Provided by: mah-jong_1.11-2_amd64 bug


       xmj, mj-server, mj-player - programs for playing Mah-Jong


       xmj [--id idnumber]
                [--server address]
                [--name playername]
                [--show-wall | --no-show-wall]
                [--size N]
                [--animate | --no-animate]
                [--tileset directory]
                [--tileset-path directory-path]
                [--dialogs-popup | --dialogs-below | --dialogs-central]
                [--use-system-gtkrc | --no-use-system-gtkrc]
                [--gtk2-rcfile file]

       mj-server [--server address]  [--timeout seconds]
                [--pause deciseconds]
                [--random-seats | --id-order-seats]
                [--disconnect-penalties N1,N2,N3]
                [--option-file file]
                [--load-game file]
                [--auth-basic id:password]*4
                [--logfile file]
                [--seed N]
                [--wallfile filefP]

       mj-player [--id idnumber] [--name playername]
                [--server address] [--password password]
                [strategy options]


       A set of three programs to play Mah-Jong on Unix systems, against people or programs, over
       the Internet.

              is the program that handles communications and control of the game; the  rules  and
              scoring are enforced there. Players, human or computer, connect to a server via the

              is a computer player. At present, it is fairly simplistic,  having  only  offensive
              tactics with no knowledge of defensive play.

       xmj    is the X client for human players.


       If  you  don't  want  to  read  this long document: to start a game against three computer
       players, start xmj, select "New local game..." from the  "Game"  menu,  and  click  "Start
       Game". (Wait about ten seconds for everything to start up.)


   All Programs
       --server address
              specifies  the  network  address to listen on (for mj-server) or to connect to (for
              mj-player and xmj).  If address contains a colon, it specifies an Internet  socket,
              and  should  have  the  form host:port . If address does not contain a colon, it is
              interpreted as a Unix file name and a Unix socket is used.  The default  value  for
              address is  localhost:5000 .  address can also be set in a dialog box in xmj.

   xmj and mj-player
       --id idnumber
              The  server assigns a unique integer ID (which is currently just 1 to 4 in order of
              connection) to each player. This ID should be quoted when reconnecting to a game in
              progress  (after,  for example, losing a network connection or accidentally killing
              xmj). The default ID is 0, which denotes no pre-assigned ID.

       --name name
              Players can give themselves names which will  be  used  by  client  programs.  This
              option  specifies  the  name.  For xmj, the default is the value of the environment
              variable LOGNAME, or failing that the username of  the  logged  in  user.  For  mj-
              player, the default is "Robot(PID)" where PID is the process id.

              By  default, xmj does not automatically connect to a server, but waits for the user
              to connect via a menu. If this option is specified, xmj immediately connects.

              Tells xmj (not) to display the wall. By default, the wall is shown only if  running
              on  a  big  enough screen. This option is also controllable via the Display Options
              preference panel.

       --size number
              This option adjusts the size of the main window. It should be  thought  of  as  the
              length  of  a  tile  rack,  measured  in  tiles. The default, and the largest value
              accepted, is 19, or 18 if on an 800x600 display. The smallest usable value  is  14.
              This option is also controllable via the Display Options preference panel.
              If the --show-wall option is given, a --size smaller than 19 will have no effect.

              This  option switches on (off) some animation. Not all tile movements are animated:
              only those that involve moving tiles to or from a hand from outside. This option is
              also controllable via the Display Options preference panel.

       --tileset directory
              xmj  needs  pixmaps  to  display  the tiles and the tong box.  This option tells it
              which directory to find them in.  The default  is  set  at  compilation  time;  the
              default default is to use the compiled-in tiles.

       --tileset-path directory-path
              This  gives a colon-separated (or semicolon-separated under Microsoft Windows) list
              of directories in which to look for the directory named by the --tileset option.

              By default, most of the dialog boxes for  player  actions  are  part  of  the  main
              window.  If  this  option  is  used, they will instead appear as separate transient

              By default, dialog boxes appear in the centre of the  table.   If  this  option  is
              given, dialogs (apart from some popups) are positioned below the table area. Please
              let me know which style you prefer!

              The default: dialog boxes appear in the middle of the  table.   These  options  are
              also controllable via the Display Options preference panel.

       --gtk2-rcfile file
              If  xmj  is  compiled  with  GTK+2,  this option specifies a GTK rc file to be used
              instead of the program's compiled-in style file. This may be  used  to  change  the
              appearance  of  the program. See description under the Display Options... panel for
              more details. The file should be an absolute filename; if it is relative,  it  will
              be  sought in the current directory (Unix) or the program directory (Windows). This
              option is also controllable via the Display Options preference panel.

              When xmj is compiled  with  GTK+2,  by  default  it  ignores  the  system  provided
              settings,  to  ensure a consistent behaviour across systems.  If you wish it to use
              your system settings, set this option.  This option is also  controllable  via  the
              Display Options preference panel.

              If  this  option  is  given,  xmj  will  echo to  stdout  all the protocol messages
              received from the server. This option is for use in debugging.

              If this option is given, xmj will send any text given on stdin to the server.  This
              option is for use in debugging.

              If  this  option  is  given,  xmj  will  send requests to the server only in direct
              response to user actions; it will take  no  action  itself  (and  hence  all  auto-
              declaring and playing is also disabled). This option is for use in debugging.

       --timeout seconds
              When a discard is made, there is a limit on the time players have to claim it. This
              option sets the timeout; a value of zero disables it. The default is 15 seconds.
              This value can also be set via a GameOption request from a player.

       --pause deciseconds
              This will make the server enforce a delay of deciseconds/10  seconds  between  each
              action  in  the game; the purpose is to slow programmed players down to human speed
              (or, in a teaching situation, to slow the  game  even  more).  The  current  server
              considers that 50 (i.e. 5 seconds) is the maximum reasonable value for this option.
              The option can also be requested by players, via a PlayerOption protocol request.

              By  default,  players  are seated in order of connection to the server. This option
              seats them randomly. It will become the default later.

              This option causes the players to be seated in numerical order of their ids. It  is
              used by the xmj program to make the New local game..  work as expected.

       --disconnect-penalties N1,N2,N3
              This  specifies  the  penalties  applied  by  the  following option for players who
              disconnect before the end of a game. N1 is the penalty  for  disconnecting  in  the
              middle  of  a hand; N2 at the end of a hand but in the middle of a round; N3 at the
              end of a round (other than end of game). They all default to 0 if not specified.

              If this option is given, a disconnection by one player  will  gracefully  terminate
              the  game.  Mid-hand,  the  hand  is  declared  a wash-out; after Mah-Jong has been
              declared, then if a losing player disconnects, their tiles are shown, the  hand  is
              scored,  and  then  the  game  ends; if a winning player disconnects, the hand is a
              wash-out. The disconnecting player may be assigned  a  penalty,  according  to  the
              --disconnect-penalties  option, which will be included in the scores printed out by
              the server. (The penalties will not be visible to the other players.)

              If this option is given, the server will quit if  any  player  disconnects,  rather
              than waiting indefinitely for reconnection.

              If  this option is given, the server will save the state of the game if it quits as
              a result of a player disconnecting. (It will not save the state if it quits as  the
              result of an internal error.)

