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       dvisvgm - converts DVI and EPS files to the XML-based SVG format


       dvisvgm [ options ] file [.dvi]

       dvisvgm -E [ options ] file [.eps]


       The command-line utility dvisvgm converts DVI files, as generated by TeX/LaTeX, to the
       XML-based scalable vector graphics format SVG. It supports the classic DVI format 2 as
       well as format 3 (created by pTeX in vertical mode), and format 5 which is also known as
       XDV (created by XeTeX). Besides the basic DVI commands, dvisvgm also evaluates many
       so-called specials which heavily extend the capabilities of the DVI format. For a more
       detailed overview, see section Supported Specials below.

       Since the current SVG standard 1.1 doesn’t specify multi-page graphics, dvisvgm creates
       separate SVG files for each DVI page. Because of compatibility reasons, only the first
       page is converted by default. In order to select a different page or arbitrary page
       sequences, use option -p which is described below.

       SVG is a vector-based graphics format and therefore dvisvgm tries to convert the glyph
       outlines of all used fonts to scalable path descriptions. The fastest way to do that is to
       extract the path information from font files in PFB, TTF, or OTF format. If dvisvgm is
       able to find such a file, it extracts all necessary outline information about the glyphs
       from it.

       However, TeX’s main source for font descriptions is Metafont, which produces bitmap output
       (GF files). That’s why not all obtainable TeX fonts are available in a scalable format. In
       these cases, dvisvgm tries to vectorize Metafont’s output by tracing the glyph bitmaps.
       The results are not as perfect as most (manually optimized) PFB or OTF counterparts, but
       are nonetheless really nice in most cases.

       When running dvisvgm without option --no-fonts, font elements (<font>...</font>) are used
       to embed the font data into the SVG files. Unfortunately, only few SVG renderes support
       these elements yet. Most web browsers and vector graphics applications don’t evaluate them
       properly so that the text components of the resulting graphics might look strange. In
       order to create more compatible SVG files, command-line option --no-fonts can be given to
       replace the font elements by plain graphics paths.


       -a, --trace-all=[retrace]
           This option forces dvisvgm to trace not only the actually needed glyphs but all glyphs
           of all bitmap fonts used in the DVI file. Since the tracing results are stored in the
           font cache, all following DVI conversions (without option --trace-all) where these
           fonts are involved, will be much faster. By default, dvisvgm traces only the actually
           needed glyphs, and adds them to the cache. The boolean option retrace determines how
           to handle glyphs already stored in the cache. By default, these glyphs are skipped.
           Setting argument retrace to yes or true forces dvisvgm to trace the corresponding
           bitmaps again.

               This option only takes effect if font caching is active. Therefore, --trace-all
               cannot be combined with option --cache=none.

       -b, --bbox=fmt
           Sets the bounding box of the generated graphic to the specified format. The parameter
           fmt takes either one of the format specifiers listed below, or a sequence of four
           comma- or whitespace-separated length values x1, y1, x2 and y2. The latter define two
           diagonal corners of the bounding box. Each length value consists of a floating point
           number and an optional length unit (pt, bp, cm, mm, in, or pc). If the unit is
           omitted, TeX points (pt) are assumed.

           It’s also possible to give only one length value l. In this case, the minimal bounding
           box is computed and enlarged by adding (-l,-l) to the upper left and (l,l) to the
           lower right corner.

           Alternatively, the following format specifiers are supported:

           International DIN/ISO paper sizes
               An, Bn, Cn, Dn, where n is a non-negative integer, e.g. A4 or a4 for DIN/ISO A4
               format (210mm × 297mm).

           North American paper sizes
               invoice, executive, legal, letter, ledger

           Special bounding box sizes

               dvi    page size stored in the DVI file
               min    computes the minimal/tightest
                      bounding box
               none   no bounding box is assigned

           Page orientation
               The default page orientation for DIN/ISO and American paper sizes is portrait,
               i.e.  width < height. Appending -landscape or simply -l to the format string
               switches to landscape mode (width > height). For symmetry reasons you can also
               explicitly add -portrait or -p to indicate the default portrait format. Note that
               these suffixes are part of the size string and not separate options. Thus, they
               must directly follow the size specifier without additional blanks. Furthermore,
               the orientation suffixes can’t be used with dvi, min, and none.

