is incremented in the future),

       5)     the current value of X,

       6)     the value of X at the beginning of the step.

   Some more details
       —  Whenever you try to access a variable at a location which doesn't exist, you  will  get
          the default value.  If default values depend on the kind, the default pertaining to the
          blob executing the code is used.  This may change in the future.

       —  Changing a variable which doesn't exist does nothing (and does not result in an error).

       [Add explanation of time slices; roughly:
          @-access of variables in reality don't access the value at  the  beginning/end  of  the
          game  step, but of the time slice.  The call of the main procedure of all blobs happens
          in the same time slice, but each other kind of event has its own time slice.]

   The system variables
       file   Specifies the file number from which to take the icon that is drawn by  "*".   This
              variable is reset to 0 before the drawing procedure is executed.

       pos    Specifies the position in the file of the icon that is drawn by "*".  This variable
              is reset to 0 before the drawing procedure is executed.

       kind   The kind of the blob.   There  are  constants  for  the  possible  values  of  this
              variable.  If you change the kind, you should be aware of three things:

              —  Expressions  like  "001???01" test the neighbour pattern at the beginning of the
                 current step.  So the change of the variable kind will not be reflected.

              —  In the current step, the program to draw the blob has already been  invoked  (it
                 might  even  be  the  program which changed this variable); so in this step, the
                 blob will still look like one of the old kind.  However,  if  things  are  drawn
                 after the kind has been changed, icons from the new kind are taken.

              —  Defaults  of  the  new  kind that are declared with : reapply are applied.  This
                 happens at the same time that  kind  changed,  but  only  if  the  new  kind  is
                 different from the old one.

              Is  assigned a hopefully distinctive value at the blob's creation.  See versions in
              section KIND DATA for details.

       qu     Tells "*" which part of the icon to draw.  It's possible to draw the whole icon, or
              only  one  of  its  quarters.  If a quarter is drawn, you may specify independently
              which of the quarters to take and at which position to draw it.  Use the  constants
              (see  below).  This variable is reset to "draw all" before the drawing procedure is

       out1, out2
              Set these Variables for debug output.  The values will be printed  on  top  of  the
              blob.  These variable are reset to "output nothing" before the drawing procedure is
              executed.  (In fact, "output nothing" is one special big value.)

              Set this variable to a sum of the constants DIR_...; this will  inhibit  that  this
              blob  connects into the given directions.  This is not for the graphics but for the
              calculation of the connected components and the explosions.

              This is a bit field.  Refer to The Constants below for the meaningful of its  bits.
              The     default    is    calculate_size+explodes_on_size    for    normal    blobs,
              explodes_on_explosion+explodes_on_chainreaction for  grey  blobs,  floats  for  the
              empty    blob   and   goalblob+explodes_on_explosion+explodes_on_chainreaction   or
              goalblob+explodes_on_chainreaction (depending on whether  chaingrass  is  set)  for
              grass blobs.

       falling_speed, falling_fast_speed
              These  variables  are  only used in the semiglobal blobs.  They define the vertical
              speed of the steered falling blobs.   The  unit  is  pixels  per  game  step.   The
              defaults are 6 and 32.

   The system read-only variables
       time   The number of time steps since the level was started.

       turn   Is  1  resp.  2  if  the  blob  is  falling and just being turned by the user and 0
              otherwise.  (1 in the first turning step, 2 in the second one.)  Be aware  that  if
              the  user  presses  the  turn  key  fast  several times, some of these steps may be
              omitted.  (Use the turn event if you want to  be  sure  that  a  program  block  is
              executed once for every turn.)

              Contains internal data.  Will be removed.  Probably.

       size   The size of the component of the blob.  (That is, how many blobs are connected.)

              The value of the constant generated for the name of the kind of the blop.  Example:

                pics = orange, pear, apple * 3, banana, apple

              Here,  all  four  kinds  apple  have the same value for basekind, and this value is

       loc_x, loc_y
              The absolute coordinates of the blob.  (0,0) = top left corner

       loc_xx, loc_yy
              The absolute coordinates of the blob in pixels.  This is not  always  the  same  as
              loc_x*32 and loc_y*32, particularly for the steered falling blobs.

       loc_p  The player of the blob (1 or 2)

              true,  if  the  blob  is  falling.  (Falling in the sense of steered by the player.
              Grey blobs are not falling in that sense.)

              true, if the blob is falling fast, that is, the user pressed the down key.

