Provided by: git-svn_2.7.4-0ubuntu1.10_all bug


       git-svn - Bidirectional operation between a Subversion repository and Git


       git svn <command> [options] [arguments]


       git svn is a simple conduit for changesets between Subversion and Git. It provides a
       bidirectional flow of changes between a Subversion and a Git repository.

       git svn can track a standard Subversion repository, following the common
       "trunk/branches/tags" layout, with the --stdlayout option. It can also follow branches and
       tags in any layout with the -T/-t/-b options (see options to init below, and also the
       clone command).

       Once tracking a Subversion repository (with any of the above methods), the Git repository
       can be updated from Subversion by the fetch command and Subversion updated from Git by the
       dcommit command.


           Initializes an empty Git repository with additional metadata directories for git svn.
           The Subversion URL may be specified as a command-line argument, or as full URL
           arguments to -T/-t/-b. Optionally, the target directory to operate on can be specified
           as a second argument. Normally this command initializes the current directory.

           -T<trunk_subdir>, --trunk=<trunk_subdir>, -t<tags_subdir>, --tags=<tags_subdir>,
           -b<branches_subdir>, --branches=<branches_subdir>, -s, --stdlayout
               These are optional command-line options for init. Each of these flags can point to
               a relative repository path (--tags=project/tags) or a full url
               (--tags= You can specify more than one --tags and/or
               --branches options, in case your Subversion repository places tags or branches
               under multiple paths. The option --stdlayout is a shorthand way of setting
               trunk,tags,branches as the relative paths, which is the Subversion default. If any
               of the other options are given as well, they take precedence.

               Set the noMetadata option in the [svn-remote] config. This option is not
               recommended, please read the svn.noMetadata section of this manpage before using
               this option.

               Set the useSvmProps option in the [svn-remote] config.

               Set the useSvnsyncProps option in the [svn-remote] config.

               Set the rewriteRoot option in the [svn-remote] config.

               Set the rewriteUUID option in the [svn-remote] config.

               For transports that SVN handles authentication for (http, https, and plain svn),
               specify the username. For other transports (e.g.  svn+ssh://), you must include
               the username in the URL, e.g.  svn+ssh://

               This allows one to specify a prefix which is prepended to the names of remotes if
               trunk/branches/tags are specified. The prefix does not automatically include a
               trailing slash, so be sure you include one in the argument if that is what you
               want. If --branches/-b is specified, the prefix must include a trailing slash.
               Setting a prefix (with a trailing slash) is strongly encouraged in any case, as
               your SVN-tracking refs will then be located at "refs/remotes/$prefix/", which is
               compatible with Git’s own remote-tracking ref layout (refs/remotes/$remote/).
               Setting a prefix is also useful if you wish to track multiple projects that share
               a common repository. By default, the prefix is set to origin/.

                   Before Git v2.0, the default prefix was "" (no prefix). This meant that
                   SVN-tracking refs were put at "refs/remotes/*", which is incompatible with how
                   Git’s own remote-tracking refs are organized. If you still want the old
                   default, you can get it by passing --prefix "" on the command line
                   (--prefix="" may not work if your Perl’s Getopt::Long is < v2.37).

               When passed to init or clone this regular expression will be preserved as a config
               key. See fetch for a description of --ignore-paths.

               When passed to init or clone this regular expression will be preserved as a config
               key. See fetch for a description of --include-paths.

               When tracking multiple directories (using --stdlayout, --branches, or --tags
               options), git svn will attempt to connect to the root (or highest allowed level)
               of the Subversion repository. This default allows better tracking of history if
               entire projects are moved within a repository, but may cause issues on
               repositories where read access restrictions are in place. Passing
               --no-minimize-url will allow git svn to accept URLs as-is without attempting to
               connect to a higher level directory. This option is off by default when only one
               URL/branch is tracked (it would do little good).

           Fetch unfetched revisions from the Subversion remote we are tracking. The name of the
           [svn-remote "..."] section in the $GIT_DIR/config file may be specified as an optional
           command-line argument.

           This automatically updates the rev_map if needed (see $GIT_DIR/svn/**/.rev_map.*  in
           the FILES section below for details).

               Store Git commit times in the local time zone instead of UTC. This makes git log
               (even without --date=local) show the same times that svn log would in the local
               time zone.

