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       dvips - convert a TeX DVI file to PostScript


       dvips [OPTIONS] file[.dvi]


       THIS MAN PAGE IS OBSOLETE!  See the Texinfo documentation instead.  You can read it either
       in Emacs or with the standalone info program which comes with the GNU texinfo distribution

       The  program dvips takes a DVI file file[.dvi] produced by TeX (or by some other processor
       such as GFtoDVI) and converts it to PostScript, sending the output to a file  or  directly
       to  a  printer.  The DVI file may be specified without the .dvi extension.  Fonts used may
       either be resident in the printer or defined as  bitmaps  in  PK  files,  or  a  `virtual'
       combination of both.  If the mktexpk program is installed, dvips will automatically invoke
       METAFONT to generate fonts that don't already exist.

       For more information, see  the  Texinfo  manual  dvips.texi,  which  should  be  installed
       somewhere on your system, hopefully accessible through the standard Info tree.


       -a     Conserve  memory  by making three passes over the .dvi file instead of two and only
              loading those characters actually used.  Generally only useful on machines  with  a
              very limited amount of memory, like some PCs.

       -A     Print only odd pages (TeX pages, not sequence pages).

       -b num Generate  num  copies of each page, but duplicating the page body rather than using
              the #numcopies option.  This can be  useful  in  conjunction  with  a  header  file
              setting \bop-hook to do color separations or other neat tricks.

       -B     Print only even pages (TeX pages, not sequence pages).

       -c num Generate num copies of every page.  Default is 1.  (For collated copies, see the -C
              option below.)

       -C num Create num copies, but collated (by replicating the data in the  PostScript  file).
              Slower  than  the  -c option, but easier on the hands, and faster than resubmitting
              the same PostScript file multiple times.

       -d num Set the debug flags.  This is intended only for emergencies or  for  unusual  fact-
              finding  expeditions;  it  will work only if dvips has been compiled with the DEBUG
              option.  If nonzero, prints additional information on standard error.  For  maximum
              information, you can use `-1'.  See the Dvips Texinfo manual for more details.

       -D num Set  the  resolution  in  dpi  (dots  per inch) to num.  This affects the choice of
              bitmap fonts that are loaded and  also  the  positioning  of  letters  in  resident
              PostScript  fonts.  Must be between 10 and 10000.  This affects both the horizontal
              and vertical resolution.  If a high resolution (something  greater  than  400  dpi,
              say) is selected, the -Z flag should probably also be used.

       -e num Make  sure  that  each character is placed at most this many pixels from its `true'
              resolution-independent position on the page. The default value of this parameter is
              resolution  dependent.   Allowing  individual  characters  to  `drift'  from  their
              correctly rounded positions by a few pixels, while regaining the true  position  at
              the beginning of each new word, improves the spacing of letters in words.

       -E     makes  dvips attempt to generate an EPSF file with a tight bounding box.  This only
              works on one-page files, and it only looks at marks made by characters  and  rules,
              not  by any included graphics.  In addition, it gets the glyph metrics from the tfm
              file, so characters that lie outside their enclosing tfm box may  confuse  it.   In
              addition,  the  bounding  box  might  be a bit too loose if the character glyph has
              significant left or right side bearings.  Nonetheless, this option works  well  for
              creating  small  EPSF files for equations or tables or the like.  (Note, of course,
              that dvips output is resolution dependent and thus does not  make  very  good  EPSF
              files, especially if the images are to be scaled; use these EPSF files with a great
              deal of care.)

       -f     Run as a filter.  Read the .dvi file from standard input and write  the  PostScript
              to  standard  output.  The standard input must be seekable, so it cannot be a pipe.
              If you must use a pipe, write a shell script that  copies  the  pipe  output  to  a
              temporary  file  and then points dvips at this file.  This option also disables the
              automatic reading of the PRINTER environment variable, and turns off the  automatic
              sending of control D if it was turned on with the -F option or in the configuration
              file; use -F after this option if you want both.

       -F     Causes Control-D (ASCII code 4) to be appended as the very last  character  of  the
              PostScript file.  This is useful when dvips is driving the printer directly instead
              of working through a spooler, as is common on extremely small  systems.   NOTE!  DO
              NOT USE THIS OPTION!

       -G     Causes  dvips  to shift non-printing characters to higher-numbered positions.  This
              may be useful sometimes.

       -h name
              Prepend file name as an additional header file. (However, if the name is simply `-'
              suppress  all  header  files  from the output.)  This header file gets added to the
              PostScript userdict.

       -i     Make each section be a separate file.   Under  certain  circumstances,  dvips  will
              split  the  document up into `sections' to be processed independently; this is most
              often done for memory reasons.  Using this option tells dvips to place each section
              into  a  separate  file; the new file names are created replacing the suffix of the
              supplied output file name by a three-digit sequence number.  This  option  is  most
              often  used in conjunction with the -S option which sets the maximum section length
              in pages.  For instance, some phototypesetters cannot print more  than  ten  or  so
              consecutive  pages  before  running  out  of  steam;  these  options can be used to
              automatically split a book into ten-page sections, each to its own file.