              The number of players.

              When the blob is exploding, the position in the explosion animation  (1  to  8);  0

              Currently,  there  is  one  exception:  if  the explosion has been triggered by the
              explode command, then exploding will have value 1 only after the current game  step
              [more  precisely:  time slice; fix that].  Reason: when reading exploding@(x,y), we
              maybe don't know yet that the other blob calls explode.

   The Constants:
       Constants for behaviour:

              Set goalblob if this blob should act like grass: You will have to get rid of it  to
              win the level and making this blob explode will give more points.

              When  this  bit  is set, size will be regularly updated to the sum of weight in the
              connected component.

              When this bit is set, a connected component explodes, when it has size>=numexplode.

       explodes_on_explosion, explodes_on_chainreaction
              When these bits are set, the blob explodes whenever an explosion that was triggered
              by explodes_on_size happens in its neighbourhood.  explodes_on_chainreaction refers
              to those triggering explosions that are  the  second  or  later  part  of  a  chain
              reaction.  explodes_on_explosion refers to the other ones.

       floats When  this  bit  is  set,  the blob keeps its vertical position even if there is an
              empty blob below.  This bit has no effect on the steered falling blobs.

       Constants for kind:

       <name of kind of blob>
              For each kind of blob, there's one constant with the name of that kind. Use  it  to
              check if a blob is of that kind using kind@(x,y) == aKind or to change to that kind
              using kind = aKind.  See kind under The system variables for  the  side-effects  of
              setting kind.

              Sometimes  it is necessary to perform arithmetic on kinds, for example when several
              have been declared using the  *  multiplier.   The  values  of  the  constants  are
              successive  in  the  order,  in which the kinds have been declared.  When a name is
              used several times, the first use defines the value.  Example:

                startpic = apple, orange
                pics = orange, pear, apple * 3, banana
                greypic = pineapple

              This initializes 2 kinds with the defaults for startpic, 6 kinds with the  defaults
              for  pics,  and  1  kind  with the defaults for greypic.  The value of the constant
              orange is 1 more than that of apple, pear is 2 more than orange, banana is  4  more
              than pear and pineapple is 1 more than banana.  We do not specify what these values
              actually are.

              This constant also exists for the empty  kind,  if  one  has  been  declared  using
              emptypic.   In  this case the value's relation to the other values is not specified
              at all.

       global, semiglobal
              Denote the kind of the global, respectively semiglobal, blob.

              Is the same as the constant for the empty kind.  Is  provided,  because  sometimes,
              you don't have an empty kind, but you still need to test if a blob is empty.

              The value of kind if the coordinates are outside of the game board.

       Constants for neighbours:

              A blob connects up, down, left, and right.  This is the default.

              A blob connects diagonally.

              When  used  in  the level-wide neighbours, this sets hex mode.  A blob connects up,
              down, left with a slight upwards shift, left with a slight downwards  shift,  right
              with a slight upwards shift, and right with a slight downwards shift.

              When  used  in the level-wide neighbours, this sets hex mode.  A blob connects left
              with a slight upwards shift, left with a  slight  downwards  shift,  right  with  a
              slight upwards shift, and right with a slight downwards shift.

              A blob connects in knight moves (Two forward and then one sideways.  Forward is one
              of up, down, left or right.  Sideways is perpendicular to forward.   This  makes  a
              total of eight directions.).

              Combines neighbours_rect with neighbours_diagonal.

              A  more  obscure  mode  created  especially for 3d.ld.  When used in the level-wide
              neighbours, this sets hex mode.  A blob connects up, down, two (but not one) to the
              left,  and  two to the right.  In even columns it also connects right with a slight
              upwards shift.  In odd columns it also connects left with a slight downwards shift.

              A blob does not connect at all.

       Constants for qu:

       Q_ALL  Value for qu, which means "draw the complete picture".

       Q_TL, Q_TR, Q_BL, Q_BR
              Values for qu.  "TL" means draw top-left quarter, etc.  (See the "*" command in the
              Code section.)