       --option-file file
              This  names a file of protocol commands which will be applied to every game when it
              starts. Its main purpose is to set non-default game  options,  via  the  GameOption
              protocol  message  (note  that  this  is  a  CMsg, not a PMsg). However, users will
              normally set options and preferences via the xmj control panel, not by this means.

       --load-game file
              This names a file containing a saved game  (as  a  suitable  sequence  of  protocol
              commands).  The server will load the game; clients connecting will be treated as if
              they had disconnected and rejoined the game.

              In the most common case of resuming a saved game, namely one human playing  against
              three  robots,  the robots will not have the same names or ids as the robots in the
              original game. This option tells the server that if it cannot match a  reconnecting
              player  by  id  or  name,  it  should  anyway  match  it  to  one of the previously
              disconnected players. (In this case, the human normally  connects  first  with  the
              same name, so is correctly matched.)

              Usually,  the  first player to connect becomes the game manager, and can change all
              the game settings. If this option is given, no player will be allowed to change the
              game settings.

       --auth-basic id:password
              This  provides  basic  (insecure,  since  the password is transmitted in plaintext)
              authorization: the player with id id must give the specified password  to  connect.
              Note  that  if  this  argument is given, it must be given four times, once for each
              authorized player - any player id not mentioned will not be allowed to  connect.  A
              player may be allowed to connect without a password by making password empty.

              This  enables  various  debugging  features.  In  particular,  it  enables protocol
              commands that allow one to change the tiles in a hand...

       --logfile file
              The server will write a complete record of the game to file;  this  will  be  quite
              large, and is only useful for automatic comparison of different computer players.

              This  option  suppresses the scoring of points and doubles for flowers and seasons.
              It is primarily intended for running tests of different players; for human  use,  a
              game option will be provided to eliminate the specials altogether.

       --seed n
              This  option  specifies  the  seed  for  the  random  number  functions.   Used for
              repeatable tests.

       --wallfile file
              This names a file containing space separated tile codes giving the wall;  used  for
              repeatable tests. (This is a testing option; it is not robust.)

              This  is  an  option to facilitate certain automatic analyses; if set, a history of
              each hand is dumped to the file hand-NN.mjs .

              Another option only used in automatic comparison:  this  saves  some  CPU  time  by
              disabling the book-keeping required to allow players to disconnect and reconnect.

       --password password
              sets the password if basic authorization is in use.

       strategy options
              The  player  has  some  options  which can be used to change its "personality". The
              meanings are rather approximate, since they actually change  parameters  which  are
              used  in  a rather complex way, but the idea is right. These options, each of which
              takes a floating point value in the given range, are:

       --chowness -1.0 .. 1.0
              This affects how much the player likes chows: at 1.0, it will go all  out  for  the
              chicken hand, at -1.0 it will never chow. The default is 0.0.

       --hiddenness 0.0 .. 1.0
              Increasing  this  makes  the player reluctant to make exposed sets. At 1.0, it will
              never claim (except possibly to go mah-jong). The default is 0.0.

       --majorness 0.0 .. 1.0
              Increasing this biases the player towards collecting major tiles. At 1.0,  it  will
              discard all minor tiles, if possible. The default is 0.0.

       --suitness 0.0 .. 1.0
              Increasing this makes the player try to go for one-suit hands. The default is 0.0

       In  practice,  the  --majorness  option seems not to be very useful, but the other options
       change the personality without completely destroying the playing ability.

       In fact, all these options take  a  comma-separated  list  of  values,  which  allows  the
       specifications of a set of strategies, which the player will switch between. In this case,
       the --hysteresis hhh option specifies how much better a strategy should be  to  switch  to
       it.  However,  use of this option, and multiple strategies, is probably only useful if you
       first read the code to see how it works.


       The main window contains a menu-bar and a table area; the table is in a tasteful shade  of
       dark  green.  The table displays a stylized version of the game: stylized in that there is
       no jazzy graphics or perspective, and the tiles are not intended to be  pictures  of  real
       objects,  and so on. Otherwise, the layout is as one would expect of a real game. However,
       the wall may or may not be displayed, depending on option settings and screen  size.  (See

       Specifically,  the four players are arranged around the four edges of the table, with "us"
       at the bottom. For each player, the concealed tiles are displayed nearest the edge of  the
       table; our own tiles are visible, the other players' tiles are face-down.  In front of the
       concealed tiles are (to the player's left) any declared sets, and (to the player's  right)
       flowers  and  seasons,  and  the tong box if the player is East. The tong box displays the
       wind of the round in a white circle. If necessary, the flowers and seasons  will  overflow
       into the concealed row.

       The discards are displayed face-up in the middle of the board: they are laid down in order
       by each player, in  the  natural  orientation.  TODO:  add  options  to  display  discards
       randomly,  or  face-down.  If animation (see --animate option) is not being used, then the
       most recent discard will be highlighted in red.

       The name of a face-up tile can be displayed by right-clicking in the tile.  Alternatively,
       the  Tiletips  display  option  can  be set, in which case the name of a tile is displayed
       whenever the mouse enters it.

       Our tiles are displayed in sorted order, which happens to  be  Bamboos  (1-9),  Characters
       (1-9),  Circles  (1-9), Winds (ESWN), Dragons (RWG), Flowers, Seasons. We can also arrange
       the tiles ourselves - see the "Sort tiles in hand" display preference described below.

       Actions are generally carried out by clicking a button in a dialog box that appears in the
       middle  of  the  board.  For  many actions, a tile must be selected. A tile is selected or
       unselected by single-clicking it; when selected, it appears as a  depressed  button.   The
       program will generally pre-select a sensible tile: specifically:
       during the initial declaration of special tiles, the rightmost special is selected;
       after we draw a tile from the wall, the drawn tile is selected;
       when declaring concealed sets after going Mah Jong, the first undeclared tile is selected.

       To describe the possible actions, let us run through the course of a game.

       First  select  "New  local game..." from the "Game" menu. A panel will appear. The default
       options are to play a game against the computer, so click "Start Game".  After a second or
       two,  a  game will start. (NOTE: this assumes correct installation. If this fails, start a
       server and players manually, and use the "Join server..." menu item.)

       The first thing that happens is a dialog box "Ready to start next hand".  The server  will
       not  start  playing  a hand until all players have indicated their willingness to continue

       Next, the tiles are dealt. Then each player in turn is expected  to  declare  flowers  and
       seasons. When it is our turn, a dialog will appear with the following buttons:

              declare  the  selected  flower  or  season.  (Note:  the  program  auto-selects the
              rightmost special tile.)  If no tile is selected, this finishes declarations.  This
              button will not appear if the game is being played without flowers and seasons.

       Kong   If we have a concealed kong, we can declare it now with this button.

       Finish Finish declaring specials and kongs.

       When  all players have finished declaring specials and kongs, a dialog box appears, asking
       (on East's behalf) permission to continue.

       During play, when we draw a tile from the wall, it will be auto-selected. We may  also  of
       course   select  a  different  tile.   A  dialog  will  appear  giving  us  the  following

              discard the selected tile. This button also serves to declare a flower  or  season,
              and the label changes to "Declare" when one is selected.

              discard  the  selected  tile and declare a calling hand.  This button is only shown
              when calling is allowed (by default, only Original Call is allowed).

