Provided by: flashrom_0.9.9~rc1+r1942-1_amd64 bug


       flashrom - detect, read, write, verify and erase flash chips


       flashrom [-h|-R|-L|-z|-p <programmername>[:<parameters>]
                      [-E|-r <file>|-w <file>|-v <file>] [-c <chipname>]
                      [-l <file> [-i <image>]] [-n] [-f]]
                [-V[V[V]]] [-o <logfile>]


       flashrom  is a utility for detecting, reading, writing, verifying and erasing flash chips.
       It's often used to flash BIOS/EFI/coreboot/firmware images  in-system  using  a  supported
       mainboard.  However,  it  also supports various external PCI/USB/parallel-port/serial-port
       based devices which can program flash chips, including some network cards (NICs), SATA/IDE
       controller    cards,    graphics    cards,   the   Bus   Pirate   device,   various   FTDI
       FT2232/FT4232H/FT232H based USB devices, and more.

       It supports a wide range of DIP32, PLCC32, DIP8, SO8/SOIC8, TSOP32,  TSOP40,  TSOP48,  and
       BGA chips, which use various protocols such as LPC, FWH, parallel flash, or SPI.


       IMPORTANT:  Please  note  that  the command line interface for flashrom will change before
       flashrom 1.0. Do not use flashrom in scripts or other  automated  tools  without  checking
       that your flashrom version won't interpret options in a different way.

       You can specify one of -h, -R, -L, -z, -E, -r, -w, -v or no operation.  If no operation is
       specified, flashrom will only probe for flash chips. It is recommended  that  if  you  try
       flashrom  the  first time on a system, you run it in probe-only mode and check the output.
       Also you are advised to make a backup of your current ROM contents with -r before you  try
       to  write  a  new  image.  All operations involving any chip access (probe/read/write/...)
       require the -p/--programmer option to be used (please see below).

       -r, --read <file>
              Read flash ROM contents and save them into the given <file>.  If the  file  already
              exists, it will be overwritten.

       -w, --write <file>
              Write  <file>  into  flash  ROM. This will first automatically erase the chip, then
              write to it.

              In the process the chip is also read several times. First an  in-memory  backup  is
              made for disaster recovery and to be able to skip regions that are already equal to
              the image file. This copy is updated along with the write  operation.  In  case  of
              erase  errors  it  is  even  re-read  completely. After writing has finished and if
              verification is enabled, the whole flash chip is read out  and  compared  with  the
              input image.

       -n, --noverify
              Skip  the  automatic  verification  of flash ROM contents after writing. Using this
              option is not recommended, you should only use it if you know what  you  are  doing
              and if you feel that the time for verification takes too long.

              Typical usage is: flashrom -p prog -n -w <file>

              This option is only useful in combination with --write.

       -v, --verify <file>
              Verify the flash ROM contents against the given <file>.

       -E, --erase
              Erase the flash ROM chip.

       -V, --verbose
              More verbose output. This option can be supplied multiple times (max. 3 times, i.e.
              -VVV) for even more debug output.

       -c, --chip <chipname>
              Probe only for the specified flash ROM chip. This option takes  the  chip  name  as
              printed  by  flashrom -L without the vendor name as parameter. Please note that the
              chip name is case sensitive.

       -f, --force
              Force one or more of the following actions:

              * Force chip read and pretend the chip is there.

              * Force chip access even if the chip is bigger than the maximum supported size  for
              the flash bus.

              * Force erase even if erase is known bad.

              * Force write even if write is known bad.

       -l, --layout <file>
              Read ROM layout from <file>.

              flashrom  supports ROM layouts. This allows you to flash certain parts of the flash
              chip only. A ROM layout file contains multiple lines with the following syntax:

                startaddr:endaddr imagename

              startaddr and endaddr are hexadecimal addresses within the  ROM  file  and  do  not
              refer  to  any  physical  address.  Please  note  that  using a 0x prefix for those
              hexadecimal numbers is not necessary, but you can't specify decimal/octal  numbers.
              imagename  is  an  arbitrary  name  for the region/image from  startaddr to endaddr
              (both addresses included).


                00000000:00008fff gfxrom
                00009000:0003ffff normal
                00040000:0007ffff fallback

              If you only want to update the image named normal in a  ROM  based  on  the  layout
              above, run

                flashrom -p prog --layout rom.layout --image normal -w some.rom

              To update only the images named normal and fallback, run:

                flashrom -p prog -l rom.layout -i normal -i fallback -w some.rom

              Overlapping sections are not supported.

       -i, --image <imagename>
              Only flash region/image <imagename> from flash layout.

       -L, --list-supported
              List  the  flash  chips,  chipsets, mainboards, and external programmers (including
              PCI, USB, parallel port, and serial port based devices) supported by flashrom.

              There are many unlisted boards which will work out  of  the  box,  without  special
              support in flashrom. Please let us know if you can verify that other boards work or
              do not work out of the box.

              IMPORTANT: For verification you have to test an ERASE and/or  WRITE  operation,  so
              make sure you only do that if you have proper means to recover from failure!