                   Option -b, --bbox only affects the bounding box and does not transform the
                   page content. Hence, if you choose a landscape format, the page won’t be

       -C, --cache[=dir]
           To speed up the conversion process of bitmap fonts, dvisvgm saves intermediate
           conversion information in cache files. By default, these files are stored in
           $HOME/.dvisvgm/cache. If you prefer a different location, use option --cache to
           overwrite the default. Furthermore, it is also possible to disable the font caching
           mechanism completely with option --cache=none. If argument dir is omitted, dvisvgm
           prints the path of the default cache directory together with further information about
           the stored fonts. Additionally, outdated and corrupted cache files are removed.

       -j, --clipjoin
           This option tells dvisvgm to compute the intersection of clipping paths itself if
           necessary, and not to delegate this task to the SVG renderer. The resulting SVG files
           are more portable because some SVG renderers don’t support intersections of clipping
           paths which are defined by clipPath elements that contain a clip-path attribute.

           Enables colorization of messages printed during the conversion process. The colors can
           be customized via the environment variable DVISVGM_COLORS. See the ENVIRONMENT section
           below for further information.

       -E, --eps
           If this option is given, dvisvgm does not expect a DVI but an EPS input file, and
           tries to convert it to SVG. In order to do so, a single psfile special command is
           created and forwarded to the PostScript special handler. This option is only available
           if dvisvgm was built with PostScript support enabled, and requires Ghostscript to be
           available. See option --libgs for further information.

       -e, --exact
           If this option is given, dvisvgm computes the precise bounding box of each character.
           By default, the values stored in a font’s TFM file are used to determine a glyph’s
           extent. As these values are intended to implement optimal character placements and are
           not designed to represent the exact dimensions, they don’t necessarily correspond with
           the bounds of the visual glyphs. Thus, width and/or height of some glyphs may be
           larger (or smaller) than the respective TFM values. As a result, this can lead to
           clipped characters at the bounds of the SVG graphics. With option --exact given,
           dvisvgm analyzes the actual shape of each character and derives a usually tight
           bounding box.

       -m, --fontmap=filenames
           Loads and evaluates a single or multiple font map files. These files are required to
           resolve font file names and encodings. dvisvgm does not provide its own map files but
           tries to read available ones coming with dvips or dvipdfm. If option --fontmap is
           omitted, dvisvgm looks for the default map files,, and
  (in this order). Otherwise, the listed files are used. Multiple filenames
           must be separated by commas without leading and/or trailing whitespace. The map files
           are evaluated in the given order. By default, redefined mappings do not replace
           previous ones. However, each filename can be preceded by an optional mode specifier
           (+, -, or =) to change this behavior:

               Only those entries in the given map file that don’t redefine a font mapping are
               applied. That’s also the default mode if no mode specifier is given.

               Ensures that none of the font mappings defined in the given map file are used,
               i.e. previously defined mappings for the specified fonts are removed.

               All mappings defined in the map file are applied. Previously defined settings for
               the same font are replaced.

               If the first filename in the filename sequence is preceded by a mode specifier,
               dvisvgm loads the default font map (see above) and applies the other map files
               afterwards. Otherwise, none of default map files will be loaded automatically.

               Examples:, loads followed by
      where all redefinitions of are ignored.
     , loads the default map file followed by
      and where all redefinitions of replace
               previous entries. Afterwards, all definitions for the fonts given in
               are removed from the font map tree.

               For further information about the map file formats and the mode specifiers, see
               the manuals of dvips and dvipdfm.

           Tells dvisvgm to create overlapping grid segments when approximating color gradient
           fills (also see option --grad-segments below). By default, adjacent segments don’t
           overlap but only touch each other like separate tiles. Unfortunately, this alignment
           can lead to visible gaps between the segments because the background influences the
           color at the boundary of the segments if the SVG renderer uses anti-aliasing to create
           smooth contours. One way to avoid this and to create seamlessly touching color regions
           is to enlarge the segments so that they extent into the area of their right and bottom
           neighbors. Since the latter are drawn on top of the overlapping parts, the visible
           size of all segments keeps unchanged. Just the former gaps disappear as the background
           is now completely covered by the correct colors. Currently, dvisvgm computes the
           overlapping segments separately for each patch of the mesh (a patch mesh may consist
           of multiple patches of the same type). Therefore, there still might be visible gaps at
           the seam of two adjacent patches.