       Kong   declare a concealed kong of the selected tile, or  add  the  selected  tile  to  an
              exposed  pung,  as  appropriate.  Note: In most rules, a concealed kong can only be
              declared (or a tile added to an existing pung) immediately after drawing  from  the
              wall,  but  not after claiming somebody else's discard. Up to and including version
              1.10, the server enforced this rule strictly. As from version  1.11,  it  allows  a
              tile  to  be  added  to  a  pung  that  you  have  just claimed: in real life, this
              corresponds to correcting your Pung! claim to a Kong! claim, which  is  allowed  by
              all  rules.  (Obscure  note:  if  you  are  playing  the  KongHas3Types option, the
              resulting kong will be counted as annexed, instead of the exposed kong  that  would
              have  resulted  from  a  genuine  change of claim. This is a bug, but not worth the
              trouble of fixing.)

       Mah Jong!
              declare Mah Jong! (no selection needed)

       If the wall is not being shown, the dialog will note the number of tiles left in the  live

       A tile can also be discarded simply by double-clicking it.

       When another player discards, a dialog appears to allow us to claim it. If the dialogs are
       in the middle of the table, the dialog displays the tile in a position and orientation  to
       indicate  the player who discarded; if the dialogs are at the bottom, this is not done, to
       save space.  In any case the dialog displays the name of the tile,  and  buttons  for  the
       possible claims.  If the wall is not being shown, the dialog will note the number of tiles
       left in the live wall.  There is also a `progress bar' which shows  how  time  is  running
       out.  The buttons use one variant of traditional English terminology, viz:

       No claim
              we  don't  claim this tile. If there is no timeout in operation, it is necessary to
              click this to indicate a "pass", and in any case it is desirable to speed up play.

       Chow   claim for a sequence.  If our claim is  successful  and  there  is  more  than  one
              possible sequence to be made, a dialog will appear asking us to specify which one.

       Pung   claim for a triplet.

       Kong   claim for quadruplet.

       Mah Jong!
              claim for Mah Jong.  If the claim succeeds, a dialog box will appear asking whether
              we want the tile for "Eyes", "Chow", "Pung", or a "Special Hand" (such as  Thirteen
              Unique  Wonders).   (The  term  "Eyes"  is  used  instead  of "Pair" so that in the
              keyboard accelerators, E can be used, leaving P for "Pung".)

       When a player (including us) claims, the word "Chow!" etc. will appear (in big letters  on
       a yellow background, by default) for a couple of seconds above the player's tiles.

       When  all  players  have  claimed,  or  timed out, the successful claim is implemented; no
       additional announcement is made of this.

       If a player adds a tile to an exposed pung, and that tile would give us Mah Jong,  then  a
       dialog box pops up to ask whether we wish to rob the kong.

       After somebody goes Mah Jong, we are asked to declare our concealed sets. A dialog appears
       with buttons for "Eyes", "Chow", "Pung". To declare a set, select a tile,  which  must  be
       the  first  tile in the set for a chow, and click the appropriate button. (If we are going
       Mah Jong, the first undeclared tile is auto-selected.) When finished, click "Finished"  to
       reveal  the  remaining  tiles to the other players.  If we are the winner, there will be a
       button for "Special Hand": this is used to declare hands of non-standard  shape,  such  as
       Thirteen  Unique  Wonders.  (Note:  the Seven Pairs hand, if in use, should be declared by
       means of the "Eyes" button, not the "Special Hand" button.)

       At this point, a new top-level window appears to  display  the  scoring  information.  The
       scoring  is  done  entirely  by  the  server,  not by the players; the server sends a text
       description of the score calculation, and this is displayed for each player in the Scoring
       window.   The  information  in  the  Scoring  window  remains there until the next hand is
       scored; the window can be brought up at any time via the "Show" menu.

       Finally, the "continue with next hand" dialog appears. The hand just completed will remain
       visible on the table until the next hand starts.

       Keyboard Accelerators
       There  are  keyboard accelerators for all the actions in the course of play. For selecting
       tiles, the Left and Right arrow keys can be used to move the selection left or right along
       the row of tiles. In all dialogs, Space or Return will activate the shadowed button, which
       is usually the commonest  choice.  Each  button  can  also  be  activated  by  typing  the
       underlined  letter.  (In  the  Windows  GTK1  build, use l (ell) and r instead of Left and
       Right. The button accelerators do not work, for reasons unknown to me.)
       The menus are also accessible via accelerators. To open a menu,  press  Meta-X  (Alt-X  on
       Windows),  where  X  is  the  underlined  letter  in  the  menu  name.  (Meta-X  is  often
       (confusingly) Alt-X on Linux systems.)  Then each entry has an underlined letter which  if
       pressed will activate it.

       An  additional top-level window showing the state of the game can be obtained by selecting
       "Game info" from the "Show" menu.

       There is also a facility for sending text messages to the other players. Select "Messages"
       from  the  "Show"  menu, and a window will appear: in the top is a display of all messages
       sent, and below is a single line in which you can enter your message. It will be sent when
       you  hit  Return. The message window pops up automatically whenever a message is received,
       unless prevented by a display preference. If the "Display  status  and  messages  in  main
       window"  display  option  is set, then this window will instead appear in the main window,
       above the table. In that case, there is a checkbox "Keep cursor here" next to the  message
       entry  line.  Checking  this  box will ensure that the keyboard focus stays in the message
       entry field, even when you click on buttons in the game. (Consequently, you will be unable
       to use keyboard accelerators while this option is checked.)

   Starting games and re-connecting
       The  "Game"  menu  has  the  "New  local  game..."  item to start a new game on your local
       computer, and the "Join server..." item to connect to an existing game.  The  dialogs  for
       both these have the following entries:

       Checkboxes for Internet/Unix server
              These  specify  whether  the  server  is  listening on an Internet socket or a Unix
              socket. If an Internet (TCP) socket, the host name ("Join Game..." only)  and  port
              number  should be entered in the appropriate boxes; if a Unix socket, the file name
              of the socket should be entered.  These fields are remembered from game to game.

       "Player ID" and "Name" fields
              The "Player ID" should be left at 0, unless reconnecting to an  existing  game,  in
              which  case  it should be the ID assigned by the server on first connecting to that
              game. The "Name" field can be anything. When reconnecting to an existing  game,  if
              the ID is given as 0, the server will try to use the "Name" to identify the player.
              (This may not be true in future.) The "Name" field is remembered from game to game.

       The "Join  server..."  dialog  then  simply  has  a  "Connect"  button  to  establish  the
       connection. The "New local game..." has the following fields:

       For each of three further players,
              A  checkbox  to  say  whether to start a computer player. (Some of) these should be
              unchecked if you wish other humans to join the games.  If checked, there is a  text
              entry  to  set  the  players' names, and a text entry field in which options can be
              given to the players; the latter should only be used if you understand the options!

       An "allow disconnection" checkbox
              If this is checked, the server that is started will continue to run even if players
              disconnect.  If  it is not checked, the server will quit if any player disconnects.
              If you are playing  one  against  the  computer,  this  should  generally  be  left
              unchecked, in order to avoid server processes accidentally being left lying around.
              If playing against people, it should be checked, to allow players to go away, or to
              guard against network outages.