       -z, --list-supported-wiki
              Same  as  --list-supported, but outputs the supported hardware in MediaWiki syntax,
              so  that  it  can  be  easily  pasted  into  the  supported  hardware   wiki   page
              ⟨⟩.   Please  note  that MediaWiki output is
              not compiled in by default.

       -p, --programmer <name>[:parameter[,parameter[,parameter]]]
              Specify the programmer device. This is mandatory for all operations  involving  any
              chip access (probe/read/write/...). Currently supported are:

              * internal (default, for in-system flashing in the mainboard)

              * dummy (virtual programmer for testing flashrom)

              * nic3com (for flash ROMs on 3COM network cards)

              * nicrealtek (for flash ROMs on Realtek and SMC 1211 network cards)

              * nicnatsemi (for flash ROMs on National Semiconductor DP838* network cards)

              * nicintel (for parallel flash ROMs on Intel 10/100Mbit network cards)

              * gfxnvidia (for flash ROMs on NVIDIA graphics cards)

              * drkaiser (for flash ROMs on Dr. Kaiser PC-Waechter PCI cards)

              * satasii (for flash ROMs on Silicon Image SATA/IDE controllers)

              * satamv (for flash ROMs on Marvell SATA controllers)

              * atahpt (for flash ROMs on Highpoint ATA/RAID controllers)

              * atavia (for flash ROMs on VIA VT6421A SATA controllers)

              * atapromise (for flash ROMs on Promise PDC2026x ATA/RAID controllers)

              * it8212 (for flash ROMs on ITE IT8212F ATA/RAID controller)

              *  ft2232_spi (for SPI flash ROMs attached to an FT2232/FT4232H/FT232H family based
              USB SPI programmer), including the DLP  Design  DLP-USB1232H,  FTDI  FT2232H  Mini-
              Module,   FTDI  FT4232H  Mini-Module,  openbiosprog-spi,  Amontec  JTAGkey/JTAGkey-
              tiny/JTAGkey-2, Dangerous Prototypes Bus Blaster,  Olimex  ARM-USB-TINY/-H,  Olimex
              ARM-USB-OCD/-H,  TIAO/DIYGADGET  USB  Multi-Protocol  Adapter  (TUMPA), TUMPA Lite,
              GOEPEL PicoTAP and Google Servo v1/v2.

              * serprog (for flash ROMs attached to  a  programmer  speaking  serprog,  including
              Arduino-based  devices  as  well  as  various  programmers by Urja Rannikko, Juhana
              Helovuo, Stefan Tauner and others).

              * buspirate_spi (for SPI flash ROMs attached to a Bus Pirate)

              * dediprog (for SPI flash ROMs attached to a Dediprog SF100)

              * rayer_spi (for SPI flash ROMs attached to a parallel port by one of various cable

              *  pony_spi  (for  SPI  flash  ROMs  attached  to  a SI-Prog serial port bitbanging

              * nicintel_spi (for SPI flash ROMs on Intel Gigabit network cards)

              * ogp_spi (for SPI flash ROMs on Open Graphics Project graphics card)

              * linux_spi (for SPI flash ROMs accessible via /dev/spidevX.Y on Linux)

              * usbblaster_spi (for SPI flash ROMs attached to an Altera  USB-Blaster  compatible

              * nicintel_eeprom (for SPI EEPROMs on Intel Gigabit network cards)

              *  mstarddc_spi  (for  SPI  flash  ROMs  accessible  through  DDC in MSTAR-equipped

              * pickit2_spi (for SPI flash ROMs accessible via Microchip PICkit2)

              * ch341a_spi (for SPI flash ROMs attached to WCH CH341A)

              Some programmers have optional or  mandatory  parameters  which  are  described  in
              detail in the PROGRAMMER-SPECIFIC INFORMATION section. Support for some programmers
              can be disabled at compile time.  flashrom -h lists all supported programmers.

       -h, --help
              Show a help text and exit.

       -o, --output <logfile>
              Save the full debug log to <logfile>.  If the  file  already  exists,  it  will  be
              overwritten.  This is the recommended way to gather logs from flashrom because they
              will be verbose even if the on-screen messages are not verbose  and  don't  require
              output redirection.

       -R, --version
              Show version information and exit.


       Some  programmer  drivers accept further parameters to set programmer-specific parameters.
       These parameters are separated from the programmer name by a colon. While some programmers
       take  arguments  at  fixed positions, other programmers use a key/value interface in which
       the key and value is separated by an equal sign and different pairs  are  separated  by  a
       comma or a colon.

   internal programmer
       Board Enables

              Some  mainboards  require  to run mainboard specific code to enable flash erase and
              write support (and  probe  support  on  old  systems  with  parallel  flash).   The
              mainboard  brand  and  model (if it requires specific code) is usually autodetected
              using one of the following mechanisms: If your  system  is  running  coreboot,  the
              mainboard  type is determined from the coreboot table.  Otherwise, the mainboard is
              detected by examining the onboard PCI devices and possibly DMI info. If PCI and DMI
              do  not  contain  information  to  uniquely  identify  the  mainboard (which is the
              exception), or if you want to  override  the  detected  mainboard  model,  you  can
              specify the mainboard using the

                flashrom -p internal:mainboard=<vendor>:<board> syntax.

