Provided by: cargo_0.47.0-1~exp1ubuntu1~16.04.1_amd64 bug


       cargo-tree - Display a tree visualization of a dependency graph


       cargo tree [OPTIONS]


       This command will display a tree of dependencies to the terminal. An example of a simple
       project that depends on the "rand" package:

           myproject v0.1.0 (/myproject)
           `-- rand v0.7.3
               |-- getrandom v0.1.14
               |   |-- cfg-if v0.1.10
               |   `-- libc v0.2.68
               |-- libc v0.2.68 (*)
               |-- rand_chacha v0.2.2
               |   |-- ppv-lite86 v0.2.6
               |   `-- rand_core v0.5.1
               |       `-- getrandom v0.1.14 (*)
               `-- rand_core v0.5.1 (*)
           `-- cc v1.0.50

       Packages marked with (*) have been "de-duplicated". The dependencies for the package have
       already been shown elswhere in the graph, and so are not repeated. Use the --no-dedupe
       option to repeat the duplicates.

       The -e flag can be used to select the dependency kinds to display. The "features" kind
       changes the output to display the features enabled by each dependency. For example, cargo
       tree -e features:

           myproject v0.1.0 (/myproject)
           `-- log feature "serde"
               `-- log v0.4.8
                   |-- serde v1.0.106
                   `-- cfg-if feature "default"
                       `-- cfg-if v0.1.10

       In this tree, myproject depends on log with the serde feature. log in turn depends on
       cfg-if with "default" features. When using -e features it can be helpful to use -i flag to
       show how the features flow into a package. See the examples below for more detail.


   Tree Options
       -i SPEC, --invert SPEC
           Show the reverse dependencies for the given package. This flag will invert the tree
           and display the packages that depend on the given package.

           Note that in a workspace, by default it will only display the package’s reverse
           dependencies inside the tree of the workspace member in the current directory. The
           --workspace flag can be used to extend it so that it will show the package’s reverse
           dependencies across the entire workspace. The -p flag can be used to display the
           package’s reverse dependencies only with the subtree of the package given to -p.

           Do not de-duplicate repeated dependencies. Usually, when a package has already
           displayed its dependencies, further occurrences will not re-display its dependencies,
           and will include a (*) to indicate it has already been shown. This flag will cause
           those duplicates to be repeated.

       -d, --duplicates
           Show only dependencies which come in multiple versions (implies --invert). When used
           with the -p flag, only shows duplicates within the subtree of the given package.

           It can be beneficial for build times and executable sizes to avoid building that same
           package multiple times. This flag can help identify the offending packages. You can
           then investigate if the package that depends on the duplicate with the older version
           can be updated to the newer version so that only one instance is built.

       -e KINDS, --edges KINDS
           The dependency kinds to display. Takes a comma separated list of values:

           •   all — Show all edge kinds.

           •   normal — Show normal dependencies.

           •   build — Show build dependencies.

           •   dev — Show development dependencies.

           •   features — Show features enabled by each dependency. If this is the only kind
               given, then it will automatically include the other dependency kinds.

           •   no-normal — Do not include normal dependencies.

           •   no-build — Do not include build dependencies.

           •   no-dev — Do not include development dependencies.

           The no- prefixed options cannot be mixed with the other dependency kinds.

           The default is normal,build,dev.

       --target TRIPLE
           Filter dependencies matching the given target-triple. The default is the host
           platform. Use the value all to include all targets.

   Tree Formatting Options
       --charset CHARSET
           Chooses the character set to use for the tree. Valid values are "utf8" or "ascii".
           Default is "utf8".

       -f FORMAT, --format FORMAT
           Set the format string for each package. The default is "{p}".

           This is an arbitrary string which will be used to display each package. The following
           strings will be replaced with the corresponding value:

           •   {p} — The package name.

           •   {l} — The package license.

           •   {r} — The package repository URL.

           •   {f} — Comma-separated list of package features that are enabled.

       --prefix PREFIX
           Sets how each line is displayed. The PREFIX value can be one of:

           •   indent (default) — Shows each line indented as a tree.

           •   depth — Show as a list, with the numeric depth printed before each entry.

           •   none — Show as a flat list.

   Package Selection
       By default, when no package selection options are given, the packages selected depend on
       the selected manifest file (based on the current working directory if --manifest-path is
       not given). If the manifest is the root of a workspace then the workspaces default members
       are selected, otherwise only the package defined by the manifest will be selected.

       The default members of a workspace can be set explicitly with the
       workspace.default-members key in the root manifest. If this is not set, a virtual
       workspace will include all workspace members (equivalent to passing --workspace), and a
       non-virtual workspace will include only the root crate itself.

       -p SPEC..., --package SPEC...
           Display only the specified packages. See cargo-pkgid(1) for the SPEC format. This flag
           may be specified multiple times.