       As "save game state on exit" checkbox
              If this is checked, the server will save the game state (see below on on saving and
              resuming games) when a player disconnects and causes it to quit.

       A "seat players randomly" checkbox
              If this is left unchecked, players will be initially seated as East,  South,  West,
              North  in  order  of  connection. (We always connect first.)  If it is checked, the
              seating will be random.

       A numeric entry field
              to specify the time limit for claiming discards.  If set to 0,  there  will  be  no
              time limit.

       A button to start the game
              Note  that  it  takes  a  few seconds to start a game, during which time the dialog
              stays up with the button pressed. (TODO: fix this!)

   Saving and resuming games
       At any time during the play of a game, you can choose the "Save"  entry  from  the  "Game"
       menu.  This  causes  the  server to save the current state of the game in a file. The file
       will be named game-date.mjs by default; if a name has previously been specified, or if the
       game  was  resumed  from  a file, that name will be used. To specify a name, use the "Save
       as..." entry in the "Game" menu. Note that for security, directories cannot  be  specified
       (except  by  resuming a game), so the file will be created in the working directory of the

       To resume a saved game, use the "Resume game..." entry from the "Game" menu. This is  just
       like  the  "New  local game..." panel, but it has a box to specify the file containing the
       saved game. At present, you must type the name of the file into this box. TODO find a file
       selector widget for this.

   Setting display and game options
       The  "Options"  menu of xmj brings up panels to set various options related to the display
       and to the game rules.  Most of these options can be stored in the preferences file, which
       is  .xmjrc  in your home directory on Unix, and xmj.ini in your home (whatever that means)
       directory on Microsoft Windows.

   Display Options
       This panel controls options related to  the  local  display.   At  the  bottom  are  three
       buttons:  "Save & Apply" applies changes and saves them in the preferences file for future
       sessions; "Apply (no save)" applies any changes, but does not save them; "Cancel"  ignores
       changes.  Note that many display options can also be controlled by command-line arguments;
       if an option is specified both in the preferences  file  and  on  the  command  line,  the
       command line takes priority.

       Position of action dialogs.
              This  determines  where the dialogs for user actions in the game are popped up; see
              the description of the --dialogs-central etc.  options above. This option is stored
              in the preferences file as
              Display DialogPosition posn
              where posn is one of "central", "below" or "popup".

              determines  whether  tile  movements are animated (see the --animate option above).
              This option is stored in the preferences file as
              Display Animate bool
              where bool is "0" or "1".

       Display status and messages in main window
              puts the game status and message (chat) windows  in  the  main  window,  above  the
              table,  instead  of  having  separate  popup  windows. This option is stored in the
              preferences file as
              Display InfoInMain bool
              where bool is "0" or "1".

       Don't popup scoring/message windows
              will prevent the automatic popup of the scoring window at the end of  a  hand,  the
              message  window  on the arrival of a message, and the game status window at the end
              of the game. This option is stored in the preferences file as
              Display NoPopups bool
              where bool is "0" or "1".

       Tiletips always shown
              means that the name of a tile is displayed whenever the mouse enters  it,  and  the
              name  of  the selected tile is always shown. (Otherwise, right-click to display the
              name.) This option is stored in the preferences file as
              Display Tiletips bool
              where bool is "0" or "1".

       Display size
              This drop-down list specifies the size of the display. The size should  be  thought
              of  as  the  length  of a tile rack. This is only relevant if the wall is not being
              displayed. Values range from 14 to 19; if "(auto)" (the default) is specified,  the
              client  tries  to  choose a size as big as will fit in the display. This option can
              also be specified by the command line --size argument. This option is stored in the
              preferences file as
              Display Size n

       Show the wall
              "always"  is  equivalent  to  the  --show-wall option; "never" is equivalent to the
              --no-show-wall option; and "when room" is the default. This option is stored in the
              preferences file as
              Display ShowWall when
              where when is one of "always", "when-room" or "never".

       Sort tiles in hand
              By default, the program maintains your own tiles in sorted order.  If you prefer to
              leave them unsorted (which is often recommended  in  real  life,  to  avoid  giving
              information  to  your  opponents),  or  to  arrange them yourself, you can set this
              option to "never", or to "on deal" if you want them to be sorted at the  beginning,
              but  then  left alone. To rearrange tiles, use the Shift-Left and Shift-Right (i.e.
              the left and right arrow keys while holding Shift) - these move the  selected  tile
              left  or  right  in  your  hand.  (In the Windows GTK1 build, use L (Shift-l) and R
              (Shift-r) instead.) On GTK2 builds, you can also drag a tile to  its  new  position
              with the mouse.  This option is stored in the preferences file as
              Display SortTiles when
              where when is one of "always", "deal" or "never".

       Iconify all windows with main
              If  this  option  is set (the default), then when the main xmj window is iconified,
              (almost) all other open windows such as dialogs will also be  iconified;  when  the
              main  window  is  uniconified, the other windows will also be uniconified. If it is
              not set, all windows are independent of one another. This option is stored  in  the
              preferences file as
              Display IconifyDialogs bool
              This option is not currently supported under Microsoft Windows.

              this  is the tile pixmap directory, also given by the --tileset option. This option
              is stored in the preferences file as
              Display Tileset dirname

       Tileset Path
              this is the search path for tileset directories, also given by  the  --tileset-path
              option. This option is stored in the preferences file as
              Display TilesetPath search-path

       Main font selection...
              This  button  brings up a font selection dialog to choose the font used in buttons,
              menus, etc. in the client. This option is stored in the preferences file as
              Display MainFont font-name
              where font-name is a font name, which may be an X LFD in the Unix GTK+1 version, or
              a Pango font name in the Windows and Unix GTK+2 versions.

       Text font selection...
              This  button  brings  up  a  font  selection dialog to choose the font used in text
              display (such as scoring info and chat) in the client. This option is stored in the
              preferences file as
              Display TextFont font-name

       Table colour selection...
              Unaccountably,  not  everybody  likes  my  choice  of  dark  green  for  the  table
              background. This button brings up a colour selection box to allow the table  colour
              to be changed.This option is stored in the preferences file as
              Display TableColour col
              where col is a GTK colour specification. The format depends on whether xmj is built
              with GTK+1 - in which case it is an X color of the  form  rgb:RRRR/GGGG/BBBB  -  or
              GTK+2  - in which case it is a GTK2 color of the form #RRRRGGGGBBBB. GTK+2 programs
              will convert an old GTK1 specification.