              See  the  'Known  boards' or 'Known laptops' section in the output of 'flashrom -L'
              for a list of boards which require the specification  of  the  board  name,  if  no
              coreboot table is found.

              Some  of  these  board-specific  flash enabling functions (called board enables) in
              flashrom have not yet been  tested.  If  your  mainboard  is  detected  needing  an
              untested  board  enable function, a warning message is printed and the board enable
              is not executed, because a wrong board enable function might cause  the  system  to
              behave  erratically,  as  board enable functions touch the low-level internals of a
              mainboard. Not executing a board enable function (if one  is  needed)  might  cause
              detection  or  erasing  failure.  If  your  board  protects  only part of the flash
              (commonly the top end, called boot block), flashrom might encounter an  error  only
              after  erasing  the  unprotected part, so running without the board-enable function
              might be dangerous for erase and write (which includes erase).

              The suggested procedure for a mainboard with untested board  specific  code  is  to
              first  try  to  probe  the ROM (just invoke flashrom and check that it detects your
              flash chip  type)  without  running  the  board  enable  code  (i.e.   without  any
              parameters).  If  it finds your chip, fine. Otherwise, retry probing your chip with
              the board-enable code running, using

                flashrom -p internal:boardenable=force

              If your chip is still not detected, the board enable code seems to be broken or the
              flash  chip  unsupported.  Otherwise,  make  a  backup of your current ROM contents
              (using -r) and store it to a medium outside of your computer, like a USB drive or a
              network  share. If you needed to run the board enable code already for probing, use
              it for reading too.  If reading succeeds and the contens  of  the  read  file  look
              legit  you can try to write the new image.  You should enable the board enable code
              in any case now, as it has been written because it is  known  that  writing/erasing
              without the board enable is going to fail. In any case (success or failure), please
              report to the flashrom mailing list, see below.


              On systems running coreboot, flashrom checks whether the desired image matches your
              mainboard.  This  needs  some  special  board  ID  to  be present in the image.  If
              flashrom detects that the image you want to write and  the  current  board  do  not
              match, it will refuse to write the image unless you specify

                flashrom -p internal:boardmismatch=force

       ITE IT87 Super I/O

              If  your  mainboard  is  manufactured  by GIGABYTE and supports DualBIOS it is very
              likely that it uses an ITE IT87 series Super I/O to switch between  the  two  flash
              chips. Only one of them can be accessed at a time and you can manually select which
              one to use with the

                flashrom -p internal:dualbiosindex=chip

              syntax where chip is the index of the chip to use (0 = main, 1 = backup).  You  can
              check which one is currently selected by leaving out the chip parameter.

              If  your  mainboard  uses  an  ITE  IT87  series  Super I/O for LPC<->SPI flash bus
              translation, flashrom should autodetect that configuration. If you want to set  the
              I/O base port of the IT87 series SPI controller manually instead of using the value
              provided by the BIOS, use the

                flashrom -p internal:it87spiport=portnum

              syntax where portnum is the I/O port number (must be  a  multiple  of  8).  In  the
              unlikely  case flashrom doesn't detect an active IT87 LPC<->SPI bridge, please send
              a bug report so we can diagnose the problem.

       AMD chipsets

              Beginning with the SB700 chipset there is an integrated microcontroller (IMC) based
              on  the  8051  embedded  in every AMD southbridge. Its firmware resides in the same
              flash chip as the host's which makes writing to the  flash  risky  if  the  IMC  is
              active.  Flashrom  tries  to temporarily disable the IMC but even then changing the
              contents of the flash can have unwanted effects: when the  IMC  continues  (at  the
              latest  after a reboot) it will continue executing code from the flash. If the code
              was removed or changed in an unfortunate way it is unpredictable what the IMC  will
              do.  Therefore,  if  flashrom  detects  an active IMC it will disable write support
              unless the user forces it with the

                flashrom -p internal:amd_imc_force=yes

              syntax. The user is responsible for supplying a suitable image or leaving  out  the
              IMC  region with the help of a layout file. This limitation might be removed in the
              future when we understand the details better and have received enough feedback from
              users. Please report the outcome if you had to use this option to write a chip.

              An  optional  spispeed  parameter  specifies  the  frequency  of  the SPI bus where
              applicable (i.e. SB600 or later with an SPI flash chip  directly  attached  to  the
              chipset).  Syntax is

                flashrom -p internal:spispeed=frequency

              where  frequency  can  be  '16.5 MHz',  '22 MHz', '33 MHz', '66 MHz', '100 MHZ', or
              '800 kHz'.  Support of individual frequencies depends  on  the  generation  of  the

              * SB6xx, SB7xx, SP5xxx: from 16.5 MHz up to and including 33 MHz

              * SB8xx, SB9xx, Hudson: from 16.5 MHz up to and including 66 MHz

              * Yangtze (with SPI 100 engine as found in Kabini and Tamesh): all of them

              The default is to use 16.5 MHz and disable Fast Reads.