           Determines the maximal number of segments per column and row used to approximate
           gradient color fills. Since SVG 1.1 only supports a small subset of the shading
           algorithms available in PostScript, dvisvgm approximates some of them by subdividing
           the area to be filled into smaller, monochromatic segments. Each of these segments
           gets the average color of the region it covers. Thus, increasing the number of
           segments leads to smaller monochromatic areas and therefore results in a better
           approximation of the actual color gradient. As a drawback, more segments imply bigger
           SVG files because every segment is represented by a separate path element.

           Currently, dvisvgm supports free- and lattice-form triangular patch meshes as well as
           Coons and tensor-product patch meshes. They are approximated by subdividing the area
           of each patch into a n×n grid of smaller segments. The maximal number of segments per
           column and row can be changed with option --grad-segments.

           If the size of the segments created to approximate gradient color fills falls below
           the given delta value, dvisvgm reduces their level of detail. For example, Bézier
           curves are replaced by straight lines, and triangular segments are combined to
           tetragons. For a small delta these simplifications are usually not noticeable but
           reduce the size of the generated SVG files.

       -h, --help[=mode]
           Prints a short summary of all available command-line options. The optional mode
           parameter is an integer value between 0 and 2. It selects the display variant of the
           help text. Mode 0 lists all options divided into categories with section headers. This
           is also the default if dvisvgm is called without parameters. Mode 1 lists all options
           ordered by the short option names, while mode 2 sorts the lines by the long option

           Disables the removal of temporary files as created by Metafont (usually .gf, .tfm, and
           .log files).

           This option is only available if the Ghostscript library is not directly linked to
           dvisvgm and if PostScript support was not completely disabled during compilation. In
           this case, dvisvgm tries to load the shared GS library dynamically during runtime. By
           default, it expects the library’s name to be (on Unix-like systems, where X
           is the ABI version of the library) or gsdll32.dll/gsdll64.dll (Windows). Option
           --libgs can be used to give a different name. Alternatively, it’s also possible to set
           the GS library name by the environment variable LIBGS. The latter has less precedence
           than the command-line option, i.e. dvisvgm ignores variable LIBGS if --libgs is given.

       -L, --linkmark=style
           Selects the method how to mark hyperlinked areas. The style argument can take one of
           the values none, box, and line, where box is the default, i.e. a rectangle is drawn
           around the linked region if option --linkmark is omitted. Style argument line just
           draws the lower edge of the bounding rectangle, and none tells dvisvgm not to add any
           visible objects to hyperlinks. The lines and boxes get the current text color
           selected. In order to apply a different, constant color, a colon followed by a color
           specifier can be appended to the style string. A color specifier is either a
           hexadecimal RGB value of the form #RRGGBB, or a dvips color name

           Moreover, argument style can take a single color specifier to highlight the linked
           region by a frameless box filled with that color. An optional second color specifier
           separated by colon selects the frame color.

           Examples: box:red or box:#ff0000 draws red boxes around the linked areas.  yellow:blue
           creates yellow filled rectangles with blue frames.

       -l, --list-specials
           Prints a list of registered special handlers and exits. Each handler processes a set
           of special statements belonging to the same category. In most cases, the categories
           are identified by the prefix of the special statements. It’s usually a leading word
           separated from the rest of the statement by a colon or a blank, e.g.  color or ps.

       -M, --mag=factor
           Sets the magnification factor applied in conjunction with Metafont calls prior tracing
           the glyphs. The larger this value, the better the tracing results. Nevertheless, large
           magnification values can cause Metafont arithmetic errors due to number overflows. So,
           use this option with care. The default setting usually produces nice results.

           Puts every single character in a separate text element with corresponding x and y
           attributes. By default, new text or tspan elements are only created if a string starts
           at a location that differs from the regular position defined by the characters'
           advance values.

           Suppresses the generation of missing font files. If dvisvgm can’t find a font file
           through the kpathsea lookup mechanism, it calls the external tools mktextfm or mktexmf
           by. This option disables these calls.