       Gtk2 Rcfile:
              In the GTK+2 build, xmj by default ignores completely the system and user  settings
              for  look  and  feel,  and  uses its own built in settings.  These settings use the
              Clearlooks theme, if it is available, to provide  a  simple  but  clean  look  with
              slightly rounded tiles; and fall back to a plain theme, as compact as possible with
              the standard engine. If you wish, you can use this option to specify the name of  a
              GTK  rcfile  which will be read instead of the built in settings.  A minimal set of
              settings will be read before your file is read.   Such  a  file  can  specify  many
              details  of  the  appearance, provided that you know how to write a GTK rcfile. You
              will need to know that xmj uses the following styles and bindings:
              gtk-font-name = fontname
              can be used to change the overall font used by widgets. This will overridden by the
              font specified by the Main Font option, if set.
              style "table"
              is  used  to  give the green (or whatever you set) colour to the table. All widgets
              that should have this style are named "table", so the appropriate binding  (already
              set in the minimal set) is
                   widget "*.table" style "table"
              style "playerlabel"
              is used to give the white text colour to the player status labels in the corners of
              the  board  (if  shown).  All  widgets  that  should  have  this  style  are  named
              "playerlabel", so the appropriate binding (already set in the minimal set) is
                   widget "*.playerlabel" style "playerlabel"
              style "tile"
              is  used  in the default settings for all widgets named "tile", which are all tiles
              except the tiles in your own concealed hand. This style is not used in the  minimal
              settings, but if set it should be bound with
                   widget "*.tile" style "tile"
              style "mytile"
              is  used  in  the  default settings for the concealed tiles in your hand, which are
              active buttons. These tiles are all named "mytile". This style is not used  in  the
              minimal settings, but if set it should be bound with
                   widget "*.mytile" style "mytile"
              style "claim"
              is  used  to  set  the  yellow  background and large font of the claim announcement
              popups. These popups are named "claim", so the appropriate binding (already set  in
              the minimal set) is
                   widget "*.claim" style "claim"
              style "text"
              is  used  to  change  the font for the text widgets such as message boxes and input
              fields. In the minimal settings, it is empty, but  is  defined  and  bound  to  the
              relevant  widgets.  The  binding should not be changed, but the style itself can be
              redefined. If the Text Font option is set, this style will be redefined in order to
              implement it.
              binding "topwindow"
              is  defined  and bound to the top-level window to implement the use of the left and
              right arrow keys to change the selected tile. It is probably not helpful to  change
              The  distribution  contains three example gtkrc files, called gtkrc-minimal, gtkrc-
              plain, and gtkrc-clearlooks, which contain the program's compiled in settings.
              This option is stored in the preferences files as
              Display Gtk2Rcfile file-name
              Note that if the file-name is relative, it will  be  interpreted  relative  to  the
              current directory in Unix, or the program directory in Windows.

       Use system gtkrc
              As  noted above, xmj does not normally load the system settings in the GTK+2 build.
              If this option is checked, it will (after the  minimal  settings,  but  before  the
              default  or  user-specified  settings).   This  option is stored in the preferences
              files as
              Display UseSystemGtkrc bool
              where bool is 0 or 1.

       Note for GTK+1 builds
              Under a GTK+1 build, xmj does what any other application does.  This  should  allow
              the  use  of  a  .gtkrc file to change colours, using the styles and bindings given
              above. However, this is not a supported activity.

   Playing Preferences
       This panel controls what actions the client may take  on  your  behalf.   The  first  (and
       currently  only)  section specifies when the client should declare tiles and sets for you.
       It has the following checkboxes:

       flowers and seasons
              if checked, will be automatically declared as soon as drawn.

       losing hands
              if this is checked, then when somebody else goes out, the client will declare  your
              closed sets. It declares in the order pungs, pairs, chows.

       winning hands
              this is the same for when you go out.

       The  panel  has  "Save & Apply", "Apply (no save)" and "Cancel" buttons, as in the display
       options panel.

   Game Option Preferences
       This panel controls preferred game options which will be sent to the server  when  a  game
       starts.  Preferences  will  only be applied if we are the game manager, or the game has no
       manager. (Normally, the first human player to connect  to  the  server  becomes  the  game
       For details of options and their meanings, see the Game Options section in the rules.
       The  panel has two action buttons, "Save Changes" and "Cancel", with the obvious meanings.
       Note if a game is in progress, changed preferences are NOT applied to it;  however,  there
       is a button in the Current Game Options panel to apply preferences.
       The  main  body  of  the panel is a scrollable window listing all the known options. If no
       preference is stored for the FooBar option, then there is an "Add pref" button next  to  a
       description  of  the  FooBar  option.  If this button is clicked, an entry for setting the
       option appears. The format of this entry depends on the type of the option (see  the  Game
       Options section of the rules for details of types):

       Boolean (on/off) options
              have a checkbox.

       Integer options
              have  a  spinbutton  for  numerical entry: the value can be typed in, or the up and
              down arrows can be used to change it

       Score options
              have radio buttons for selecting Limit, Half-Limit, or other; for other, the number
              of  doubles  and/or  points  is  entered  with  spinbuttons.  (Note: the underlying
              protocol allows percentages (possibly more than 100%) of limits to be specified for
              scores; however, the current graphical interfaces allow only limits or half-limits.
              Even half-limits are pretty strange, but some bizarre sets of rules, such as  those
              of  the  British Mah-Jong Association (which plays a weird American/Western/Chinese
              mix), allow other fractions of limits.)

       String options
              have a simple text entry field.

       All option entries have a "Reset" button which returns the entry to its previous state.
       A preference is removed by clicking the "Remove pref" button.

   Current Game Options
       When there is a connected game, this panel allows its game options to be modified  (if  we
       have permission to do so). The three action buttons are "Apply changes", which applies the
       panel's settings to the current game; "Apply prefs", which  applies  our  preferences  (as
       described above) to the current game; and "Cancel".
       The  body  of  the  panel contains entries for all the options of the current game, in the
       same format as the preferences panel (see above).


       The latest release of the Unix Mah-Jong programs should be available at


       The game currently implemented is a version  of  the  classical  Chinese  game.  The  most
       convenient  and  comprehensive  set  of  rules  is that provided by A. D. Millington, "The
       Complete Book of Mah-Jongg", Weidenfield & Nicolson (1993), ISBN 0 297 81340  4.   In  the
       following,  M 103 denotes item 103 of the rules laid out in Chapter 3 of that book. I here
       describe only the differences from these rules, some of which differences are consequences
       of  using  computers,  and  some  of  which  are  points  where my house rules differ from
       Millington's version. In due  course,  all  variations  (of  Chinese  classical)  will  be
       accommodated, if there is sufficient desire.

       Classification  of  tiles (M 1-8): the tiles are a standard Chinese set.  The tiles do not
       have Arabic numerals, except for the flowers and seasons, where  the  identifying  Chinese
       characters are too small to be legible. A numbered set is included in the distribution and
       can be used via the Tileset display preference.
       The flowers and seasons may be removed from the tile set by  unsetting  the  Flowers  game

       Preliminary (M 9-10): nothing to say.

       Duration  of the game (M 11-14): standard rules. In particular, the title of East does not
       pass after a wash-out.

       Selection of seats (M 15): the players are seated in the order they connect to the server,
       or randomly, according to the option given to the server.

       The  deal  etc.  (M  16-27):  There  is no attempt to simulate the usual dealing ritual (M
       16-20, 23-26); the wall is built randomly by the server. The dead wall is also  maintained
       by the server.
       The  existence of a dead wall is controlled by the DeadWall game option; normally there is
       a dead wall.
       The deal wall is either 14 tiles and kept at 13 or 14 during play (as in most authors), or
       is 16 tiles, not extended during play (per Millington (M 22)), according to the DeadWall16
       game option.
       Replacement tiles for kongs are always taken from the loose tiles,  but  replacements  for
       bonus  tiles may be drawn from the live wall (M 31), or from the loose tiles, according to
       the FlowersLoose game option.