               This doesn’t interfere with interoperating with the Subversion repository you
               cloned from, but if you wish for your local Git repository to be able to
               interoperate with someone else’s local Git repository, either don’t use this
               option or you should both use it in the same local time zone.

               Fetch only from the SVN parent of the current HEAD.

               This allows one to specify a Perl regular expression that will cause skipping of
               all matching paths from checkout from SVN. The --ignore-paths option should match
               for every fetch (including automatic fetches due to clone, dcommit, rebase, etc)
               on a given repository.

                   config key: svn-remote.<name>.ignore-paths

               If the ignore-paths configuration key is set, and the command-line option is also
               given, both regular expressions will be used.


               Skip "doc*" directory for every fetch


               Skip "branches" and "tags" of first level directories


               This allows one to specify a Perl regular expression that will cause the inclusion
               of only matching paths from checkout from SVN. The --include-paths option should
               match for every fetch (including automatic fetches due to clone, dcommit, rebase,
               etc) on a given repository.  --ignore-paths takes precedence over --include-paths.

                   config key: svn-remote.<name>.include-paths

               Fetch <n> log entries per request when scanning Subversion history. The default is
               100. For very large Subversion repositories, larger values may be needed for
               clone/fetch to complete in reasonable time. But overly large values may lead to
               higher memory usage and request timeouts.

           Runs init and fetch. It will automatically create a directory based on the basename of
           the URL passed to it; or if a second argument is passed; it will create a directory
           and work within that. It accepts all arguments that the init and fetch commands
           accept; with the exception of --fetch-all and --parent. After a repository is cloned,
           the fetch command will be able to update revisions without affecting the working tree;
           and the rebase command will be able to update the working tree with the latest

               Create a placeholder file in the local Git repository for each empty directory
               fetched from Subversion. This includes directories that become empty by removing
               all entries in the Subversion repository (but not the directory itself). The
               placeholder files are also tracked and removed when no longer necessary.

               Set the name of placeholder files created by --preserve-empty-dirs. Default:

           This fetches revisions from the SVN parent of the current HEAD and rebases the current
           (uncommitted to SVN) work against it.

           This works similarly to svn update or git pull except that it preserves linear history
           with git rebase instead of git merge for ease of dcommitting with git svn.

           This accepts all options that git svn fetch and git rebase accept. However,
           --fetch-all only fetches from the current [svn-remote], and not all [svn-remote]

           Like git rebase; this requires that the working tree be clean and have no uncommitted

           This automatically updates the rev_map if needed (see $GIT_DIR/svn/**/.rev_map.*  in
           the FILES section below for details).

           -l, --local
               Do not fetch remotely; only run git rebase against the last fetched commit from
               the upstream SVN.

           Commit each diff from the current branch directly to the SVN repository, and then
           rebase or reset (depending on whether or not there is a diff between SVN and head).
           This will create a revision in SVN for each commit in Git.

           When an optional Git branch name (or a Git commit object name) is specified as an
           argument, the subcommand works on the specified branch, not on the current branch.

           Use of dcommit is preferred to set-tree (below).

               After committing, do not rebase or reset.

           --commit-url <URL>
               Commit to this SVN URL (the full path). This is intended to allow existing git svn
               repositories created with one transport method (e.g.  svn:// or http:// for
               anonymous read) to be reused if a user is later given access to an alternate
               transport method (e.g.  svn+ssh:// or https://) for commit.

                   config key: svn-remote.<name>.commiturl
                   config key: svn.commiturl (overwrites all svn-remote.<name>.commiturl options)

               Note that the SVN URL of the commiturl config key includes the SVN branch. If you
               rather want to set the commit URL for an entire SVN repository use
               svn-remote.<name>.pushurl instead.

               Using this option for any other purpose (don’t ask) is very strongly discouraged.

               Add the given merge information during the dcommit (e.g.
               --mergeinfo="/branches/foo:1-10"). All svn server versions can store this
               information (as a property), and svn clients starting from version 1.5 can make
               use of it. To specify merge information from multiple branches, use a single space
               character between the branches (--mergeinfo="/branches/foo:1-10

                   config key: svn.pushmergeinfo

               This option will cause git-svn to attempt to automatically populate the
               svn:mergeinfo property in the SVN repository when possible. Currently, this can
               only be done when dcommitting non-fast-forward merges where all parents but the
               first have already been pushed into SVN.