           Display all members in the workspace.

       --exclude SPEC...
           Exclude the specified packages. Must be used in conjunction with the --workspace flag.
           This flag may be specified multiple times.

   Manifest Options
       --manifest-path PATH
           Path to the Cargo.toml file. By default, Cargo searches for the Cargo.toml file in the
           current directory or any parent directory.

   Feature Selection
       The feature flags allow you to control the enabled features for the "current" package. The
       "current" package is the package in the current directory, or the one specified in
       --manifest-path. If running in the root of a virtual workspace, then the default features
       are selected for all workspace members, or all features if --all-features is specified.

       When no feature options are given, the default feature is activated for every selected

       --features FEATURES
           Space or comma separated list of features to activate. These features only apply to
           the current directory’s package. Features of direct dependencies may be enabled with
           <dep-name>/<feature-name> syntax. This flag may be specified multiple times, which
           enables all specified features.

           Activate all available features of all selected packages.

           Do not activate the default feature of the current directory’s package.

   Display Options
       -v, --verbose
           Use verbose output. May be specified twice for "very verbose" output which includes
           extra output such as dependency warnings and build script output. May also be
           specified with the term.verbose config value

       -q, --quiet
           No output printed to stdout.

       --color WHEN
           Control when colored output is used. Valid values:

           •   auto (default): Automatically detect if color support is available on the

           •   always: Always display colors.

           •   never: Never display colors.

           May also be specified with the term.color config value

   Common Options
           If Cargo has been installed with rustup, and the first argument to cargo begins with
           +, it will be interpreted as a rustup toolchain name (such as +stable or +nightly).
           See the rustup documentation <> for more
           information about how toolchain overrides work.

       -h, --help
           Prints help information.

       -Z FLAG...
           Unstable (nightly-only) flags to Cargo. Run cargo -Z help for details.

       --frozen, --locked
           Either of these flags requires that the Cargo.lock file is up-to-date. If the lock
           file is missing, or it needs to be updated, Cargo will exit with an error. The
           --frozen flag also prevents Cargo from attempting to access the network to determine
           if it is out-of-date.

           These may be used in environments where you want to assert that the Cargo.lock file is
           up-to-date (such as a CI build) or want to avoid network access.

           Prevents Cargo from accessing the network for any reason. Without this flag, Cargo
           will stop with an error if it needs to access the network and the network is not
           available. With this flag, Cargo will attempt to proceed without the network if

           Beware that this may result in different dependency resolution than online mode. Cargo
           will restrict itself to crates that are downloaded locally, even if there might be a
           newer version as indicated in the local copy of the index. See the cargo-fetch(1)
           command to download dependencies before going offline.

           May also be specified with the net.offline config value


       See the reference <>
       for details on environment variables that Cargo reads.


           Cargo succeeded.

           Cargo failed to complete.


        1. Display the tree for the package in the current directory:

               cargo tree

        2. Display all the packages that depend on the syn package:

               cargo tree -i syn

        3. Show the features enabled on each package:

               cargo tree --format "{p} {f}"

        4. Show all packages that are built multiple times. This can happen if multiple
           semver-incompatible versions appear in the tree (like 1.0.0 and 2.0.0).

               cargo tree -d

        5. Explain why features are enabled for the syn package:

               cargo tree -e features -i syn

           The -e features flag is used to show features. The -i flag is used to invert the graph
           so that it displays the packages that depend on syn. An example of what this would

               syn v1.0.17
               |-- syn feature "clone-impls"
               |   `-- syn feature "default"
               |       `-- rustversion v1.0.2
               |           `-- rustversion feature "default"
               |               `-- myproject v0.1.0 (/myproject)
               |                   `-- myproject feature "default" (command-line)
               |-- syn feature "default" (*)
               |-- syn feature "derive"
               |   `-- syn feature "default" (*)
               |-- syn feature "full"
               |   `-- rustversion v1.0.2 (*)
               |-- syn feature "parsing"
               |   `-- syn feature "default" (*)
               |-- syn feature "printing"
               |   `-- syn feature "default" (*)
               |-- syn feature "proc-macro"
               |   `-- syn feature "default" (*)
               `-- syn feature "quote"
                   |-- syn feature "printing" (*)
                   `-- syn feature "proc-macro" (*)

           To read this graph, you can follow the chain for each feature from the root to see why
           it is included. For example, the "full" feature is added by the rustversion crate
           which is included from myproject (with the default features), and myproject is the
           package selected on the command-line. All of the other syn features are added by the
           "default" feature ("quote" is added by "printing" and "proc-macro", both of which are
           default features).

           If you’re having difficulty cross-referencing the de-duplicated (*) entries, try with
           the --no-dedupe flag to get the full output.


       cargo(1), cargo-metadata(1)

                                            2020-06-25                              CARGO-TREE(1)