       Object of game (M 28-31): all winning hands must comprise four sets and a pair,  with  the
       exception  of  the  Thirteen Unique Wonders.  If the SevenPairs game option is set, then a
       hand of any seven pairs is also allowed as a winning hand.

       Bonus tiles (M 31): M requires that bonus tiles must be declared in the turn in which they
       are  drawn;  otherwise  the player may not exchange or score them (and thus they cannot go
       out). We do not make this restriction, as it is (a) pointless (b)  unenforceable  in  real
       life.  Bonus  tiles  may  be declared at any time after drawing from the wall. (Obviously,
       there is no reason not to declare them immediately.)

       Commencement of the Game (M 32-33): standard.

       Playing procedure (M 34-38): standard.  In particular, the  other  players  have  to  give
       permission for east to start playing (M 34).  The display of discards cannot be controlled
       by the server; the current X client displays them in an organized fashion, rather than the
       random layout required by M 35.

       Chow (M 39-42): standard.

       Pung (M 43-45): standard.

       Kongs  (M  46-52):  M distinguishes three types of kong: concealed, claimed (by Kong), and
       annexed (formed by adding a discard to an exposed pung), and allows claimed  kongs  to  be
       counted  as  concealed  for  the  purposes  of doubling combinations. I have not seen this
       anywhere else; normally, a claimed kong is treated as exposed for all purposes.  We follow
       the  normal convention; however, the game option KongHas3Types can be set to implement M's
       rules. In this case, the xmj program will distinguish claimed  kongs  by  displaying  them
       with the last tile face down, whereas annexed kongs are all face up.
       Players  may  declare a concealed kong, or add to a pung, only when they have just drawn a
       tile from the wall (live or  dead);  not  just  after  a  claiming  a  discard.  (A  silly
       restriction  in  my view, but one that all rule sets seem to have (M 51).) As from program
       version 1.11 (protocol version 1110), we also allow a player to add to a  pung  they  have
       just claimed (see note above in the description of play).

       Calling and Mah Jong (M 53-54): standard. (I.e. there is no "Calling" declaration.)

       NOTE:  M  permits players to change their mind about making a claim (M 69); we do not, and
       all claims are irrevocable. As a special concession, we allow adding  to  a  just  claimed
       pung, so simulating the effect of correcting a pung claim to a kong.

       Original  Call  (M 55): the Original Call declaration must be made simultaneously with the
       first discard, rather than afterwards.   NOTE:  the  server  does  *not*  check  that  the
       declarer  does indeed have a calling hand, as a mistaken original call does not damage the
       other players or the progress of the game. The server does,  however,  thereafter  prevent
       the  declarer  from  changing  their hand; therefore a mistaken original call will make it
       impossible to go out. (Note: in M, an Original Caller may  change  their  hand,  but  will
       thereby  lose  the  ability  to go out (M 55(b)); is this a better way to treat it?)  Note
       also: as per M, an original call can be made even if another player has claimed a  discard
       before, unlike the Japanese version.

       Robbing  a  Kong  (M  57-60): Robbing a kong is implemented. However, as with discards, we
       require that kongs are robbed before anything else happens, and in particular  before  the
       konger  draws  a replacement tile.  Therefore, after a kong, all other players must either
       claim Mah Jong or pass. (The provided programs will pass automatically if robbing  is  not
       possible.) As for discards, there is a time limit.

       Precedence  of  claims  for discard (M 61-65): Many rules allow a discard to be claimed up
       until the time the next discard is made. M does this, with elaborate rules for the precise
       specification.  For ease of implementation, we do not allow this: instead, all players are
       required to make a claim or pass, and once all players have claimed, the successful  claim
       is  implemented  irrevocably.   The server imposes a time limit; players that do not claim
       within the limit are deemed to have passed. This  defaults  to  15  seconds,  but  can  be
       changed or disabled by the Timeout game option.

       Irregularities  in  Play  (M  66-81): the server does not permit unlawful moves, and so no
       irregularities can arise.

       False Declaration of Mah Jong (M 82-83):  such  declarations  are  not  permitted  by  the

       False Naming of Discards (M 84-88): this also cannot happen.

       Incorrect Hands (M 89): cannot happen.

       Letting  Off  a Cannon (M 90-96): as in M. However, if a player makes a dangerous discard,
       but has no choice, the server will determine this;  it  is  not  necessary  to  plead  "no
       choice" explicitly, and neither is the player's hand revealed to the other players.

       Wash-Out (M 97-99): standard.

       Points of Etiquette (M 100-102): not applicable.

       Displaying the Hand (M 103-106): The format of display is a matter for the client program,
       and cannot be controlled by the server.
       After Mah Jong, the players are responsible for declaring concealed sets in  whatever  way
       they  wish.  The winner, of course, is required to declare a complete hand; but the losers
       may declare as they wish.  Once a set is declared, it cannot be  revoked.  Note  that  the
       losers may declare multiple scoring pairs.

       Procedure in Settlement (M 107-111): The settlement is classical: that is, the winner gets
       the value of their hand from all players; the  losers  pay  one  another  the  differences
       between  their scores; except all payments to or from East are doubled; and if players let
       off a cannon, they pay everybody's debt.  Unlike normal play (M 110), all hands are scored
       by  the  server,  rather  than  by the players. Settlement is also computed by the server.
       Some variations in settlement are provided: if the LosersSettle  game  option  is  set  to
       false,  there  are  no  payments  between losers; if the EastDoubles game option is set to
       false, payments to or from East are not doubled; if the DiscDoubles game option is set  to
       true, then the discarder of the tile that gave Mah-Jong will pay double to the winner, and
       a self-draw is paid double by everybody.

       Method of Scoring (M 112-122): The method  is  standard  (M  112),  viz  calculate  points
       obtained from sets and bonuses, and then apply doubles.

       The following points are given for tiles:

       Bonus tiles:
              4 each (M 114(a))

       Pungs: 2  for exposed minor tiles; 4 for exposed major or concealed minor; 8 for concealed
              major. (M 114(b))

       Kongs: 8 for exposed minor; 16 for exposed major or  concealed  minor;  32  for  concealed
              major. (M 114(c))

       Chows: no score. (M 114(d))

       Pair:  2 for a pair of Dragons, Own Wind, or Prevailing Wind.  A pair that is both Own and
              Prevailing Wind scores 4. (M 114(e)) Non-winning hands  may  score  more  than  one

       Basic points:
              the  winner  gets  20  points  for  going  Mah  Jong.   This  can be changed by the
              MahJongScore game option (M 115(a) has 10 points).

       Seven Pairs hand:
              If Seven Pairs hands are allowed, they receive an additional score  of  20  points,
              changed by the SevenPairsVal game option.

       Winning from wall:
              if the final tile is drawn from the wall, 2 points are added (M 115(b)).

       Filling the only place:
              if  the  final  tile is the only denomination that could have completed the hand, 2
              points are added (M 115(c)).  NOTE: As in M, if all  four  copies  of  a  tile  are
              exposed on the table, it does not count as available for completing the hand.

       Fishing the eyes:
              a player who completes by obtaining a pair gets 2 points if the pair is minor, or 4
              if major (M 115(d)).  Note: to obtain these points for a discard, the  player  must
              actually claim the discard for a pair: e.g. if waiting on 5677, and 7 is discarded,
              the player must claim for the pair, not the chow.