              SRC and DST may be TL, TR, BL, BR.  Take quarter SRC and draw it at position DST.

       Miscellanious constants:

       DIR_XX To  be  used  with the variable inhibit to prevent the blob connecting in the given
              directions.  XX can be U, D, L,  R  (horizontal  and  vertical);  UL,  UR,  DL,  DR
              (diagonal); UUL, UUR, DDL, DDR, LLU, LLD, RRU, RRD (knight); F, B (3d)


       Sometimes  it  is necessary to define a level slightly differently for different purposes.
       For example you might need to decrease numexplode  for  the  two-player  version  lest  it
       becomes  unplayable.   The  difficulty  settings  from  cuyo's  main  menu provide another

       This is done by qualifiing a definition with the versions it should apply to.  It is  best
       explained by an example:

         numexplode = 8
         numexplode[2] = 6
         numexplode[1,hard] = 10

       This  specifies  that normally numexplode should be 8.  In two-player mode it should be 6.
       In one-player hard mode it should be 10.  Here the specifiers 2 for two-player mode, 1 for
       one-player  mode and hard for hard mode are used.  Along with easy for easy mode these are
       all predefined specifiers intended for levels.  Additionally (and for internal  purposes),
       there  are  specifiers  for  the  level tracks: main, all, game, extreme, nofx, weird, and

       Furthermore, you can make up and use your own specifiers.   In  order  for  them  to  take
       effect,  though,  you  have to give cuyo additional information about the current version.
       This is done on the command line using the --version option.  For example

         cuyo --version=hard,geek

       Specifies both hard version (you can change that in the menu) and version "geek", which is
       not predefined.

       There are several constraints to be observed:

       —  All  versions  of  a definition must be made before the first use of the thing defined.
          As sometimes it is not obvious where the defined thing is used  (for  example  startpic
          uses  a previous greypic by assigning successive numbers to kinds), it is best to group
          all these versions into one block.

       —  A given version also applies to every more specialized version, for which no definition
          is  given.  In the above example, numexplode is set to 6 in two-player hard mode and in
          two-player easy mode as well.

          All resulting conflicts must be resolved.  For example, if you make  a  definition  for
          [2] and one for [hard], you must also make a definition for [2,hard] (or, equivalently,
          for [hard,2]), because otherwise it would be ambiguous which of the two  former  should
          apply in two-player hard mode.

       —  Cuyo knows that easy and hard exclude each other.  Consequently, it is unnecessary (and
          indeed prohibited) to give an [easy,hard] definition, even if both  [easy]  and  [hard]
          are given.  The same holds for 1 and 2, and for level tracks.

       —  Furthermore,  cuyo knows that 1 and 2 are exhaustive: There is no mode which is neither
          single-player nor two-player.  (The human-versus-AI mode counts as two-player as far as
          cual  is  concerned.)  Therefore, if there are definitions for both, it is unnecessary,
          (and again illegal) also to define a version without any  of  both.   For  example,  if
          [1,de]  and [2,de] are given, [de] must be omitted.  Alternatively, you could of course
          give [1,de] and [de] or [de] and [de,2].  The level track specifiers are exhaustive  as


       (No, not Business ;-)

       Busieness  is a concept to make it easier to implement simple animated sequences which are
       triggered by certain events.  Each code fragment has an internal state which tells  if  it
       is busy.

       —  Normal statements like assignments are never busy.

       —  A  chain  of  commands separated by "," is busy as long as not all of the commands have
          been executed.

       —  code1 ; code2 is busy as long as at least one of code1 and code2 are busy.

       Here's an example of how to use  busieness  for  an  animation  which  appears  at  random

         switch {
           1:100 => {B*, C*, D*, E*};
           -> A*;

       This  code  fragment  normally draws the icon at position A (0).  But in each step, with a
       probability of 1/100, an animation sequence consisting of icons B, C, D and E is  started.
       With  a  normal  arrow ("->") after the "1:100", after the step in which B has been drawn,
       the probability would be 99/100 that A is drawn again.  But with  the  double  arrow,  the
       switch statement won't switch back to A until the animation has terminated.