       Intel chipsets

              If  you  have  an  Intel  chipset  with an ICH8 or later southbridge with SPI flash
              attached, and if a valid descriptor was written to it (e.g.  by  the  vendor),  the
              chipset  provides  an  alternative  way  to access the flash chip(s) named Hardware
              Sequencing.  It is much simpler than the  normal  access  method  (called  Software
              Sequencing), but does not allow the software to choose the SPI commands to be sent.
              You can use the

                flashrom -p internal:ich_spi_mode=value

              syntax where value can be auto, swseq  or  hwseq.   By  default  (or  when  setting
              ich_spi_mode=auto)  the  module tries to use swseq and only activates hwseq if need
              be (e.g. if important opcodes are inaccessible due to lockdown; or if more than one
              flash  chip  is  attached).  The other options (swseq, hwseq) select the respective
              mode (if possible).

              ICH8 and later southbridges may also have locked address ranges of different  kinds
              if  a  valid  descriptor  was  written  to  it.  The  flash  address  space is then
              partitioned in multiple so called "Flash Regions" containing the host firmware, the
              ME  firmware  and so on respectively. The flash descriptor can also specify up to 5
              so called "Protected Regions", which are freely chosen address  ranges  independent
              from  the  aforementioned  "Flash  Regions".  All  of them can be write and/or read
              protected individually. If flashrom detects such  a  lock  it  will  disable  write
              support unless the user forces it with the

                flashrom -p internal:ich_spi_force=yes

              syntax.  If  this  leads  to  erase  or  write  accesses to the flash it would most
              probably bring it into an inconsistent and unbootable state and we will not provide
              any support in such a case.

              If  you  have an Intel chipset with an ICH2 or later southbridge and if you want to
              set specific IDSEL values for a non-default flash chip or  an  embedded  controller
              (EC), you can use the

                flashrom -p internal:fwh_idsel=value

              syntax  where  value is the 48-bit hexadecimal raw value to be written in the IDSEL
              registers of the Intel southbridge. The upper 32 bits use one hex  digit  each  per
              512  kB  range between 0xffc00000 and 0xffffffff, and the lower 16 bits use one hex
              digit each per 1024 kB range between 0xff400000 and 0xff7fffff.  The rightmost  hex
              digit  corresponds  with  the  lowest  address  range.  All  address  ranges have a
              corresponding sister range 4 MB below with identical IDSEL  settings.  The  default
              value for ICH7 is given in the example below.

              Example: flashrom -p internal:fwh_idsel=0x001122334567


              Using  flashrom  on laptops is dangerous and may easily make your hardware unusable
              (see also the BUGS section). The embedded controller (EC) in these  machines  often
              interacts    badly    with   flashing.    More   information   is   in   the   wiki
              ⟨⟩.  For example the EC firmware sometimes  resides  on
              the  same  flash  chip  as  the  host  firmware. While flashrom tries to change the
              contents of that memory the EC might need to fetch new instructions or data from it
              and  could  stop  working correctly. Probing for and reading from the chip may also
              irritate your EC and cause fan failure, backlight  failure,  sudden  poweroff,  and
              other  nasty  effects. flashrom will attempt to detect if it is running on a laptop
              and abort immediately for safety reasons if it clearly identifies the host computer
              as one. If you want to proceed anyway at your own risk, use

                flashrom -p internal:laptop=force_I_want_a_brick

              We  will  not  help  you if you force flashing on a laptop because this is a really
              dumb idea.

              You have been warned.

              Currently we rely on the chassis type encoded in  the  DMI/SMBIOS  data  to  detect
              laptops. Some vendors did not implement those bits correctly or set them to generic
              and/or dummy values. flashrom will then issue a warning and bail out like above. In
              this case you can use

                flashrom -p internal:laptop=this_is_not_a_laptop

              to tell flashrom (at your own risk) that it is not running on a laptop.

   dummy programmer
              The  dummy  programmer  operates on a buffer in memory only. It provides a safe and
              fast way to test various aspects of flashrom and is mainly used in development  and
              while  debugging.   It  is  able  to  emulate some chips to a certain degree (basic
              identify/read/erase/write operations work).

              An optional parameter specifies the bus types it should support. For that you  have
              to use the

                flashrom -p dummy:bus=[type[+type[+type]]]

              syntax  where  type can be parallel, lpc, fwh, spi in any order. If you specify bus
              without type, all buses will be disabled.  If you do not  specify  bus,  all  buses
              will be enabled.