               Ask the user to confirm that a patch set should actually be sent to SVN. For each
               patch, one may answer "yes" (accept this patch), "no" (discard this patch), "all"
               (accept all patches), or "quit".

               git svn dcommit returns immediately if answer is "no" or "quit", without
               committing anything to SVN.

           Create a branch in the SVN repository.

           -m, --message
               Allows to specify the commit message.

           -t, --tag
               Create a tag by using the tags_subdir instead of the branches_subdir specified
               during git svn init.

           -d<path>, --destination=<path>
               If more than one --branches (or --tags) option was given to the init or clone
               command, you must provide the location of the branch (or tag) you wish to create
               in the SVN repository. <path> specifies which path to use to create the branch or
               tag and should match the pattern on the left-hand side of one of the configured
               branches or tags refspecs. You can see these refspecs with the commands

                   git config --get-all svn-remote.<name>.branches
                   git config --get-all svn-remote.<name>.tags

               where <name> is the name of the SVN repository as specified by the -R option to
               init (or "svn" by default).

               Specify the SVN username to perform the commit as. This option overrides the
               username configuration property.

               Use the specified URL to connect to the destination Subversion repository. This is
               useful in cases where the source SVN repository is read-only. This option
               overrides configuration property commiturl.

                   git config --get-all svn-remote.<name>.commiturl

               Create parent folders. This parameter is equivalent to the parameter --parents on
               svn cp commands and is useful for non-standard repository layouts.

           Create a tag in the SVN repository. This is a shorthand for branch -t.

           This should make it easy to look up svn log messages when svn users refer to
           -r/--revision numbers.

           The following features from ‘svn log’ are supported:

           -r <n>[:<n>], --revision=<n>[:<n>]
               is supported, non-numeric args are not: HEAD, NEXT, BASE, PREV, etc ...

           -v, --verbose
               it’s not completely compatible with the --verbose output in svn log, but
               reasonably close.

               is NOT the same as --max-count, doesn’t count merged/excluded commits


           New features:

               shows the Git commit sha1, as well

               our version of --pretty=oneline

               SVN itself only stores times in UTC and nothing else. The regular svn client
               converts the UTC time to the local time (or based on the TZ= environment). This
               command has the same behaviour.
           Any other arguments are passed directly to git log

           Show what revision and author last modified each line of a file. The output of this
           mode is format-compatible with the output of ‘svn blame’ by default. Like the SVN
           blame command, local uncommitted changes in the working tree are ignored; the version
           of the file in the HEAD revision is annotated. Unknown arguments are passed directly
           to git blame.

               Produce output in the same format as git blame, but with SVN revision numbers
               instead of Git commit hashes. In this mode, changes that haven’t been committed to
               SVN (including local working-copy edits) are shown as revision 0.

           When given an SVN revision number of the form rN, returns the corresponding Git commit
           hash (this can optionally be followed by a tree-ish to specify which branch should be
           searched). When given a tree-ish, returns the corresponding SVN revision number.

           -B, --before
               Don’t require an exact match if given an SVN revision, instead find the commit
               corresponding to the state of the SVN repository (on the current branch) at the
               specified revision.

           -A, --after
               Don’t require an exact match if given an SVN revision; if there is not an exact
               match return the closest match searching forward in the history.

           You should consider using dcommit instead of this command. Commit specified commit or
           tree objects to SVN. This relies on your imported fetch data being up-to-date. This
           makes absolutely no attempts to do patching when committing to SVN, it simply
           overwrites files with those specified in the tree or commit. All merging is assumed to
           have taken place independently of git svn functions.

           Recursively finds the svn:ignore property on directories and creates matching
           .gitignore files. The resulting files are staged to be committed, but are not
           committed. Use -r/--revision to refer to a specific revision.

           Recursively finds and lists the svn:ignore property on directories. The output is
           suitable for appending to the $GIT_DIR/info/exclude file.

           Attempts to recreate empty directories that core Git cannot track based on information
           in $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/unhandled.log files. Empty directories are automatically
           recreated when using "git svn clone" and "git svn rebase", so "mkdirs" is intended for
           use after commands like "git checkout" or "git reset". (See the
           svn-remote.<name>.automkdirs config file option for more information.)