       -j     Download only needed characters from Type 1 fonts.  This  is  the  default  in  the
              current  release.  Some debugging flags trace this operation.  You can also control
              partial downloading on a per-font basis, via the file.

       -k     Print crop marks.  This option increases the paper size (which should be specified,
              either  with  a  paper  size  special or with the -T option) by a half inch in each
              dimension.  It translates each page by a quarter inch and  draws  cross-style  crop
              marks.   It  is  mostly  useful  with  typesetters  that  can  set  the  page  size

       -K     This option causes comments  in  included  PostScript  graphics,  font  files,  and
              headers  to be removed.  This is sometimes necessary to get around bugs in spoolers
              or PostScript post-processing programs.  Specifically, the  %%Page  comments,  when
              left  in,  often  cause  difficulties.   Use  of  this flag can cause some included
              graphics to fail, since the PostScript header macros from  some  software  packages
              read portions of the input stream line by line, searching for a particular comment.
              This option has been turned  off  by  default  because  PostScript  previewers  and
              spoolers have been getting better.

       -l num The  last  page printed will be the first one numbered num Default is the last page
              in the document.  If the num is prefixed by  an  equals  sign,  then  it  (and  any
              argument  to the -p option) is treated as a sequence number, rather than a value to
              compare with \count0 values.  Thus, using -l =9 will end with the ninth page of the
              document, no matter what the pages are actually numbered.

       -m     Specify manual feed for printer.

       -mode mode
              Use  mode as the Metafont device name for path searching and font generation.  This
              overrides any value from configuration files.  With the default  paths,  explicitly
              specifying  the  mode also makes the program assume the fonts are in a subdirectory
              named mode.

       -M     Turns off the automatic font  generation  facility.   If  any  fonts  are  missing,
              commands to generate the fonts are appended to the file missfont.log in the current
              directory; this file can then be executed and deleted to create the missing fonts.

       -n num At most num pages will be printed. Default is 100000.

       -N     Turns off structured comments; this might be necessary on some systems that try  to
              interpret  PostScript  comments in weird ways, or on some PostScript printers.  Old
              versions of TranScript in particular cannot handle modern Encapsulated PostScript.

              This will disable the use of Omega extensions  when  interpreting  DVI  files.   By
              default,  the  additional  opcodes  129 and 134 are recognized by dvips as Omega or
              pTeX extensions and interpreted as requests to set 2-byte characters.

              This will disable the use of pTeX  extensions  when  interpreting  DVI  files.   By
              default,  the  additional  opcodes  130  and  135  are  recognized by dvips as pTeX
              extensions and interpreted as requests to set 3-byte characters, and 255 as request
              to change the typesetting direction.

              The  only  drawback  is  that  the  virtual  font array will (at least temporarily)
              require 65536 or more positions instead of the default  256  positions,  i.e.,  the
              memory   requirements  of  dvips  will  be  somewhat  larger.   If  you  find  this
              unacceptable or encounter another problem with the Omega or  pTeX  extensions,  you
              can  switch off the pTeX extension by using -noptex, or both by using -noomega (but
              please do send a bug report if you find such problems - see the bug address in  the
              AUTHORS section below).

       -o name
              The  output will be sent to file name If no file name is given (i.e., -o is last on
              the command line), the default name is  where  the  .dvi  file  was  called
              file.dvi;  if  this  option  isn't  given, any default in the configuration file is
              used.  If the first character of the supplied output file name  is  an  exclamation
              mark,  then  the  remainder  will be used as an argument to popen; thus, specifying
              !lpr as the output file will automatically  queue  the  file  for  printing.   This
              option also disables the automatic reading of the PRINTER environment variable, and
              turns off the automatic sending of control D if it was turned on with the -F option
              or in the configuration file; use -F after this option if you want both.

       -O offset
              Move  the  origin  by  a  certain  amount.  The offset is a comma-separated pair of
              dimensions, such as .1in,-.3cm (in the same syntax used in the papersize  special).
              The  origin of the page is shifted from the default position (of one inch down, one
              inch to the right from the upper left corner of the paper) by this amount.

       -p num The first page printed will be the first one numbered num.  Default  is  the  first
              page  in  the document.  If the num is prefixed by an equals sign, then it (and any
              argument to the -l option) is treated as a sequence number, rather than a value  to
              compare  with  \count0 values.  Thus, using -p =3 will start with the third page of
              the document, no matter what the pages are actually numbered.

       -pp pagelist
              A comma-separated list of pages and ranges  (a-b)  may  be  given,  which  will  be
              interpreted  as \count0 values.  Pages not specified will not be printed.  Multiple
              -pp options may be specified or all pages and page ranges can be specified with one
              -pp option.

