Provided by: systemd_229-4ubuntu21.31_amd64 bug


       systemd-journald.service, systemd-journald.socket, systemd-journald-dev-log.socket,
       systemd-journald-audit.socket, systemd-journald - Journal service








       systemd-journald is a system service that collects and stores logging data. It creates and
       maintains structured, indexed journals based on logging information that is received from
       a variety of sources:

       •   Kernel log messages, via kmsg

       •   Simple system log messages, via the libc syslog(3) call

       •   Structured system log messages via the native Journal API, see sd_journal_print(4)

       •   Standard output and standard error of system services

       •   Audit records, via the audit subsystem

       The daemon will implicitly collect numerous metadata fields for each log messages in a
       secure and unfakeable way. See systemd.journal-fields(7) for more information about the
       collected metadata.

       Log data collected by the journal is primarily text-based but can also include binary data
       where necessary. All objects stored in the journal can be up to 2^64-1 bytes in size.

       By default, the journal stores log data in /run/log/journal/. Since /run/ is volatile, log
       data is lost at reboot. To make the data persistent, it is sufficient to create
       /var/log/journal/ where systemd-journald will then store the data:

           mkdir -p /var/log/journal
           systemd-tmpfiles --create --prefix /var/log/journal

       See journald.conf(5) for information about the configuration of this service.


           Request that journal data from /run/ is flushed to /var/ in order to make it
           persistent (if this is enabled). This must be used after /var/ is mounted, as
           otherwise log data from /run is never flushed to /var regardless of the configuration.
           The journalctl --flush command uses this signal to request flushing of the journal
           files, and then waits for the operation to complete. See journalctl(1) for details.

           Request immediate rotation of the journal files. The journalctl --rotate command uses
           this signal to request journal file rotation.

           Request that all unwritten log data is written to disk. The journalctl --sync command
           uses this signal to trigger journal synchronization, and then waits for the operation
           to complete.


       A few configuration parameters from journald.conf may be overridden on the kernel command

       systemd.journald.forward_to_syslog=, systemd.journald.forward_to_kmsg=,
       systemd.journald.forward_to_console=, systemd.journald.forward_to_wall=
           Enables/disables forwarding of collected log messages to syslog, the kernel log
           buffer, the system console or wall.

           See journald.conf(5) for information about these settings.


       Journal files are, by default, owned and readable by the "systemd-journal" system group
       but are not writable. Adding a user to this group thus enables her/him to read the journal

       By default, each logged in user will get her/his own set of journal files in
       /var/log/journal/. These files will not be owned by the user, however, in order to avoid
       that the user can write to them directly. Instead, file system ACLs are used to ensure the
       user gets read access only.

       Additional users and groups may be granted access to journal files via file system access
       control lists (ACL). Distributions and administrators may choose to grant read access to
       all members of the "wheel" and "adm" system groups with a command such as the following:

           # setfacl -Rnm g:wheel:rx,d:g:wheel:rx,g:adm:rx,d:g:adm:rx /var/log/journal/

       Note that this command will update the ACLs both for existing journal files and for future
       journal files created in the /var/log/journal/ directory.


           Configure systemd-journald behavior. See journald.conf(5).

       /run/log/journal/machine-id/*.journal, /run/log/journal/machine-id/*.journal~,
       /var/log/journal/machine-id/*.journal, /var/log/journal/machine-id/*.journal~
           systemd-journald writes entries to files in /run/log/journal/machine-id/ or
           /var/log/journal/machine-id/ with the ".journal" suffix. If the daemon is stopped
           uncleanly, or if the files are found to be corrupted, they are renamed using the
           ".journal~" suffix, and systemd-journald starts writing to a new file.  /run is used
           when /var/log/journal is not available, or when Storage=volatile is set in the
           journald.conf(5) configuration file.

       /dev/kmsg, /dev/log, /run/systemd/journal/dev-log, /run/systemd/journal/socket,
           Sockets and other paths that systemd-journald will listen on that are visible in the
           file system. In addition to these, journald can listen for audit events using netlink.


       systemd(1), journalctl(1), journald.conf(5), systemd.journal-fields(7), sd-journal(3),
       systemd-coredump(8), setfacl(1), sd_journal_print(4), pydoc systemd.journal