       -n, --no-fonts[=variant]
           If this option is given, dvisvgm doesn’t create SVG font elements but uses paths
           instead. The resulting SVG files tend to be larger but they are concurrently more
           compatible with most applications that don’t support SVG fonts yet. The optional
           argument variant selects the method how to substitute fonts by paths. Variant 0
           creates path and use elements. Variant 1 creates path elements only. Option --no-fonts
           implies --no-styles.

       -c, --scale=sx[,sy]
           Scales the page content horizontally by sx and vertically by sy. This option is
           equivalent to -TSsx,sy.

       -S, --no-specials[=names]
           Disable processing of special commands embedded in the DVI file. If no further
           parameter is given, all specials are ignored. To selectively disable sets of specials,
           an optional comma-separated list of names can be appended to this option. A name is
           the unique identifier referencing the intended special handler. Option --list-specials
           lists all currently available handlers and their names. All unsupported special
           statements are silently ignored.

           By default, dvisvgm creates CSS styles and class attributes to reference fonts because
           it’s more compact than repeatedly set the complete font information in each text
           element. However, if you prefer direct font references, the default behavior can be
           disabled with option --no-styles.

       -o, --output=pattern
           Sets the name pattern of the output file. Parameter pattern is a string that may
           contain the variables %f, %p, and %P.  %f expands to the base name of the DVI file,
           i.e. the filename without suffix, %p is the current page number, and %P the total
           number of pages in the DVI file. An optional number (0-9) given after the percent sign
           specifies the minimal number of digits to be written. If a particular value is
           shorter, the number is padded with leading zeros. Example: %3p enforces 3 digits for
           the current page number (001, 002, etc.). Without an explicit width specifier, %p gets
           the same number of digits as %P.

           If you need more control over the numbering, you can use arithmetic expressions as
           part of a pattern. The syntax is %(expr) where expr may contain additions,
           subtractions, multiplications, and integer divisions with common precedence. The
           variables p and P contain the current page number and the total number of pages,
           respectively. For example, --output="%f-%(p-1)" creates filenames where the numbering
           starts with 0 rather than 1.

           The default pattern is %f-%p.svg if the DVI file consists of more than one page, and
           %f.svg otherwise. That means, a DVI file foo.dvi is converted to foo.svg if foo.dvi is
           a single-page document. Otherwise, multiple SVG files foo-01.svg, foo-02.svg, etc. are
           produced. In Windows environments, the percent sign indicates dereferenced environment
           variables, and must therefore be protected by a second percent sign, e.g.

       -p, --page=ranges
           This option sets the pages to be processed. Parameter ranges consists of a
           comma-separated list of single page numbers and/or page ranges. A page range is a pair
           of numbers separated by a hyphen, e.g. 5-12. Thus, a page sequence might look like
           this: 2-4,6,9-12,15. It doesn’t matter if a page is given more than once or if page
           ranges overlap. dvisvgm always extracts the page numbers in ascending order and
           converts them only once. In order to stay compatible with previous versions, the
           default page sequence is 1. dvisvgm therefore converts only the first page and not the
           whole document in case option --page is omitted. Usually, page ranges consist of two
           numbers denoting the first and last page to be converted. If the conversion is to be
           started at page 1, or if it should continue up to the last DVI page, the first or
           second range number can be omitted, respectively. Example: --page=-10 converts all
           pages up to page 10, --page=10- converts all pages starting with page 10. Please
           consider that the page values don’t refer to the page numbers printed on the page.
           Instead, the physical page count is expected, where the first page always gets number

       -d, --precision=digits
           Specifies the maximal number of decimal places applied to floating-point attribute
           values. All attribute values written to the generated SVG file(s) are rounded
           accordingly. The parameter digits allows integer values from 0 to 6, where 0 enables
           the automatic selection of significant decimal places. This is also the default value
           if dvisvgm is called without option --precision.

       -P, --progress[=delay]
           Enables a simple progress indicator shown when time-consuming operations like
           PostScript specials are processed. The indicator doesn’t appear before the given delay
           (in seconds) has elapsed. The default delay value is 0.5 seconds.

       -r, --rotate=angle
           Rotates the page content clockwise by angle degrees around the page center. This
           option is equivalent to -TRangle.