       The following doubles apply to all  hands.   All  possible  clauses  apply  unless  stated

       Having own flower or own season.
              No extra score. Changed by the FlowersOwnEach game option.

       Having own flower AND own season,
              1 double. (M 116(a)). Changed by the FlowersOwnBoth game option.

       Having all four flowers,
              1 double. (M 116(b)). Changed by the FlowersBouquet game option.

       Having all four seasons,
              1 double. (M 116(b)). Changed by the FlowersBouquet game option.

       Each set of dragons,
              1 double. (M 116(d))

       A set of the player's own wind,
              1 double. (M 116(e))

       A set of the prevailing wind,
              1 double. (M 116(f))

       "Little Three Dragons": two sets and a pair of dragons.
              1 double. (M 116(g))

       "Big Three Dragons": three sets of dragons.
              2 doubles. (M 116(h))

       "Little Four Winds": three sets and a pair of winds.
              1 double. (M 116(i))

       "Big Four Winds": four sets of winds.
              2 doubles. (M 116(j))

              (Note: the definitions of these last four doubles when applied to non-winning hands
              are subject to wide variations. Possibly there should be  options  to  allow  other

       Three concealed pungs:
              1 double. (M 116(k)) (Note: if the KongHas3Types game option is set, a claimed kong
              counts as concealed for this hand; see the note above under "Kongs".)

       The following doubles apply to the winning hand only:

       No score hand: four chows and a non-scoring pair.
              1 double. (M 117(a)) (Note: like M, we allow any of the extra points  (Fishing  the
              Eyes,  etc) to go with this double. Some rules say that the extra points invalidate
              this hand. Possibly there should be an option for this.)

       No chows:
              1 double. (M 117(b))

       Concealed hand:
              1 double (M 117(c)), changeable with the ConcealedFully game  option.  (Note:  this
              means a hand that is fully concealed after going out. Another common value for this
              is 3 doubles, in which case 1 double is usually given  for  a  semi-concealed  hand
              (see  below).)   (Note:  if  the  KongHas3Types  game option is set, a claimed kong
              counts as concealed for this hand; see the note above under "Kongs".)

       The following doubles normally apply to the winning hand only; however,  the  LosersPurity
       game  option  can  be set to allow losing hands to score them (this is a highly deprecated
       American feature, but has been requested by a user).

       Semi-concealed hand:
              no doubles, changeable with the ConcealedAlmost game option. (Not in M) (Note: this
              means  a  winning  hand  that  is  concealed  up  to the point of going out, or, if
              enabled, a concealed losing hand. According to a discussion on, a
              winning semi-concealed hand is classically awarded one double (with three given for
              fully concealed).  One book in my possession  (U.S.A.,  early  1920s)  awards  this
              double  only  to  a  hand  that  is  concealed except for the pair.)  (Note: if the
              KongHas3Types game option is set, a claimed kong counts as concealed for this hand;
              see the note above under "Kongs".)

       One suit with honours:
              1 double. (M 117(d))

       One suit only:
              3 doubles. (M 117(e))

       All majors:
              1 double. (M 117(f))

       All honours (in an unlimited game):
              2  doubles.  (M  117(g))  (Note:  such  a  hand  will also score the double for all

       All terminals (in an unlimited game):
              2 doubles. (Not in M) (Note: such a  hand  will  also  score  the  double  for  all

       The following doubles apply only to the winning hand:

       Winning with loose tile:
              1 double. (M 117(h)) (Note: with the default settings, replacements for bonus tiles
              come from the live wall. Hence this double applies only to winning after Kong.)

       Winning from the bottom of the sea (winning with last tile),
              1 double. (M 117(i))

       Catching a fish from the bottom of the sea (winning with last discard),
              1 double. (M 117(j))

       Robbing a kong,
              1 double. (M 117(k))

       Completing Original Call,
              1 double. (M 117(l))

       Limit (M 118-120): the limit is 1000 by default, and can be changed by the ScoreLimit game
       option. The NoLimit game option can be used to play a game "with the roof off".

       The following hands are limit hands:

       Heaven's Blessing: East wins with dealt hand. (M 122(a))

       Earth's Blessing: player wins with East's first discard. (M 122(b))

       Gathering Plum Blossom from the Roof: winning with 5 Circles from the
              loose wall. (M 122(c))

       Catching the Moon from the Bottom of the Sea: winning with 1 Circle as
              the  last tile. (M 122(d)) (Note: M says that the tile must be drawn. It seems more
              reasonable also to allow  it  to  be  the  last  discard,  which  is  what  we  do.

       Scratching a Carrying Pole: robbing a kong of 2 Bamboos. (M 122(e))

       (Note: these last three limits are rather arbitrary, but of the
              arbitrary  limits  they  are apparently the most common. There should be options to
              disable them.)

       Kong upon Kong: making a Kong, making another Kong with the loose
              tile, and with the second loose tile obtaining Mah Jong.  (Also,  of  course,  with
              three or four successive kongs.) (M 122(f))

       Four Kongs. (M 122(g))

       Buried Treasure: all concealed and no chows. (M 122(h))

       The Three Great Scholars: three sets of dragons and no chows. (M 122(i))
              (Note:  in most rules I have seen, there is no restriction to a no chow hand. Since
              in M's rules, three sets and a chow scores at least (10 (M has 10 for Mah  Jong)  +
              12  (at  least 3 pungs)) times 8 (2 for each set of dragons) times 4 (for Big Three
              Dragons) = 704, this is significant with the default limit. For  us,  with  20  for
              going out, Big Three Dragons is over the default limit anyway.)

       Four Blessings o'er the Door: four sets of winds and a pair. (M 122(j))

       All Honours. (M 122(k))

       Heads and Tails: all terminals. (M 122(l))

       Imperial Jade: contains only Green Dragon and 2,3,4,6,8 Bamboo. (M 122(m))
              (Note: another rather arbitrary hand, but widely adopted.)

       Nine Gates: calling on 1-1-1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-9-9 of one suit. (M 122(n)).

       Wriggling Snake: 1-1-1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-9-9 plus 2, 5 or 8 of
              one suit (M 122(o)).  (Note: another rather arbitrary hand.)

       Concealed Clear Suit: one suit only and all concealed. (M 122(p))

       Thirteen Unique Wonders: one of each major tile, and a match to any of
              them. (M 122(q))

       East's 13th consecutive Mah-Jong. (M 122(r))

       General  note:  there are many other doubles and limits kicking around. I welcome opinions
       on which should be possible options; and also on which of the above I  should  eject  from
       the  default  set.   I dislike Imperial Jade, Wriggling Snake, and the ones depending on a
       specific tile (Gathering Plum Blossom, Catching the Moon,  Scratching  a  Carrying  Pole):
       which  of  these  are  so commonly adopted that they should be in even a fairly minimalist
       default set?


       This section describes the options that can be set in the game. Whether an option  can  be
       used,  depends  on  the  version of the programs. This is described by a "protocol version
       number"; this is not strictly speaking a version just of the communication protocol, but a
       version  number  reflecting  the  combination  of  protocol  and programs. When playing by
       oneself, this does not matter, but in the case of a networked  game,  players  might  have
       different  versions  of  the  software,  in which case the game is played according to the
       lowest version of any player.