              Example: flashrom -p dummy:bus=lpc+fwh

              The dummy programmer supports flash chip emulation for automated self-tests without
              hardware access. If you want to emulate a flash chip, use the

                flashrom -p dummy:emulate=chip

              syntax where chip is one of the following chips (please specify only the chip name,
              not the vendor):

              * ST M25P10.RES SPI flash chip (128 kB, RES, page write)

              * SST SST25VF040.REMS SPI flash chip (512 kB, REMS, byte write)

              * SST SST25VF032B SPI flash chip (4096 kB, RDID, AAI write)

              * Macronix MX25L6436 SPI flash chip (8192 kB, RDID, SFDP)

              Example: flashrom -p dummy:emulate=SST25VF040.REMS

       Persistent images

              If  you  use  flash chip emulation, flash image persistence is available as well by
              using the

                flashrom -p dummy:emulate=chip,image=image.rom

              syntax where image.rom is the file where the simulated chip contents  are  read  on
              flashrom startup and where the chip contents on flashrom shutdown are written to.

              Example: flashrom -p dummy:emulate=M25P10.RES,image=dummy.bin

       SPI write chunk size

              If  you  use SPI flash chip emulation for a chip which supports SPI page write with
              the default opcode, you can set the maximum allowed write chunk size with the

                flashrom -p dummy:emulate=chip,spi_write_256_chunksize=size

              syntax where size is the number of bytes (min. 1, max. 256).


                flashrom -p dummy:emulate=M25P10.RES,spi_write_256_chunksize=5

       SPI blacklist

              To simulate a programmer which refuses to send certain SPI commands  to  the  flash
              chip, you can specify a blacklist of SPI commands with the

                flashrom -p dummy:spi_blacklist=commandlist

              syntax  where commandlist is a list of two-digit hexadecimal representations of SPI
              commands. If commandlist  is  e.g.  0302,  flashrom  will  behave  as  if  the  SPI
              controller   refuses   to  run  command  0x03  (READ)  and  command  0x02  (WRITE).
              commandlist may be up to 512 characters (256 commands) long.  Implementation  note:
              flashrom will detect an error during command execution.

       SPI ignorelist

              To  simulate a flash chip which ignores (doesn't support) certain SPI commands, you
              can specify an ignorelist of SPI commands with the

                flashrom -p dummy:spi_ignorelist=commandlist

              syntax where commandlist is a list of two-digit hexadecimal representations of  SPI
              commands.  If commandlist is e.g. 0302, the emulated flash chip will ignore command
              0x03 (READ) and command 0x02 (WRITE).  commandlist may be up to 512 characters (256
              commands) long.  Implementation note: flashrom won't detect an error during command

       SPI status register

              You can specify the initial content of the chip's status register with the

                flashrom -p dummy:spi_status=content

              syntax where content is an 8-bit hexadecimal value.

   nic3com, nicrealtek, nicnatsemi, nicintel, nicintel_eeprom, nicintel_spi, gfxnvidia,  ogp_spi,
       drkaiser, satasii, satamv, atahpt, atavia , atapromise and it8212 programmers
              These  programmers  have an option to specify the PCI address of the card your want
              to use, which must be specified if more than one card  supported  by  the  selected
              programmer is installed in your system. The syntax is

                flashrom -p xxxx:pci=bb:dd.f,

              where  xxxx  is the name of the programmer, bb is the PCI bus number, dd is the PCI
              device number, and f is the PCI function number of the desired device.

              Example: flashrom -p nic3com:pci=05:04.0

   atavia programmer
              Due to the mysterious address handling of the VIA VT6421A controller the  user  can
              specify an offset with the

                flashrom -p atavia:offset=addr

              syntax  where  addr  will  be  interpreted as usual (leading 0x (0) for hexadecimal
              (octal) values, or else decimal).  For more information please see  its  wiki  page

   atapromise programmer
              This programmer is currently limited to 32 kB, regardless of the actual size of the
              flash chip. This stems from  the  fact  that,  on  the  tested  device  (a  Promise
              Ultra100), not all of the chip's address lines were actually connected. You may use
              this programmer to flash firmware updates, since these  are  only  16  kB  in  size
              (padding to 32 kB is required).

   nicintel_eeprom programmer
              This is the first programmer module in flashrom that does not provide access to NOR
              flash chips but EEPROMs mounted on gigabit Ethernet cards based  on  Intel's  82580
              NIC.  Because  EEPROMs  normally  do  not  announce  their  size  nor  allow  to be
              identified, the controller relies on correct  size  values  written  to  predefined
              addresses  within  the  chip.  Flashrom follows this scheme but assumes the minimum
              size of 16 kB (128 kb) if an unprogrammed EEPROM/card is detected. Intel  specifies
              following  EEPROMs  to  be  compatible: Atmel AT25128, AT25256, Micron (ST) M95128,
              M95256 and OnSemi (Catalyst) CAT25CS128.

   ft2232_spi programmer
              An optional parameter specifies the controller type and  channel/interface/port  it
              should support. For that you have to use the

                flashrom -p ft2232_spi:type=model,port=interface

              syntax  where  model can be 2232H, 4232H, 232H, jtagkey, busblaster, openmoko, arm-
              usb-tiny, arm-usb-tiny-h, arm-usb-ocd, arm-usb-ocd-h,  tumpa,  tumpalite,  picotap,
              google-servo,  google-servo-v2 or google-servo-v2-legacy and interface can be A, B,
              C, or D.  The default model is 4232H and the default interface is A.