       (Btw:  It  doesn't  matter  if  there's  a  "->"  or a "=>" before the "A*"; A* isn't busy


       Apart from the normal blobs which you can see on screen, there's one global blob (for  the
       whole  game, not one for each player), which, well, isn't really a blob, but behaves a bit
       like it.  It has its own set of variables, and it can have a program  which  is  run  once
       every  step.   To  define  such  a  global  program, use global=code.  However, the global
       variables do exist even if you don't  define  global  code.   See  section  VARIABLES  AND
       CONSTANTS  on how to access them.  Note that the global blob is always executed before any
       of the normal blobs.

       There are also semiglobal blobs.  There is one for each player.  These are programmed with


       The following events exist:

       init   Is  called  only once, when the blob gets into life, just before the first time its
              main drawing routine is called.

       turn   Is called for falling blobs each time the user presses the turn key.

       land   Is called when the steered blob lands.

              Is called when a blob moves from one player to the other, just after the  blob  has
              arrived at the new player.

              Is called when the connection of blobs is recalculated.

       row_up Is  called  when  a  player gets a row from the other side.  Is only called for the
              semiglobal blob, though.

              Is called when a player gives a row to the other side.   Is  only  called  for  the
              semiglobal blob, though.

       keyleft, keyright, keyturn, keyfall
              Are  called  when  the  player presses the left, right, turn or fall key.  Are only
              called for the steered falling blobs and the semiglobal blob, though.


       Normal blobs come into life at the beginning of the game, or they fall into  life:  either
       as  colored  blobs, steered by the user, or as grey blobs.  When a blob moves (by gravitiy
       or when rows go from one player to another), it takes its variables with it.  When a  blob
       explodes,  it  does  not stop existing.  Rather, it transforms into an empty blob.  That's
       important for the variables: The empty blob still has all the variables set to the  values
       they  had before; only its kind is different.  Empty blobs are everywhere where there's no
       other blob.  (However, the falling blobs steered by the user are  in  some  sense  "above"
       everything else; there are empty blobs beneath them.)

       The  life  of  empty blobs is different from the one of normal blobs.  Empty blobs are not
       affected by gravity, and they often start or stop existing.  For example,  when  a  single
       grey  blob  is  falling  down,  the  empty blob below it stops existing when the grey blob
       arrives and a new empty blob starts existing when the grey blob moves on.  There  is  only
       one  situation  in  which empty blobs move: When a row moves from one player to the other,
       and everything moves up resp. down, the empty blobs move, too.


       The format of the startdist field is rather complicated.  On the  plus  side,  this  means
       that  many  things can be done with little effort.  We first describe the single-character
       format, which, at the time of this writing, has sufficed for all needs.   After  that,  we
       describe the general format as an extension.

       Every  line of the startdist describes one row of blobs in the level's initial state.  The
       lines are aligned to the bottom and the topmost lines come first (normal  reading  order).
       Each  line  must  contain exactly 10 or exactly 20 characters.  In a line of length 20 the
       first 10 characters describe the left player, the second 10 characters describe the  right
       player.   A line of length 10 describes both players.  Hence, each character describes one
       blob.  The semantics are:

       .      An empty blop.

       +, -, *
              A  blop  chosen  at  random  according  to   colourprob,   respectively   greyprob,
              respectively goalprob.  The value of nogreyprob has no influence.

       0..9, A..Z, a..z
              These  characters  denote a specific kind.  If the character matches the distkey of
              some kinds, the first of these is chosen.  More  generally,  these  characters  are
              ordered  such  that  "9" comes before "A" and "Z" comes before "a".  In this order,
              the maximal distkey, which does not come after the character, specifies the  blob's
              kind.   The  difference  between  the  character and the distkey then specifies the
              blob's version.

              Example 1: In the special case, where the  character  exactly  matches  a  distkey,
              version is set to 0.

              Example  2: Suppose kind apple has distkey = "A", kind orange has distkey = "O" and
              no further distkeys exist.  Then the character "C" denotes an apple with version=2,
              the  character  "N"  denotes an apple with version=13, the character "O" denotes an
              orange with version=0, the character "S" denotes  an  orange  with  version=4,  the
              character  "a"  denotes  an  orange with version=12, and the character "8" does not
              denote anything (and hence is illegal).