       -R, --relative
           SVG allows to define graphics paths by a sequence of absolute and/or relative
           commands, i.e. each command expects either absolute coordinates or coordinates
           relative to the current drawing position. By default, dvisvgm creates paths made up of
           absolute commands. If option --relative is given, relative commands are created
           instead which slightly reduces the size of the SVG files in most cases.

       -s, --stdout
           Don’t write the SVG output to a file but redirect it to stdout.

       -T, --transform=commands
           Applies a sequence of transformations to the SVG content. Each transformation is
           described by a command beginning with a capital letter followed by a list of
           comma-separated parameters. Following transformation commands are supported:

           T tx[,ty]
               Translates (moves) the page in direction of vector (tx,ty). If ty is omitted, ty=0
               is assumed. The expected unit length of tx and ty are TeX points (1pt =
               1/72.27in). However, there are several constants defined to simplify the unit
               conversion (see below).

           S sx[,sy]
               Scales the page horizontally by sx and vertically by sy. If sy is omitted, sy=sx
               is assumed.

           R angle[,x,y]
               Rotates the page clockwise by angle degrees around point (x,y). If the optional
               arguments x and y are omitted, the page will be rotated around its center
               depending on the chosen page format. When option -bnone is given, the rotation
               center is origin (0,0).

           KX angle
               Skews the page along the x-axis by angle degrees. Argument angle can take any
               value except 90+180k, where k is an integer.

           KY angle
               Skews the page along the y-axis by angle degrees. Argument angle can take any
               value except 90+180k, where k is an integer.

           FH [y]
               Mirrors (flips) the page at the horizontal line through point (0,y). Omitting the
               optional argument leads to y=h/2, where h denotes the page height (see pre-defined
               constants below).

           FV [x]
               Mirrors (flips) the page at the vertical line through point (x,0). Omitting the
               optional argument leads to x=w/2, where w denotes the page width (see pre-defined
               constants below).

           M m1,...,m6
               Applies a transformation described by the 3×3 matrix
               ((m1,m2,m3),(m4,m5,m6),(0,0,1)), where the inner triples denote the rows.

                   All transformation commands of option -T, --transform are applied in the order
                   of their appearance. Multiple commands can optionally be separated by spaces.
                   In this case the whole transformation string has to be enclosed in double
                   quotes. All parameters are expressions of floating point type. You can either
                   give plain numbers or arithmetic terms combined by the operators + (addition),
                   - (subtraction), * (multiplication), / (division) or % (modulo) with common
                   associativity and precedence rules. Parentheses may be used as well.

                   Additionally, some pre-defined constants are provided:

                   ux   horizontal position of upper
                        left page corner in TeX point
                   uy   vertical position of upper left
                        page corner in TeX point units
                   h    page height in TeX point units
                        (0 in case of -bnone)
                   w    page width in TeX point units (0
                        in case of -bnone)

                   Furthermore, you can use the length constants pt, mm, cm and in, e.g.  2cm or
                   1.6in. Thus, option -TT1in,0R45 moves the page content 1 inch to the right and
                   rotates it by 45 degrees around the page center afterwards.

                   For single transformations you can also use options -c, -t and -r. Note that
                   the order in which these options are given is not significant, i.e. you can’t
                   use them to describe transformation sequences. They are simply independent
                   shorthand options for common transformations.

       -t, --translate=tx[,ty]
           Translates (moves) the page content in direction of vector (tx,ty). This option is
           equivalent to -TTtx,ty.

       -v, --verbosity=level
           Controls the type of messages printed during a dvisvgm run:

           0   no message output
           1   error messages only
           2   warning messages only
           4   informational messages only

               By adding these values you can combine the categories. The default level is 7,
               i.e. all messages are printed.

       -V, --version[=extended]
           Prints the version of dvisvgm and exits. If the optional argument is set to yes, the
           version numbers of the linked libraries are printed as well.

       -z, --zip[=level]
           Creates a compressed SVG file with suffix .svgz. The optional argument specifies the
           compression level. Valid values are in the range of 1 to 9 (default value is 9).
           Larger values cause better compression results but take more computation time.

               This option cannot be combined with -s, --stdout.