              If there is more than one ft2232_spi-compatible device connected,  you  can  select
              which one should be used by specifying its serial number with the

                flashrom -p ft2232_spi:serial=number

              syntax  where  number  is  the  serial number of the device (which can be found for
              example in the output of lsusb -v).

              All models supported by the ft2232_spi driver can configure the SPI clock  rate  by
              setting a divisor. The expressible divisors are all even numbers between 2 and 2^17
              (=131072) resulting in SPI clock frequencies of 6 MHz down to about 92  Hz  for  12
              MHz  inputs.  The  default  divisor  is  set  to  2, but you can use another one by
              specifying the optional divisor parameter with the

                flashrom -p ft2232_spi:divisor=div


   serprog programmer
              A mandatory parameter specifies either a  serial  device  (and  baud  rate)  or  an
              IP/port  combination  for  communicating  with  the  programmer.   The  device/baud
              combination has to start with dev= and separate  the  optional  baud  rate  with  a
              colon.  For example

                flashrom -p serprog:dev=/dev/ttyS0:115200

              If  no  baud rate is given the default values by the operating system/hardware will
              be used.  For IP connections you have to use the

                flashrom -p serprog:ip=ipaddr:port

              syntax.  In case the device supports it, you can set the SPI clock  frequency  with
              the  optional spispeed parameter. The frequency is parsed as hertz, unless an M, or
              k suffix is given, then megahertz or kilohertz are used respectively.  Example that
              sets the frequency to 2 MHz:

                flashrom -p serprog:dev=/dev/device:baud,spispeed=2M

              More  information  about serprog is available in serprog-protocol.txt in the source

   buspirate_spi programmer
              A required dev parameter specifies the Bus  Pirate  device  node  and  an  optional
              spispeed  parameter specifies the frequency of the SPI bus. The parameter delimiter
              is a comma. Syntax is

                flashrom -p buspirate_spi:dev=/dev/device,spispeed=frequency

              where frequency can be 30k, 125k, 250k, 1M, 2M, 2.6M, 4M or 8M (in Hz). The default
              is the maximum frequency of 8 MHz.

              An  optional pullups parameter specifies the use of the Bus Pirate internal pull-up
              resistors. This may be needed if you are working with a flash  ROM  chip  that  you
              have physically removed from the board. Syntax is

                flashrom -p buspirate_spi:pullups=state

              where  state  can  be  on  or  off.   More information about the Bus Pirate pull-up
              resistors and  their  purpose  is  available  in  a  guide  by  dangerousprototypes
              up_resistors⟩.  Only the external supply voltage (Vpu)  is  supported  as  of  this

   pickit2_spi programmer
              An  optional  voltage  parameter  specifies the voltage the PICkit2 should use. The
              default unit is Volt if no unit is specified.  You can use mV, millivolt, V or Volt
              as unit specifier. Syntax is

                flashrom -p pickit2_spi:voltage=value

              where value can be 0V, 1.8V, 2.5V, 3.5V or the equivalent in mV.

              An optional spispeed parameter specifies the frequency of the SPI bus. Syntax is

                flashrom -p pickit2_spi:spispeed=frequency

              where  frequency  can be 250k, 333k, 500k or 1M (in Hz). The default is a frequency
              of 1 MHz.

   dediprog programmer
              An optional voltage parameter specifies the voltage the Dediprog  should  use.  The
              default  unit is Volt if no unit is specified. You can use mV, milliVolt, V or Volt
              as unit specifier. Syntax is

                flashrom -p dediprog:voltage=value

              where value can be 0V, 1.8V, 2.5V, 3.5V or the equivalent in mV.

              An optional device parameter specifies which of multiple connected Dediprog devices
              should   be   used.    Please   be   aware  that  the  order  depends  on  libusb's
              usb_get_busses() function and that the numbering starts at  0.   Usage  example  to
              select the second device:

                flashrom -p dediprog:device=1

              An optional spispeed parameter specifies the frequency of the SPI bus. The firmware
              on the device needs to be 5.0.0 or newer.  Syntax is

                flashrom -p dediprog:spispeed=frequency

              where frequency can be 375k, 750k, 1.5M, 2.18M, 3M, 8M, 12M or  24M  (in  Hz).  The
              default is a frequency of 12 MHz.

              An optional target parameter specifies which target chip should be used. Syntax is

                flashrom -p dediprog:target=value

              where value can be 1 or 2 to select target chip 1 or 2 respectively. The default is
              target chip 1.

   rayer_spi programmer
              The default I/O base address used for the parallel port is 0x378 and  you  can  use
              the optional iobase parameter to specify an alternate base I/O address with the

                flashrom -p rayer_spi:iobase=baseaddr

              syntax  where baseaddr is base I/O port address of the parallel port, which must be
              a multiple of four. Make sure to not forget the "0x" prefix  for  hexadecimal  port

              The  default cable type is the RayeR cable. You can use the optional type parameter
              to specify the cable type with the

                flashrom -p rayer_spi:type=model

              syntax where model can be rayer for the RayeR cable, byteblastermv for  the  Altera
              ByteBlasterMV,  stk200 for the Atmel STK200/300, wiggler for the Macraigor Wiggler,
              or xilinx for the Xilinx Parallel Cable III (DLC 5).

