Provided by: systemd_229-4ubuntu4_amd64 bug


       systemd-analyze - Analyze system boot-up performance


       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] [time]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] blame

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] critical-chain [UNIT...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] plot [> file.svg]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] dot [PATTERN...] [>]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] dump

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] set-log-level LEVEL

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] set-log-target TARGET

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] verify [FILES...]


       systemd-analyze may be used to determine system boot-up performance statistics and
       retrieve other state and tracing information from the system and service manager, and to
       verify the correctness of unit files.

       systemd-analyze time prints the time spent in the kernel before userspace has been
       reached, the time spent in the initial RAM disk (initrd) before normal system userspace
       has been reached, and the time normal system userspace took to initialize. Note that these
       measurements simply measure the time passed up to the point where all system services have
       been spawned, but not necessarily until they fully finished initialization or the disk is

       systemd-analyze blame prints a list of all running units, ordered by the time they took to
       initialize. This information may be used to optimize boot-up times. Note that the output
       might be misleading as the initialization of one service might be slow simply because it
       waits for the initialization of another service to complete.

       systemd-analyze critical-chain [UNIT...]  prints a tree of the time-critical chain of
       units (for each of the specified UNITs or for the default target otherwise). The time
       after the unit is active or started is printed after the "@" character. The time the unit
       takes to start is printed after the "+" character. Note that the output might be
       misleading as the initialization of one service might depend on socket activation and
       because of the parallel execution of units.

       systemd-analyze plot prints an SVG graphic detailing which system services have been
       started at what time, highlighting the time they spent on initialization.

       systemd-analyze dot generates textual dependency graph description in dot format for
       further processing with the GraphViz dot(1) tool. Use a command line like systemd-analyze
       dot | dot -Tsvg > systemd.svg to generate a graphical dependency tree. Unless --order or
       --require is passed, the generated graph will show both ordering and requirement
       dependencies. Optional pattern globbing style specifications (e.g.  *.target) may be given
       at the end. A unit dependency is included in the graph if any of these patterns match
       either the origin or destination node.

       systemd-analyze dump outputs a (usually very long) human-readable serialization of the
       complete server state. Its format is subject to change without notice and should not be
       parsed by applications.

       systemd-analyze set-log-level LEVEL changes the current log level of the systemd daemon to
       LEVEL (accepts the same values as --log-level= described in systemd(1)).

       systemd-analyze set-log-target TARGET changes the current log target of the systemd daemon
       to TARGET (accepts the same values as --log-target=, described in systemd(1)).

       systemd-analyze verify will load unit files and print warnings if any errors are detected.
       Files specified on the command line will be loaded, but also any other units referenced by
       them. This command works by prepending the directories for all command line arguments at
       the beginning of the unit load path, which means that all units files found in those
       directories will be used in preference to the unit files found in the standard locations,
       even if not listed explicitly.

       If no command is passed, systemd-analyze time is implied.


       The following options are understood:

           Operates on the user systemd instance.

           Operates on the system systemd instance. This is the implied default.

       --order, --require
           When used in conjunction with the dot command (see above), selects which dependencies
           are shown in the dependency graph. If --order is passed, only dependencies of type
           After= or Before= are shown. If --require is passed, only dependencies of type
           Requires=, Requisite=, Wants= and Conflicts= are shown. If neither is passed, this
           shows dependencies of all these types.

       --from-pattern=, --to-pattern=
           When used in conjunction with the dot command (see above), this selects which
           relationships are shown in the dependency graph. Both options require a glob(7)
           pattern as an argument, which will be matched against the left-hand and the
           right-hand, respectively, nodes of a relationship.

           Each of these can be used more than once, in which case the unit name must match one
           of the values. When tests for both sides of the relation are present, a relation must
           pass both tests to be shown. When patterns are also specified as positional arguments,
           they must match at least one side of the relation. In other words, patterns specified
           with those two options will trim the list of edges matched by the positional
           arguments, if any are given, and fully determine the list of edges shown otherwise.

           When used in conjunction with the critical-chain command (see above), also show units,
           which finished timespan earlier, than the latest unit in the same level. The unit of
           timespan is seconds unless specified with a different unit, e.g. "50ms".

           Do not invoke man to verify the existence of man pages listed in Documentation=.

       -H, --host=
           Execute the operation remotely. Specify a hostname, or a username and hostname
           separated by "@", to connect to. The hostname may optionally be suffixed by a
           container name, separated by ":", which connects directly to a specific container on
           the specified host. This will use SSH to talk to the remote machine manager instance.
           Container names may be enumerated with machinectl -H HOST.

       -M, --machine=
           Execute operation on a local container. Specify a container name to connect to.

       -h, --help
           Print a short help text and exit.

           Print a short version string and exit.

           Do not pipe output into a pager.


       On success, 0 is returned, a non-zero failure code otherwise.


       Example 1. Plots all dependencies of any unit whose name starts with "avahi-daemon"

           $ systemd-analyze dot 'avahi-daemon.*' | dot -Tsvg > avahi.svg
                 $ eog avahi.svg

       Example 2. Plots the dependencies between all known target units

           systemd-analyze dot --to-pattern='*.target' --from-pattern='*.target' | dot -Tsvg > targets.svg
           $ eog targets.svg


       The following errors are currently detected:

       •   unknown sections and directives,

       •   missing dependencies which are required to start the given unit,

       •   man pages listed in Documentation= which are not found in the system,

       •   commands listed in ExecStart= and similar which are not found in the system or not

       Example 3. Misspelt directives

           $ cat ./user.slice


           $ systemd-analyze verify ./user.slice
           [./user.slice:9] Unknown lvalue 'WhatIsThis' in section 'Unit'
           [./user.slice:13] Unknown section 'Service'. Ignoring.
           Error: org.freedesktop.systemd1.LoadFailed:
              Unit different.service failed to load:
              No such file or directory.
           Failed to create user.slice/start: Invalid argument
           user.slice: man nosuchfile(1) command failed with code 16

       Example 4. Missing service units

           $ tail ./a.socket ./b.socket
           ==> ./a.socket <==

           ==> ./b.socket <==

           $ systemd-analyze verify ./a.socket ./b.socket
           Service a.service not loaded, a.socket cannot be started.
           Service b@0.service not loaded, b.socket cannot be started.


           Pager to use when --no-pager is not given; overrides $PAGER. Setting this to an empty
           string or the value "cat" is equivalent to passing --no-pager.

           Override the default options passed to less ("FRSXMK").


       systemd(1), systemctl(1)