       -Z, --zoom[=factor]
           Multiplies the width and height attributes of the SVG root element by argument factor
           while the coordinate system of the graphic is retained. As a result, most SVG viewers
           zoom the graphics accordingly. If a negative zoom factor is given, the width and
           height attributes are omitted.


       dvisvgm supports several sets of special commands that can be used to enrich DVI files
       with additional features, like color, graphics, and hyperlinks. The evaluation of special
       commands is delegated to dedicated handlers. Each handler is responsible for all special
       statements of the same command set, i.e. commands beginning with the same prefix. To get a
       list of actually provided special handlers, use option --list-specials (see above). This
       section gives an overview of the special commands currently supported.

           Special statement for changing the background/page color. Since SVG 1.1 doesn’t
           support background colors, dvisvgm inserts a rectangle of the chosen color into the
           generated SVG document. This rectangle always gets the same size as the selected or
           computed bounding box. This background color command is part of the color special set
           but is handled separately in order to let the user turn it off. For an overview of the
           command syntax, see the documentation of dvips, for instance.

           Statements of this command set provide instructions to change the text/paint color.
           For an overview of the exact syntax, see the documentation of dvips, for instance.

           dvisvgm offers its own small set of specials. The following list gives a brief

           dvisvgm:raw text
               Adds an arbitrary sequence of characters to the page section of the SVG document.
               dvisvgm does not perform any validation here, thus the user has to ensure that the
               resulting SVG is still valid. Parameter text may contain the expressions {?x},
               {?y}, and {?color} that expand to the current x or y coordinate and the current
               color, respectively. Furthermore, {?nl} expands to a newline character.

           dvisvgm:rawdef text
               This command is similar to dvisvgm:raw, but puts the raw text into the <defs>
               section of the SVG document currently being generated.

           dvisvgm:rawset name ... dvisvgm:endrawset
               This pair of specials marks the begin and end of a definition of a named raw SVG
               fragment. All dvisvgm:raw and dvisvgm:rawdef specials enclosed by dvisvgm:rawset
               and dvisvgm:endrawset are not evaluated immediately but jointly stored under the
               given name for later use. Once defined, the named fragment can be referenced
               throughout the DVI file by dvisvgm:rawput (see below). The two commands
               dvisvgm:rawset and dvisvgm:endrawset must not be nested, i.e. each call of
               dvisvgm:rawset has to be followed by a corresponding call of dvisvgm:endrawset
               before another dvisvgm:rawset may occur. Also, the identifier name must be unique
               throughout the DVI file. Using dvisvgm:rawset multiple times together with the
               same name leads to a warning message.

           dvisvgm:rawput name
               Inserts raw SVG fragments previously stored under the given name. dvisvgm
               distinguishes between fragments that were specified with dvisvgm:raw or
               dvisvgm:rawdef, and handles them differently: It inserts all dvisvgm:raw parts
               every time dvisvgm:rawput is called, whereas the dvisvgm:rawdef portions go to the
               <defs> section of the current SVG document only once.

           dvisvgm:img width height file
               Creates an image element at the current graphic position referencing the given
               file. JPEG, PNG, and SVG images can be used here. However, dvisvgm does not check
               the file format or the file name suffix. The lengths width and height must be
               given as plain floating point numbers in TeX point units (1in = 72.27pt).

           dvisvgm:bbox n[ew] name
               Defines or resets a local bounding box called name. The name may consist of
               letters and digits. While processing a DVI page, dvisvgm continuously updates the
               (global) bounding box of the current page in order to determine the minimal
               rectangle containing all visible page components (characters, images, drawing
               elements etc.) Additionally to the global bounding box, the user can request an
               arbitrary number of named local bounding boxes. Once defined, these boxes are
               updated together with the global bounding box starting with the first character
               that follows the definition. Thus, the local boxes can be used to compute the
               extent of parts of the page. This is useful for scenarios where the generated SVG
               file is post-processed. In conjunction with special dvisvgm:raw, the macro {?bbox
               name} expands to the four values x, y, w, and h (separated by spaces) specifying
               the coordinates of the upper left corner, width, and height of the local box name.
               If box name wasn’t previously defined, all four values equal zero.