              More  information  about  the  RayeR  hardware  is  available  at  RayeR's  website
              ⟨⟩.  The Altera ByteBlasterMV datasheet can be
              obtained  from  Altera  ⟨⟩.   For
              more   information   about   the  Macraigor  Wiggler  see  their  company  homepage
              ⟨⟩.  The schematic of  the  Xilinx  DLC  5  was
              published            in           a           Xilinx           user           guide

   pony_spi programmer
              The serial port (like /dev/ttyS0, /dev/ttyUSB0 on Linux  or  COM3  on  windows)  is
              specified using the mandatory dev parameter. The adapter type is selectable between
              SI-Prog (used for  SPI  devices  with  PonyProg  2000)  or  a  custom  made  serial
              bitbanging  programmer  named  "serbang".  The  optional type parameter accepts the
              values "si_prog" (default) or "serbang".

              Information  about  the   SI-Prog   adapter   can   be   found   at   its   website

              An example call to flashrom is

                flashrom -p pony_spi:dev=/dev/ttyS0,type=serbang

              Please  note  that  while  USB-to-serial adapters work under certain circumstances,
              this slows down operation considerably.

   ogp_spi programmer
              The flash ROM chip to access must be specified with the rom parameter.

                flashrom -p ogp_spi:rom=name

              Where name is either cprom or s3 for the configuration ROM and bprom  or  bios  for
              the  BIOS  ROM.  If  more  than  one  card  supported  by the ogp_spi programmer is
              installed in your system, you have to specify the PCI address of the card you  want
              to use with the pci= parameter as explained in the nic3com et al. section above.

   linux_spi programmer
              You have to specify the SPI controller to use with the

                flashrom -p linux_spi:dev=/dev/spidevX.Y

              syntax where /dev/spidevX.Y is the Linux device node for your SPI controller.

              In  case  the  device  supports  it,  you  can set the SPI clock frequency with the
              optional spispeed parameter. The frequency is parsed as  kilohertz.   Example  that
              sets the frequency to 8 MHz:

                flashrom -p linux_spi:dev=/dev/spidevX.Y,spispeed=8000

              Please note that the linux_spi driver only works on Linux.

   mstarddc_spi programmer
              The  Display  Data  Channel  (DDC) is an I2C bus present on VGA and DVI connectors,
              that allows exchanging informations between a computer and attached  displays.  Its
              most  common  uses  are  getting  display capabilities through EDID (at I2C address
              0x50) and sending commands to the display using the  DDC/CI  protocol  (at  address
              0x37).  On  displays  driven  by  MSTAR SoCs, it is also possible to access the SoC
              firmware flash (connected to the Soc through another SPI bus)  using  an  In-System
              Programming  (ISP)  port, usually at address 0x49.  This flashrom module allows the
              latter via Linux's I2C driver.

              IMPORTANT: Before using this programmer, the display MUST be in standby  mode,  and
              only  connected  to  the  computer  that will run flashrom using a VGA cable, to an
              inactive VGA output. It absolutely MUST  NOT  be  used  as  a  display  during  the

              You have to specify the DDC/I2C controller and I2C address to use with the

                flashrom -p mstarddc_spi:dev=/dev/i2c-X:YY

              syntax  where /dev/i2c-X is the Linux device node for your I2C controller connected
              to the display's DDC channel, and YY is the (hexadecimal) address of the MSTAR  ISP
              port  (address  0x49 is usually used).  Example that uses I2C controller /dev/i2c-1
              and address 0x49:

                flashrom -p mstarddc_spi:dev=/dev/i2c-1:49

              It is also possible to inhibit the reset command  that  is  normally  sent  to  the
              display  once  the  flashrom  operation  is  completed  using  the optional noreset
              parameter. A value of 1 prevents flashrom from sending the reset command.   Example
              that does not reset the display at the end of the operation:

                flashrom -p mstarddc_spi:dev=/dev/i2c-1:49,noreset=1

              Please  note that sending the reset command is also inhibited in the event an error
              occured during the operation.  To send the reset command afterwards, you can simply
              run  flashrom  once more, in chip probe mode (not specifying an operation), without
              the noreset parameter, once the flash read/write operation you intended to  perform
              has completed successfully.

              Please also note that the mstarddc_spi driver only works on Linux.

   ch341a_spi programmer
       The  WCH  CH341A  programmer  does  not support any parameters currently. SPI frequency is
       fixed at 2 MHz, and CS0 is used as per the device.