       Game options can be controlled in two ways: the --option-file argument  to  the  mj-server
       program  gives  options  to  be applied to the game, or options can be set by the players,
       using the interface described in the manual section for xmj.

       In the user interface, the options are referred to by a one  line  description,  but  each
       option also has a short name, given here.

       Options are of several types:

       bool   boolean, or on/off, options.

       int    integer options

       nat    non-negative integer options

       string is  a  miscellaneous type, whose values are strings of at most 127 characters which
              must not contain white space

       score  is the type used for options that give the score of some combination or feature  in
              a  hand.  A  score  is  either  a  limit  (or a half-limit; the underlying protocol
              supports percentages of limits, but the current user programs only  support  limits
              and half limits); or a number of doubles to be awarded; or a number of points to be
              added. It is possible (though never needed) to have both  points  and  doubles.  If
              points/doubles  are  specified  as well as a limit, they will be used in a no-limit
              game. (The server implements a hard limit of  100000000  on  all  scores  to  avoid
              arithmetic overflow, but that's unlikely to worry anybody.)

   Currently supported options
       The  following  options  are  implemented  in  the versions of the program with which this
       document is distributed. If playing against people with older versions  of  the  software,
       some  options  may  not be available. The list gives for each option the short name, type,
       and short description, followed by a detailed explanation.

       Timeout (nat) time limit for claims
              This is the time in seconds allowed to claim a discard, or to rob a kong. If set to
              zero, there is no timeout. The default is 15 seconds.

       TimeoutGrace (nat) grace period when clients handle timeouts
              This  period  (in seconds) is added to the Timeout above before the server actually
              forces a timeout. This is for when clients handle timeouts locally, and allows  for
              network  lags. If this option is zero, clients are not permitted to handle timeouts
              locally. The current server also only allows players to handle timeouts locally  if
              all of them wish to do so.

       ScoreLimit (nat) limit on hand score
              This  is  the limit for the score of a hand. In a no-limit game, it is the notional
              value of a "limit" hand. The default is 1000.

       NoLimit (bool) no-limit game
              If this option is set, the game has no limit on hand scores. The default is unset.

       MahJongScore (score) base score for going out
              This is the number of points for obtaining Mah-Jong.  The default is 20.

       SevenPairs (bool) seven pairs hand allowed
              If this option is set, then Mah-Jong hands of seven pairs  (any  seven  pairs)  are
              allowed. The default is unset.

       SevenPairsVal (score) score for a seven pair hand
              This  gives  the  score  (in addition to the base Mah-Jong score) for a seven pairs
              hand. The default is 20.

       Flowers (bool) play using flowers and seasons
              If this option is set, the deal includes four  flowers  and  four  seasons  in  the
              Chinese  Classical  style.  If  unset,  only  the  136 standard tiles are used. The
              default is set.

       FlowersLoose (bool) flowers replaced by loose tiles
              If playing with flowers, this option determines whether  flowers  and  seasons  are
              replaced from the live wall (unset), or by loose tiles (set). The default is unset.

       FlowersOwnEach (score) score for each own flower or season
              This  option  gives  the  score  for having one's own flower or season.  If one has
              both, this score will be given twice. The default is no score.

       FlowersOwnBoth (score) score for own flower and own season
              This is the score for having both one's own flower and one's own season. Note  that
              this is awarded in addition to twice the previous score. The default is 1 double.

       FlowersBouquet (score) score for all four flowers or all four seasons
              This  is the score for having all four flowers or all four seasons.  The default is
              1 double.

       DeadWall (bool) there is a dead wall
              This determines whether there is a dead wall, so that play ends when it is  reached
              (set), or whether all tiles may be drawn (unset).  The default is set.

       DeadWall16 (bool) dead wall is 16 tiles, unreplenished
              If this option is set, then the dead wall initially has 16 tiles, and does not have
              any more tiles added to it (this is the set-up described  by  Millington).  If  the
              option  is  unset,  then the dead wall initially  has 14 tiles, and after two loose
              tiles have been taken, two tiles are moved from the live  wall  to  the  dead  wall
              (this  is  the  set-up  described by almost everyone else). The default is unset in
              versions 1.1 onwards, and set  previously.  (To  be  precise,  the  protocol  level
              default is set, but all servers from 1.1 onwards will change this to unset.)

       ConcealedFully (score) score for fully concealed hand
              This is the score for a winning hand with no open sets.  The default is 1 double.

       ConcealedAlmost (score) score for almost concealed hand
              This  is  the score for a hand that is concealed up to the point of going out.  The
              default is no additional score.

       LosersPurity (bool) losing hands score doubles for pure, concealed etc.
              If this option is set, losing hands will score various doubles for one suit, almost
              concealed,  etc.  See  the rules for details. This option is an (Anglo-)Americanism
              alien to Chinese Classical (see Foster for a spirited but faulty  argument  in  its
              favour, and Millington for the rejoinder).  The default is unset.

       KongHas3Types (bool) claimed kongs count as concealed for doubling
              If  this  option  is  set,  claimed  kongs  count as concealed for various doubling
              combinations, although they score as exposed for basic points. See the  note  above
              under "Kongs".  The default is unset.

       LosersSettle (bool) losers pay each other
              If  this  option  is  set,  the  losers pay each other the difference between their
              scores. If it unset, they pay only the winner.  The default is set.

       EastDoubles (bool) east pays and receives double
              If this option is set, payments to and from  East  Wind  are  doubled,  as  in  the
              Chinese Classical game.  The default is set.

       DiscDoubles (bool) the discarder pays double
              If  this  option  is  set, the settlement procedure is changed to a style common in
              Singapore. That is, if the winning player wins off a discard,  the  discarder  pays
              double the hand value, and the other players pay the hand value. If the winner wins
              from the wall, then all other players pay double the hand value.   The  default  is
              unset.   Note:  EastDoubles  and  DiscDoubles can be set together, but nobody plays
              such a rule.

       ShowOnWashout (bool) reveal tiles on washout
              If this option is set, the players' hands will  be  revealed  in  the  event  of  a

       NumRounds (nat) number of rounds to play
              This  option  says  how many rounds to play in the game. For aesthetic reasons, the
              possible values are 1, 2, or a multiple of 4. In the 2 round  case,  the  East  and
              South rounds will be played. It defaults to the usual 4 rounds.

   Option file format
       Both in the option file and in the .xmjrc file, options are recorded in the format used by
       the server protocol. This is a line of the form

       GameOption 0 name type minprot enabled value desc

       The meanings of the elements are:

       GameOption 0
              identifies this as a game option line (the  0  is  an  irrelevant  field  from  the

       name   is the name of the option.

       type   is the type of the option.

              is  the  minimum  protocol  version with which the option can be used (which is not
              necessarily the version at which it was introduced).

              will always be 1.

       value  is the value: a decimal (signed) integer for nat and int; 0  or  1  for  bool;  the
              string  for  string; and for score, if the score is c centi-limits, d doubles and p
              points, the value is c*1000000 + d*10000 + p.

       desc   is a short description of the option, which is not required but is  usually  copied
              in from the server.