       In this way, startdist can reference 62 kind/version combinations directly  (and  more  at
       random).   Because this might at some time not be enough, the multichar extension has been
       introduced.  In this case, each blob is described by more than  one  character.   However,
       the  number  of  characters per blob must be the same for all keys.  Hence, the lengths of
       startdist lines then must be this number multiplied by 10 or by 20.  Every  multicharacter
       combination  starting with ".", "+", "-", or "*" is treated as the corresponding character
       in single-character format.  All other character combinations are treated  as  numbers  in
       base  62 representation.  Here, "A" to "Z" are digits with decimal value 10 to 35, and "a"
       to "z" are digits with decimal value 36 to 61.  Leading  spaces  are  allowed  instead  of
       zeroes  (however,  the  all-space  string  is forbidden).  The maximal distkey which (as a
       number) is not larger than the number given in startdist, specifies the blob's kind.   The
       difference between the startdist number and the distkey then specifies the blob's version.
       In the case of multichar distkeys, the default for distkeys of kinds declared by startpic=
       is 10 in decimal.

       For  blops  whose  kinds  are  chosen  at random (i.e. characters "+", "-", "*" in single-
       character startdists), cuyo tries to make these as different as possible.  That means,  by
       a  certain  heuristic,  cuyo  minimizes the number of neighbouring blobs of the same kind.
       "Neighbouring", of course, refers to the neighbours entry.  inhibit and the calculate_size
       bit  of behaviour have no effect (these are mutable during the lifetime of blobs, while at
       the time of startdist processing, no blob's lifetime has started yet).  So the only way to
       influence  the  unneighbouring  (if  you  really  wish to do so), is by setting neighbours
       appropriately.  (Of course, this possibility is even more limited, when you intend to  set
       the calculate_size bit during the blob's lifetime.)


       Cual procedures and variables can be defined in different sections of the .ld files:

       —  Outside  of  everything;  that  code  is  accessible from every level coming after that

       —  In the section of a level.

       —  In the section of a kind.

       This basically does what you expect.  However, there's one thing you might want  to  know:
       Even  if  you  define  a  variable  inside a kind, every blob in that level will have that
       variable.  The only effect of defining the variable in the section of a kind is that  this
       kind is the only one which can access it.


       To explain a bit what calling a procecure with an & means, here two examples:

       Example 1:
       myblob = {
         switch {
           myvar -> { 0A*; 1; A,B,C,D; *; 2A*};
                 -> { 0B*; 1; A,B,C,D; *; 2B*};

       Example 2:
       anim = {1; A,B,C,D; *};

       myblob = {
         switch {
           myvar -> { 0A*; &anim; 2A*};
                 -> { 0B*; &anim; 2B*};

       The  difference  between these examples is what happens when myvar changes.  In example 1,
       the animation "A, B, C, D" will restart at the beginning (because the two  animations  are
       different  ones);  in  example  2,  the  "same"  animation  is  used in both cases, so the
       animation will simply continue.  (Removing the ampersands from example  2  will  turn  the
       behaviour to the one of example 1.)


       When  deciding  how  to place the steered falling blobs, the AI player tries to maximize a
       certain utility function.  Its value is the sum of the values  for  both  steered  falling
       blobs  plus  aiu_monochromic_vertical  in case both blobs have the same color and they get
       placed vertically.  The value for a single blob is the sum of the following:

       —  For each new neighbour of blob, the neighbour utility.

       —  aiu_two_above, if the blob is two above a blob of same kind.

       —  aiu_height*20/(the blob's y coordinate).

       The neighbour utility for a single new blob and a single one of its new neighbours is  the
       sum of the following:

       —  aiu_color, if the neighbour has the same kind as the blob.

       —  aiu_grass, if the neighbour fulfills behaviour.goalblob.

       —  aiu_grey, if the neighbour fulfills behaviour.explodes_on_explosion.




       Probably a lot.  The following are just a few known ones:

       There are several problems with busieness and that stuff.  There are several situations in
       which Cual doesn't behave in the way I would like, and in other situations  I  don't  know
       how Cual should behave.

                                            2012-1-27                                     CUAL(6)