           Commits the diff of two tree-ish arguments from the command-line. This command does
           not rely on being inside an git svn init-ed repository. This command takes three
           arguments, (a) the original tree to diff against, (b) the new tree result, (c) the URL
           of the target Subversion repository. The final argument (URL) may be omitted if you
           are working from a git svn-aware repository (that has been init-ed with git svn). The
           -r<revision> option is required for this.

           Shows information about a file or directory similar to what ‘svn info’ provides. Does
           not currently support a -r/--revision argument. Use the --url option to output only
           the value of the URL: field.

           Lists the properties stored in the Subversion repository about a given file or
           directory. Use -r/--revision to refer to a specific Subversion revision.

           Gets the Subversion property given as the first argument, for a file. A specific
           revision can be specified with -r/--revision.

           Shows the Subversion externals. Use -r/--revision to specify a specific revision.

           Compress $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/unhandled.log files and remove
           $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/index files.

           Undoes the effects of fetch back to the specified revision. This allows you to
           re-fetch an SVN revision. Normally the contents of an SVN revision should never change
           and reset should not be necessary. However, if SVN permissions change, or if you alter
           your --ignore-paths option, a fetch may fail with "not found in commit" (file not
           previously visible) or "checksum mismatch" (missed a modification). If the problem
           file cannot be ignored forever (with --ignore-paths) the only way to repair the repo
           is to use reset.

           Only the rev_map and refs/remotes/git-svn are changed (see $GIT_DIR/svn/**/.rev_map.*
           in the FILES section below for details). Follow reset with a fetch and then git reset
           or git rebase to move local branches onto the new tree.

           -r <n>, --revision=<n>
               Specify the most recent revision to keep. All later revisions are discarded.

           -p, --parent
               Discard the specified revision as well, keeping the nearest parent instead.

               Assume you have local changes in "master", but you need to refetch "r2".

                       r1---r2---r3 remotes/git-svn
                                    A---B master

               Fix the ignore-paths or SVN permissions problem that caused "r2" to be incomplete
               in the first place. Then:

                   git svn reset -r2 -p
                   git svn fetch

                       r1---r2'--r3' remotes/git-svn
                          r2---r3---A---B master

               Then fixup "master" with git rebase. Do NOT use git merge or your history will not
               be compatible with a future dcommit!

                   git rebase --onto remotes/git-svn A^ master

                       r1---r2'--r3' remotes/git-svn
                                    A'--B' master


       --shared[=(false|true|umask|group|all|world|everybody)], --template=<template_directory>
           Only used with the init command. These are passed directly to git init.

       -r <arg>, --revision <arg>
           Used with the fetch command.

           This allows revision ranges for partial/cauterized history to be supported. $NUMBER,
           $NUMBER1:$NUMBER2 (numeric ranges), $NUMBER:HEAD, and BASE:$NUMBER are all supported.

           This can allow you to make partial mirrors when running fetch; but is generally not
           recommended because history will be skipped and lost.

       -, --stdin
           Only used with the set-tree command.

           Read a list of commits from stdin and commit them in reverse order. Only the leading
           sha1 is read from each line, so git rev-list --pretty=oneline output can be used.

           Only used with the dcommit, set-tree and commit-diff commands.

           Remove directories from the SVN tree if there are no files left behind. SVN can
           version empty directories, and they are not removed by default if there are no files
           left in them. Git cannot version empty directories. Enabling this flag will make the
           commit to SVN act like Git.

               config key: svn.rmdir

       -e, --edit
           Only used with the dcommit, set-tree and commit-diff commands.

           Edit the commit message before committing to SVN. This is off by default for objects
           that are commits, and forced on when committing tree objects.

               config key: svn.edit

       -l<num>, --find-copies-harder
           Only used with the dcommit, set-tree and commit-diff commands.

           They are both passed directly to git diff-tree; see git-diff-tree(1) for more

               config key: svn.l
               config key: svn.findcopiesharder

       -A<filename>, --authors-file=<filename>
           Syntax is compatible with the file used by git cvsimport:

                       loginname = Joe User <>

           If this option is specified and git svn encounters an SVN committer name that does not
           exist in the authors-file, git svn will abort operation. The user will then have to
           add the appropriate entry. Re-running the previous git svn command after the
           authors-file is modified should continue operation.

               config key: svn.authorsfile

           If this option is specified, for each SVN committer name that does not exist in the
           authors file, the given file is executed with the committer name as the first
           argument. The program is expected to return a single line of the form "Name <email>",
           which will be treated as if included in the authors file.