       -P printername
              Sets  up the output for the appropriate printer.  This is implemented by reading in
              config.printername , which can then set the output pipe (as in, !lpr  -Pprintername
              as  well  as the font paths and any other defaults for that printer only.
              Note that is read before config.printername  In  addition,  another  file
              called  ~/.dvipsrc  is  searched  for  immediately  after;  this file is
              intended for user defaults.  If no -P command is given,  the  environment  variable
              PRINTER  is  checked.   If  that variable exists, and a corresponding configuration
              file exists, that configuration file is read in.

       -q     Run in quiet mode.  Don't chatter about pages converted, etc.; report  nothing  but
              errors to standard error.

       -r     Stack pages in reverse order.  Normally, page 1 will be printed first.

              Run  securely.   -R2  disables  both  shell  command  execution in \special'{} (via
              backticks ` ) and config files (via the E option),  and  opening  of  any  absolute
              filenames.  -R1 , the default, forbids shell escapes but allows absolute filenames.
              -R0 allows both.  The config file option is z

       -s     Causes the entire global output to be enclosed in a save/restore pair.  This causes
              the  file to not be truly conformant, and is thus not recommended, but is useful if
              you are driving the printer directly and don't care too much about the  portability
              of the output.

       -S num Set  the  maximum  number of pages in each `section'.  This option is most commonly
              used with the -i option; see that documentation above for more information.

       -t papertype
              This sets the paper type to papertype.  The papertype should be defined in  one  of
              the  configuration files, along with the appropriate code to select it.  (Currently
              known types include letter, legal, ledger,  a4,  a3).   You  can  also  specify  -t
              landscape, which rotates a document by 90 degrees.  To rotate a document whose size
              is not letter, you can use the -t option twice, once for the page  size,  and  once
              for landscape.  You should not use any -t option when the DVI file already contains
              a papersize special, as is done by some LaTeX packages, notably hyperref.sty.

              The upper left corner of each page in the .dvi file is placed  one  inch  from  the
              left  and  one  inch  from  the top.  Use of this option is highly dependent on the
              configuration file.  Note that executing the  letter  or  a4  or  other  PostScript
              operators  cause  the document to be nonconforming and can cause it not to print on
              certain printers, so the paper size should not execute such an operator if  at  all

       -T papersize
              Set  the  paper  size  to  the  given  pair  of  dimensions.  This option takes its
              arguments in the same style as -O.  It overrides any paper size special in the  dvi

       -u psmapfile
              Set  psmapfile  to  be  the  file  that  dvips  uses for looking up PostScript font
              aliases.  If psmapfile begins with a + character, then the rest of the name is used
              as  the name of the map file, and the map file is appended to the list of map files
              (instead of replacing the list).  In either case, if psmapfile  has  no  extension,
              then .map is added at the end.

       -U     Disable  a  PostScript virtual memory saving optimization that stores the character
              metric information in the same string that is used to store the bitmap information.
              This  is  only necessary when driving the Xerox 4045 PostScript interpreter.  It is
              caused by a bug in that interpreter that results in `garbage' on the bottom of each
              character.  Not recommended unless you must drive this printer.

       -v     Print the dvips version number and exit.

       -V     Download  non-resident PostScript fonts as bitmaps.  This requires use of `gsftopk'
              or `pstopk' or some other such program(s) in order to generate the required  bitmap
              fonts; these programs are supplied with dvips.

       -x num Set  the magnification ratio to num/1000.  Overrides the magnification specified in
              the .dvi file.  Must be between 10 and 100000.  Instead of an integer, num may be a
              real number for increased precision.

       -X num Set the horizontal resolution in dots per inch to num.

       -y num Set  the  magnification  ratio to num/1000 times the magnification specified in the
              .dvi file.  See -x above.

       -Y num Set the vertical resolution in dots per inch to num.

       -z     Pass html hyperdvi specials through to the output for  eventual  distillation  into
              PDF.   This  is  not  enabled  by  default  to  avoid  including  the  header files
              unnecessarily, and use of temporary files in creating the output.

       -Z     Causes bitmapped fonts  to  be  compressed  before  they  are  downloaded,  thereby
              reducing  the  size  of  the  PostScript  font-downloading information.  Especially
              useful at high resolutions or when very large  fonts  are  used.   Will  slow  down
              printing somewhat, especially on early 68000-based PostScript printers.


       mf(1), afm2tfm(1), tex(1), latex(1), lpr(1), dvips.texi,


       Dvipsk  uses  the  same environment variables and algorithms for finding font files as TeX
       and its friends  do.   See  the  documentation  for  the  Kpathsea  library  for  details.
       (Repeating it here is too cumbersome.)

       KPATHSEA_DEBUG: Trace Kpathsea lookups; set to -1 for complete tracing.

       PRINTER: see above.


       PostScript is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.


       Tomas  Rokicki  <>;  extended  to virtual fonts by Don Knuth.  Path
       searching and configuration modifications by Karl Berry.

                                            4 May 2010                                   DVIPS(1)