           dvisvgm:bbox width height [depth]
               Updates the bounding box of the current page by embedding a virtual rectangle (x,
               y, width, height) where the lower left corner is located at the current DVI
               drawing position (x,y). If the optional parameter depth is specified, dvisvgm
               embeds a second rectangle (x, y, width, -depth). The lengths width, height and
               depth must be given as plain floating point numbers in TeX point units (1in =
               72.27pt). Depending on size and position of the virtual rectangle, this command
               either enlarges the overall bounding box or leaves it as is. It’s not possible to
               reduce its extent. This special should be used in conjunction with dvisvgm:raw in
               order to update the viewport of the page properly.

           dvisvgm:bbox a[bs] x1 y1 x2 y2
               This variant of the bbox special updates the bounding box by embedding a virtual
               rectangle (x1,y1,x2,y2). The points (x1,y1) and (x2,y2) denote two diagonal
               corners of the rectangle given in TeX point units.

           dvisvgm:bbox f[ix] x1 y1 x2 y2
               This variant of the bbox special assigns an absolute (final) bounding box to the
               resulting SVG. After executing this command, dvisvgm doesn’t further alter the
               bounding box coordinates, except this special is called again later. The points
               (x1,y1) and (x2,y2) denote two diagonal corners of the rectangle given in TeX
               point units.

               The following TeX snippet adds two raw SVG elements to the output and updates the
               bounding box accordingly:

                   \special{dvisvgm:raw <circle cx='{?x}' cy='{?y}' r='10' stroke='black' fill='red'/>}
                   \special{dvisvgm:bbox 20 10 10}

                   \special{dvisvgm:raw <path d='M50 200 L10 250 H100 Z' stroke='black' fill='blue'/>}
                   \special{dvisvgm:bbox abs 10 200 100 250}

           These specials were introduced with the emTeX distribution by Eberhard Mattes. They
           provide line drawing statements, instructions for embedding MSP, PCX, and BMP image
           files, as well as two PCL commands. dvisvgm supports only the line drawing statements
           and ignores all other em specials silently. A description of the command syntax can be
           found in the DVI driver documentation coming with emTeX (see CTAN).

           The hyperref specification defines several variants on how to mark hyperlinked areas
           in a DVI file. dvisvgm supports the plain HyperTeX special constructs as created with
           hyperref package option hypertex. By default, all linked areas of the document are
           marked by a rectangle. Option --linkmark allows to change this behavior. See above for
           further details. Information on syntax and semantics of the HyperTeX specials can be
           found in the hyperref manual.

           pdfTeX and dvipdfmx introduced several special commands related to the generation of
           PDF files. Currently, only two of them, pdf:mapfile and pdf:mapline are supported by
           dvisvgm. These specials allow modifying the font map tree during the processing of DVI
           files. They are used by CTeX, for example. dvisvgm supports both, the dvips and
           dvipdfm font map format. For further information on the command syntax and semantics,
           see the documentation of \pdfmapfile in the pdfTeX user manual.

           The famous DVI driver dvips introduced its own set of specials in order to embed
           PostScript code into DVI files, which greatly improves the capabilities of DVI
           documents. One aim of dvisvgm is to completely evaluate all PostScript snippets and to
           convert as many of them as possible to SVG. In contrast to dvips, dvisvgm uses
           floating point arithmetics to compute the precise position of each graphic element,
           i.e. it doesn’t round the coordinates. Therefore, the relative locations of the
           graphic elements may slightly differ from those computed by dvips.

           Since PostScript is a rather complex language, dvisvgm does not try to implement its
           own PostScript interpreter but relies on Ghostscript ( instead.
           If the Ghostscript library was not linked to the dvisvgm binary, it is looked up and
           loaded dynamically during runtime. In this case, dvisvgm looks for on
           Unix-like systems (supported ABI versions: 7,8,9), and for gsdll32.dll or gsdll64.dll
           on Windows. You can override the default file names with environment variable LIBGS or
           the command-line option --libgs. The library must be reachable through the ld search
           path (*nix) or the PATH environment variable (Windows). Alternatively, the absolute
           file path can be specified. If the library cannot be found, dvisvgm disables the
           processing of PostScript specials and prints a warning message. Use option
           --list-specials to check whether PostScript support is available, i.e. entry ps is

           The PostScript handler also recognizes and evaluates bounding box data generated by
           the preview package with option tightpage. If the data is present in a DVI file,
           dvisvgm adapts the bounding box of the generated SVG file accordingly, and prints a
           message showing the width, height, and depth of the box in TeX point units.
           Especially, the depth value can be used to vertically align the SVG graphics with the
           baseline of surrounding text in HTML or XSL-FO documents, for example.