       -q, --quiet
           Make git svn less verbose. Specify a second time to make it even less verbose.

       -m, --merge, -s<strategy>, --strategy=<strategy>, -p, --preserve-merges
           These are only used with the dcommit and rebase commands.

           Passed directly to git rebase when using dcommit if a git reset cannot be used (see

       -n, --dry-run
           This can be used with the dcommit, rebase, branch and tag commands.

           For dcommit, print out the series of Git arguments that would show which diffs would
           be committed to SVN.

           For rebase, display the local branch associated with the upstream svn repository
           associated with the current branch and the URL of svn repository that will be fetched

           For branch and tag, display the urls that will be used for copying when creating the
           branch or tag.

           When retrieving svn commits into Git (as part of fetch, rebase, or dcommit
           operations), look for the first From: or Signed-off-by: line in the log message and
           use that as the author string.

           When committing to svn from Git (as part of commit-diff, set-tree or dcommit
           operations), if the existing log message doesn’t already have a From: or
           Signed-off-by: line, append a From: line based on the Git commit’s author string. If
           you use this, then --use-log-author will retrieve a valid author string for all


       -i<GIT_SVN_ID>, --id <GIT_SVN_ID>
           This sets GIT_SVN_ID (instead of using the environment). This allows the user to
           override the default refname to fetch from when tracking a single URL. The log and
           dcommit commands no longer require this switch as an argument.

       -R<remote name>, --svn-remote <remote name>
           Specify the [svn-remote "<remote name>"] section to use, this allows SVN multiple
           repositories to be tracked. Default: "svn"

           This option is only relevant if we are tracking branches (using one of the repository
           layout options --trunk, --tags, --branches, --stdlayout). For each tracked branch, try
           to find out where its revision was copied from, and set a suitable parent in the first
           Git commit for the branch. This is especially helpful when we’re tracking a directory
           that has been moved around within the repository. If this feature is disabled, the
           branches created by git svn will all be linear and not share any history, meaning that
           there will be no information on where branches were branched off or merged. However,
           following long/convoluted histories can take a long time, so disabling this feature
           may speed up the cloning process. This feature is enabled by default, use
           --no-follow-parent to disable it.

               config key: svn.followparent


       svn.noMetadata, svn-remote.<name>.noMetadata
           This gets rid of the git-svn-id: lines at the end of every commit.

           This option can only be used for one-shot imports as git svn will not be able to fetch
           again without metadata. Additionally, if you lose your $GIT_DIR/svn/**/.rev_map.*
           files, git svn will not be able to rebuild them.

           The git svn log command will not work on repositories using this, either. Using this
           conflicts with the useSvmProps option for (hopefully) obvious reasons.

           This option is NOT recommended as it makes it difficult to track down old references
           to SVN revision numbers in existing documentation, bug reports and archives. If you
           plan to eventually migrate from SVN to Git and are certain about dropping SVN history,
           consider git-filter-branch(1) instead. filter-branch also allows reformatting of
           metadata for ease-of-reading and rewriting authorship info for non-"svn.authorsFile"

       svn.useSvmProps, svn-remote.<name>.useSvmProps
           This allows git svn to re-map repository URLs and UUIDs from mirrors created using
           SVN::Mirror (or svk) for metadata.

           If an SVN revision has a property, "svm:headrev", it is likely that the revision was
           created by SVN::Mirror (also used by SVK). The property contains a repository UUID and
           a revision. We want to make it look like we are mirroring the original URL, so
           introduce a helper function that returns the original identity URL and UUID, and use
           it when generating metadata in commit messages.

       svn.useSvnsyncProps, svn-remote.<name>.useSvnsyncprops
           Similar to the useSvmProps option; this is for users of the svnsync(1) command
           distributed with SVN 1.4.x and later.

           This allows users to create repositories from alternate URLs. For example, an
           administrator could run git svn on the server locally (accessing via file://) but wish
           to distribute the repository with a public http:// or svn:// URL in the metadata so
           users of it will see the public URL.

           Similar to the useSvmProps option; this is for users who need to remap the UUID
           manually. This may be useful in situations where the original UUID is not available
           via either useSvmProps or useSvnsyncProps.