       To back up and update your BIOS, run

       flashrom -p internal -r backup.rom -o backuplog.txt
       flashrom -p internal -w newbios.rom -o writelog.txt

       Please make sure to copy backup.rom to some external media before you try to  write.  That
       makes offline recovery easier.
       If  writing fails and flashrom complains about the chip being in an unknown state, you can
       try to restore the backup by running

       flashrom -p internal -w backup.rom -o restorelog.txt

       If you encounter any problems, please contact us and  supply  backuplog.txt,  writelog.txt
       and restorelog.txt. See section BUGS for contact info.


       flashrom exits with 0 on success, 1 on most failures but with 3 if a call to mmap() fails.


       flashrom needs different access permissions for different programmers.

       internal  needs  raw  memory  access,  PCI configuration space access, raw I/O port access
       (x86) and MSR access (x86).

       atavia needs PCI configuration space access.

       nic3com, nicrealtek and nicnatsemi need PCI configuration space read access  and  raw  I/O
       port access.

       atahpt needs PCI configuration space access and raw I/O port access.

       gfxnvidia, drkaiser and it8212 need PCI configuration space access and raw memory access.

       rayer_spi needs raw I/O port access.

       satasii,  nicintel,  nicintel_eeprom  and  nicintel_spi  need PCI configuration space read
       access and raw memory access.

       satamv and atapromise need PCI configuration space read access, raw I/O  port  access  and
       raw memory access.

       serprog needs TCP access to the network or userspace access to a serial port.

       buspirate_spi needs userspace access to a serial port.

       ft2232_spi,  usbblaster_spi  and  pickit2_spi need access to the respective USB device via
       libusb API version 0.1.

       ch341a_spi and dediprog need access to the respective USB device via  libusb  API  version

       dummy needs no access permissions at all.

       internal,  nic3com,  nicrealtek, nicnatsemi, gfxnvidia, drkaiser, satasii, satamv, atahpt,
       atavia and atapromise have to be run as superuser/root, and  need  additional  raw  access

       serprog,  buspirate_spi,  dediprog, usbblaster_spi, ft2232_spi, pickit2_spi and ch341a_spi
       can be run as normal user on most operating systems if appropriate device permissions  are

       ogp needs PCI configuration space read access and raw memory access.

       On   OpenBSD,   you  can  obtain  raw  access  permission  by  setting  securelevel=-1  in
       /etc/rc.securelevel and rebooting, or rebooting into single user mode.


       Please report any bugs to the flashrom mailing list ⟨⟩.

       We recommend to subscribe first at

       Many of the developers communicate via the #flashrom IRC channel on  If
       you    don't    have    an    IRC    client,    you   can   use   the   freenode   webchat
       ⟨⟩.   You  are  welcome  to  join  and   ask
       questions,  send us bug and success reports there too. Please provide a way to contact you
       later (e.g. a mail address) and be patient if there is no  immediate  reaction.  Also,  we
       provide  a pastebin service ⟨⟩ that is very useful when you want
       to share logs etc. without spamming the channel.

       Using flashrom on laptops is  dangerous  and  may  easily  make  your  hardware  unusable.
       flashrom  will  attempt  to  detect if it is running on a laptop and abort immediately for
       safety reasons. Please see the detailed discussion of this topic and  associated  flashrom
       options  in the Laptops paragraph in the internal programmer subsection of the PROGRAMMER-
       SPECIFIC    INFORMATION    section     and     the     information     in     our     wiki

   One-time programmable (OTP) memory and unique IDs
       Some  flash  chips contain OTP memory often denoted as "security registers".  They usually
       have a capacity in the range of some bytes to a few hundred bytes and can be used to  give
       devices  unique  IDs  etc.   flashrom  is not able to read or write these memories and may
       therefore not be able to duplicate a chip completely. For chip types known to include  OTP
       memories a warning is printed when they are detected.

       Similar  to  OTP  memories  are unique, factory programmed, unforgeable IDs.  They are not
       modifiable by the user at all.


       flashrom is covered by the GNU General Public License (GPL), version  2.  Some  files  are
       additionally available under any later version of the GPL.


       Please see the individual files.


       Andrew Morgan
       Carl-Daniel Hailfinger
       Claus Gindhart
       David Borg
       David Hendricks
       Dominik Geyer
       Eric Biederman
       Giampiero Giancipoli
       Helge Wagner
       Idwer Vollering
       Joe Bao
       Joerg Fischer
       Joshua Roys
       Kyösti Mälkki
       Luc Verhaegen
       Li-Ta Lo
       Mark Marshall
       Markus Boas
       Mattias Mattsson
       Michael Karcher
       Nikolay Petukhov
       Patrick Georgi
       Peter Lemenkov
       Peter Stuge
       Reinder E.N. de Haan
       Ronald G. Minnich
       Ronald Hoogenboom
       Sean Nelson
       Stefan Reinauer
       Stefan Tauner
       Stefan Wildemann
       Stephan Guilloux
       Steven James
       Urja Rannikko
       Uwe Hermann
       Wang Qingpei
       Yinghai Lu
       some others, please see the flashrom svn changelog for details.
       All still active authors can be reached via the mailing list ⟨⟩.

       This  manual page was written by Uwe Hermann ⟨⟩, Carl-Daniel Hailfinger,
       Stefan Tauner and others.  It is licensed under the terms of the GNU  GPL  (version  2  or