           The TPIC special set defines instructions for drawing simple geometric objects. Some
           LaTeX packages, like eepic and tplot, use these specials to describe graphics.


           dvisvgm file

       Converts the first page of file.dvi to file.svg.

           dvisvgm -z file

       Converts the first page of file.dvi to file.svgz with default compression level 9.

           dvisvgm -p5 -z3 -ba4-l -onewfile file

       Converts the fifth page of file.dvi to newfile.svgz with compression level 3. The bounding
       box is set to DIN/ISO A4 in landscape format.

           dvisvgm --transform="R20,w/3,2h/5 T1cm,1cm S2,3" file

       Converts the first page of file.dvi to file.svg where three transformations are applied.


       dvisvgm uses the kpathsea library for locating the files that it opens. Hence, the
       environment variables described in the library’s documentation influence the converter.

       If dvisvgm was linked without the Ghostscript library, and if PostScript support has not
       been disabled, the shared Ghostscript library is looked up during runtime via dlopen().
       The environment variable LIBGS can be used to specify path and file name of the library.

       The pre-compiled Windows versions of dvisvgm require a working installation of MiKTeX 2.9
       or above. dvisvgm does not work together with the portable edition of MiKTeX because it
       relies on MiKTeX’s COM interface only accessible in a local installation. To enable the
       evaluation of PostScript specials, the original Ghostscript DLL gsdll32.dll must be
       present and reachable through the search path. 64-bit Windows builds require the 64-bit
       Ghostscript DLL gsdll64.dll. Both DLLs come with the corresponding Ghostscript installers
       available from

       The environment variable DVISVGM_COLORS specifies the colors used to highlight various
       parts of dvisvgm’s message output. It is only evaluated if option --color is given. The
       value of DVISVGM_COLORS is a list of colon-separated entries of the form gg=BF, where gg
       denotes one of the color group indicators listed below, and BF are two hexadecimal digits
       specifying the background (first digit) and foreground/text color (second digit). The
       color values are defined as follows: 0=black, 1=red, 2=green, 3=yellow, 4=blue, 5=magenta,
       6=cyan, 7=gray, 8=bright red, 9=bright green, A=bright yellow, B=bright blue, C=bright
       magenta, D=bright cyan, E=bright gray, F=white. Depending on the terminal, the colors may
       differ. Rather than changing both the text and background color, it’s also possible to
       change only one of them: An asterisk (*) in place of a hexadecimal digit indicates the
       default text or background color of the terminal.

       All malformed entries in the list are silently ignored.

       er   error messages

       wn   warning messages

       pn   messages about page numbers

       ps   page size messages

       fw   information about the files

       sm   state messages

       tr   messages of the glyph tracer

       pi   progress indicator

       Example: er=01:pi=*5 sets the colors of error messages (er) to red (1) on black (0), and
       those of progress indicators (pi) to cyan (5) on default background (*).


       The location of the following files is determined by the kpathsea library. To check the
       actual kpathsea configuration you can use the kpsewhich utility.

       *.enc   Font encoding files

       *.fgd   Font glyph data files (cache
               files created by dvisvgm)

       *.map   Font map files

       *.mf    Metafont input files

       *.pfb   PostScript Type 1 font files

       *.pro   PostScript header/prologue files

       *.tfm   TeX font metric files

       *.ttf   TrueType font files

       *.vf    Virtual font files


       tex(1), mf(1), mktexmf(1), grodvi(1), potrace(1), and the kpathsea library info


       Project home page

       SourceForge project site


       Please report bugs using the bug tracker at Launchpad ( or
       GitHub (


       Written by Martin Gieseking <>


       Copyright © 2005-2015 Martin Gieseking. Free use of this software is granted under the
       terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL) version 3 or, (at your option) any later