           Similar to Git’s remote.<name>.pushurl, this key is designed to be used in cases where
           url points to an SVN repository via a read-only transport, to provide an alternate
           read/write transport. It is assumed that both keys point to the same repository.
           Unlike commiturl, pushurl is a base path. If either commiturl or pushurl could be
           used, commiturl takes precedence.

           This disables potentially expensive checks to workaround broken symlinks checked into
           SVN by broken clients. Set this option to "false" if you track a SVN repository with
           many empty blobs that are not symlinks. This option may be changed while git svn is
           running and take effect on the next revision fetched. If unset, git svn assumes this
           option to be "true".

           This instructs git svn to recode pathnames to a given encoding. It can be used by
           windows users and by those who work in non-utf8 locales to avoid corrupted file names
           with non-ASCII characters. Valid encodings are the ones supported by Perl’s Encode

           Normally, the "git svn clone" and "git svn rebase" commands attempt to recreate empty
           directories that are in the Subversion repository. If this option is set to "false",
           then empty directories will only be created if the "git svn mkdirs" command is run
           explicitly. If unset, git svn assumes this option to be "true".

       Since the noMetadata, rewriteRoot, rewriteUUID, useSvnsyncProps and useSvmProps options
       all affect the metadata generated and used by git svn; they must be set in the
       configuration file before any history is imported and these settings should never be
       changed once they are set.

       Additionally, only one of these options can be used per svn-remote section because they
       affect the git-svn-id: metadata line, except for rewriteRoot and rewriteUUID which can be
       used together.


       Tracking and contributing to the trunk of a Subversion-managed project (ignoring tags and

           # Clone a repo (like git clone):
                   git svn clone
           # Enter the newly cloned directory:
                   cd trunk
           # You should be on master branch, double-check with 'git branch'
                   git branch
           # Do some work and commit locally to Git:
                   git commit ...
           # Something is committed to SVN, rebase your local changes against the
           # latest changes in SVN:
                   git svn rebase
           # Now commit your changes (that were committed previously using Git) to SVN,
           # as well as automatically updating your working HEAD:
                   git svn dcommit
           # Append svn:ignore settings to the default Git exclude file:
                   git svn show-ignore >> .git/info/exclude

       Tracking and contributing to an entire Subversion-managed project (complete with a trunk,
       tags and branches):

           # Clone a repo with standard SVN directory layout (like git clone):
                   git svn clone --stdlayout --prefix svn/
           # Or, if the repo uses a non-standard directory layout:
                   git svn clone -T tr -b branch -t tag --prefix svn/
           # View all branches and tags you have cloned:
                   git branch -r
           # Create a new branch in SVN
                   git svn branch waldo
           # Reset your master to trunk (or any other branch, replacing 'trunk'
           # with the appropriate name):
                   git reset --hard svn/trunk
           # You may only dcommit to one branch/tag/trunk at a time.  The usage
           # of dcommit/rebase/show-ignore should be the same as above.

       The initial git svn clone can be quite time-consuming (especially for large Subversion
       repositories). If multiple people (or one person with multiple machines) want to use git
       svn to interact with the same Subversion repository, you can do the initial git svn clone
       to a repository on a server and have each person clone that repository with git clone:

           # Do the initial import on a server
                   ssh server "cd /pub && git svn clone [options...]"
           # Clone locally - make sure the refs/remotes/ space matches the server
                   mkdir project
                   cd project
                   git init
                   git remote add origin server:/pub/project
                   git config --replace-all remote.origin.fetch '+refs/remotes/*:refs/remotes/*'
                   git fetch
           # Prevent fetch/pull from remote Git server in the future,
           # we only want to use git svn for future updates
                   git config --remove-section remote.origin
           # Create a local branch from one of the branches just fetched
                   git checkout -b master FETCH_HEAD
           # Initialize 'git svn' locally (be sure to use the same URL and
           # --stdlayout/-T/-b/-t/--prefix options as were used on server)
                   git svn init [options...]
           # Pull the latest changes from Subversion
                   git svn rebase


       Prefer to use git svn rebase or git rebase, rather than git pull or git merge to
       synchronize unintegrated commits with a git svn branch. Doing so will keep the history of
       unintegrated commits linear with respect to the upstream SVN repository and allow the use
       of the preferred git svn dcommit subcommand to push unintegrated commits back into SVN.

       Originally, git svn recommended that developers pulled or merged from the git svn branch.
       This was because the author favored git svn set-tree B to commit a single head rather than
       the git svn set-tree A..B notation to commit multiple commits. Use of git pull or git
       merge with git svn set-tree A..B will cause non-linear history to be flattened when
       committing into SVN and this can lead to merge commits unexpectedly reversing previous
       commits in SVN.


       While git svn can track copy history (including branches and tags) for repositories
       adopting a standard layout, it cannot yet represent merge history that happened inside git
       back upstream to SVN users. Therefore it is advised that users keep history as linear as
       possible inside Git to ease compatibility with SVN (see the CAVEATS section below).


       If git svn is configured to fetch branches (and --follow-branches is in effect), it
       sometimes creates multiple Git branches for one SVN branch, where the additional branches
       have names of the form branchname@nnn (with nnn an SVN revision number). These additional
       branches are created if git svn cannot find a parent commit for the first commit in an SVN
       branch, to connect the branch to the history of the other branches.

       Normally, the first commit in an SVN branch consists of a copy operation. git svn will
       read this commit to get the SVN revision the branch was created from. It will then try to
       find the Git commit that corresponds to this SVN revision, and use that as the parent of
       the branch. However, it is possible that there is no suitable Git commit to serve as
       parent. This will happen, among other reasons, if the SVN branch is a copy of a revision
       that was not fetched by git svn (e.g. because it is an old revision that was skipped with
       --revision), or if in SVN a directory was copied that is not tracked by git svn (such as a
       branch that is not tracked at all, or a subdirectory of a tracked branch). In these cases,
       git svn will still create a Git branch, but instead of using an existing Git commit as the
       parent of the branch, it will read the SVN history of the directory the branch was copied
       from and create appropriate Git commits. This is indicated by the message "Initializing
       parent: <branchname>".

       Additionally, it will create a special branch named <branchname>@<SVN-Revision>, where
       <SVN-Revision> is the SVN revision number the branch was copied from. This branch will
       point to the newly created parent commit of the branch. If in SVN the branch was deleted
       and later recreated from a different version, there will be multiple such branches with an

       Note that this may mean that multiple Git commits are created for a single SVN revision.

       An example: in an SVN repository with a standard trunk/tags/branches layout, a directory
       trunk/sub is created in r.100. In r.200, trunk/sub is branched by copying it to branches/.
       git svn clone -s will then create a branch sub. It will also create new Git commits for
       r.100 through r.199 and use these as the history of branch sub. Thus there will be two Git
       commits for each revision from r.100 to r.199 (one containing trunk/, one containing
       trunk/sub/). Finally, it will create a branch sub@200 pointing to the new parent commit of
       branch sub (i.e. the commit for r.200 and trunk/sub/).


       For the sake of simplicity and interoperating with Subversion, it is recommended that all
       git svn users clone, fetch and dcommit directly from the SVN server, and avoid all git
       clone/pull/merge/push operations between Git repositories and branches. The recommended
       method of exchanging code between Git branches and users is git format-patch and git am,
       or just 'dcommit’ing to the SVN repository.

       Running git merge or git pull is NOT recommended on a branch you plan to dcommit from
       because Subversion users cannot see any merges you’ve made. Furthermore, if you merge or
       pull from a Git branch that is a mirror of an SVN branch, dcommit may commit to the wrong

       If you do merge, note the following rule: git svn dcommit will attempt to commit on top of
       the SVN commit named in

           git log --grep=^git-svn-id: --first-parent -1

       You must therefore ensure that the most recent commit of the branch you want to dcommit to
       is the first parent of the merge. Chaos will ensue otherwise, especially if the first
       parent is an older commit on the same SVN branch.

       git clone does not clone branches under the refs/remotes/ hierarchy or any git svn
       metadata, or config. So repositories created and managed with using git svn should use
       rsync for cloning, if cloning is to be done at all.

       Since dcommit uses rebase internally, any Git branches you git push to before dcommit on
       will require forcing an overwrite of the existing ref on the remote repository. This is
       generally considered bad practice, see the git-push(1) documentation for details.

       Do not use the --amend option of git-commit(1) on a change you’ve already dcommitted. It
       is considered bad practice to --amend commits you’ve already pushed to a remote repository
       for other users, and dcommit with SVN is analogous to that.

       When cloning an SVN repository, if none of the options for describing the repository
       layout is used (--trunk, --tags, --branches, --stdlayout), git svn clone will create a Git
       repository with completely linear history, where branches and tags appear as separate
       directories in the working copy. While this is the easiest way to get a copy of a complete
       repository, for projects with many branches it will lead to a working copy many times
       larger than just the trunk. Thus for projects using the standard directory structure
       (trunk/branches/tags), it is recommended to clone with option --stdlayout. If the project
       uses a non-standard structure, and/or if branches and tags are not required, it is easiest
       to only clone one directory (typically trunk), without giving any repository layout
       options. If the full history with branches and tags is required, the options --trunk /
       --branches / --tags must be used.

       When using multiple --branches or --tags, git svn does not automatically handle name
       collisions (for example, if two branches from different paths have the same name, or if a
       branch and a tag have the same name). In these cases, use init to set up your Git
       repository then, before your first fetch, edit the $GIT_DIR/config file so that the
       branches and tags are associated with different name spaces. For example:

           branches = stable/*:refs/remotes/svn/stable/*
           branches = debug/*:refs/remotes/svn/debug/*


       We ignore all SVN properties except svn:executable. Any unhandled properties are logged to

       Renamed and copied directories are not detected by Git and hence not tracked when
       committing to SVN. I do not plan on adding support for this as it’s quite difficult and
       time-consuming to get working for all the possible corner cases (Git doesn’t do it,
       either). Committing renamed and copied files is fully supported if they’re similar enough
       for Git to detect them.

       In SVN, it is possible (though discouraged) to commit changes to a tag (because a tag is
       just a directory copy, thus technically the same as a branch). When cloning an SVN
       repository, git svn cannot know if such a commit to a tag will happen in the future. Thus
       it acts conservatively and imports all SVN tags as branches, prefixing the tag name with


       git svn stores [svn-remote] configuration information in the repository $GIT_DIR/config
       file. It is similar the core Git [remote] sections except fetch keys do not accept glob
       arguments; but they are instead handled by the branches and tags keys. Since some SVN
       repositories are oddly configured with multiple projects glob expansions such those listed
       below are allowed:

           [svn-remote "project-a"]
                   url =
                   fetch = trunk/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/trunk
                   branches = branches/*/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/*
                   tags = tags/*/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/tags/*

       Keep in mind that the * (asterisk) wildcard of the local ref (right of the :) must be the
       farthest right path component; however the remote wildcard may be anywhere as long as it’s
       an independent path component (surrounded by / or EOL). This type of configuration is not
       automatically created by init and should be manually entered with a text-editor or using
       git config.

       It is also possible to fetch a subset of branches or tags by using a comma-separated list
       of names within braces. For example:

           [svn-remote "huge-project"]
                   url =
                   fetch = trunk/src:refs/remotes/trunk
                   branches = branches/{red,green}/src:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/*
                   tags = tags/{1.0,2.0}/src:refs/remotes/project-a/tags/*

       Multiple fetch, branches, and tags keys are supported:

           [svn-remote "messy-repo"]
                   url =
                   fetch = trunk/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/trunk
                   fetch = branches/demos/june-project-a-demo:refs/remotes/project-a/demos/june-demo
                   branches = branches/server/*:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/*
                   branches = branches/demos/2011/*:refs/remotes/project-a/2011-demos/*
                   tags = tags/server/*:refs/remotes/project-a/tags/*

       Creating a branch in such a configuration requires disambiguating which location to use
       using the -d or --destination flag:

           $ git svn branch -d branches/server release-2-3-0

       Note that git-svn keeps track of the highest revision in which a branch or tag has
       appeared. If the subset of branches or tags is changed after fetching, then
       $GIT_DIR/svn/.metadata must be manually edited to remove (or reset) branches-maxRev and/or
       tags-maxRev as appropriate.


           Mapping between Subversion revision numbers and Git commit names. In a repository
           where the noMetadata option is not set, this can be rebuilt from the git-svn-id: lines
           that are at the end of every commit (see the svn.noMetadata section above for

           git svn fetch and git svn rebase automatically update the rev_map if it is missing or
           not up to date.  git svn reset automatically rewinds it.




       Part of the git(1) suite