Provided by: zip_3.0-11_amd64 bug


       zip - package and compress (archive) files


       zip  [-aABcdDeEfFghjklLmoqrRSTuvVwXyz!@$]  [--longoption ...]  [-b path] [-n suffixes] [-t
       date] [-tt date] [zipfile [file ...]]  [-xi list]

       zipcloak (see separate man page)

       zipnote (see separate man page)

       zipsplit (see separate man page)

       Note:  Command line processing in zip has been changed to support long options and  handle
       all  options  and  arguments  more  consistently.   Some  old command lines that depend on
       command line inconsistencies may no longer work.


       zip is a compression and file packaging  utility  for  Unix,  VMS,  MSDOS,  OS/2,  Windows
       9x/NT/XP,  Minix,  Atari,  Macintosh,  Amiga,  and  Acorn  RISC  OS.  It is analogous to a
       combination of the Unix commands tar(1) and compress(1) and is compatible with PKZIP (Phil
       Katz's ZIP for MSDOS systems).

       A  companion  program  (unzip(1)) unpacks zip archives.  The zip and unzip(1) programs can
       work with archives produced by PKZIP (supporting most PKZIP features up to  PKZIP  version
       4.6),  and PKZIP and PKUNZIP can work with archives produced by zip (with some exceptions,
       notably streamed archives, but recent changes in the  zip  file  standard  may  facilitate
       better  compatibility).   zip  version 3.0 is compatible with PKZIP 2.04 and also supports
       the Zip64 extensions of PKZIP 4.5 which allow archives as well  as  files  to  exceed  the
       previous  2 GB limit (4 GB in some cases).  zip also now supports bzip2 compression if the
       bzip2 library is included when zip is compiled.  Note that  PKUNZIP  1.10  cannot  extract
       files  produced  by  PKZIP  2.04 or zip 3.0. You must use PKUNZIP 2.04g or unzip 5.0p1 (or
       later versions) to extract them.

       See the EXAMPLES section at the bottom of this page for examples of some typical  uses  of

       Large Archives and Zip64.   zip  automatically uses the Zip64 extensions when files larger
       than 4 GB are added to an archive, an archive containing Zip64 entries is updated (if  the
       resulting  archive  still  needs Zip64), the size of the archive will exceed 4 GB, or when
       the number of entries in the archive will exceed  about  64K.   Zip64  is  also  used  for
       archives  streamed  from  standard  input  as  the  size of such archives are not known in
       advance, but the option -fz- can be used  to  force  zip  to  create  PKZIP  2  compatible
       archives  (as  long  as  Zip64  extensions  are  not  needed).   You  must use a PKZIP 4.5
       compatible unzip, such as unzip 6.0 or later, to extract files using the Zip64 extensions.

       In addition, streamed archives, entries  encrypted  with  standard  encryption,  or  split
       archives  created  with  the  pause  option  may  not  be  compatible  with  PKZIP as data
       descriptors are used and PKZIP  at  the  time  of  this  writing  does  not  support  data
       descriptors  (but  recent  changes  in  the PKWare published zip standard now include some
       support for the data descriptor format zip uses).

       Mac OS X.  Though previous Mac versions had their own zip port, zip supports Mac OS  X  as
       part of the Unix port and most Unix features apply.  References to "MacOS" below generally
       refer to MacOS versions older than OS X.  Support for some Mac OS features in the Unix Mac
       OS X port, such as resource forks, is expected in the next zip release.

       For  a  brief  help  on  zip  and unzip, run each without specifying any parameters on the
       command line.


       The program is useful for packaging a set of files for distribution; for archiving  files;
       and for saving disk space by temporarily compressing unused files or directories.

       The  zip  program  puts one or more compressed files into a single zip archive, along with
       information about the files (name, path, date, time of last modification, protection,  and
       check  information to verify file integrity).  An entire directory structure can be packed
       into a zip archive with a single command.  Compression ratios of 2:1 to 3:1 are common for
       text  files.   zip has one compression method (deflation) and can also store files without
       compression.  (If bzip2 support is added, zip can also compress using  bzip2  compression,
       but  such entries require a reasonably modern unzip to decompress.  When bzip2 compression
       is selected, it replaces deflation as the default method.)  zip automatically chooses  the
       better  of  the two (deflation or store or, if bzip2 is selected, bzip2 or store) for each
       file to be compressed.

       Command format.  The basic command format is

              zip options archive inpath inpath ...

       where archive is a new or existing zip archive and inpath is  a  directory  or  file  path
       optionally  including wildcards.  When given the name of an existing zip archive, zip will
       replace identically named entries in the zip  archive  (matching  the  relative  names  as
       stored  in  the archive) or add entries for new names.  For example, if exists and
       contains foo/file1 and foo/file2, and the directory foo contains the files  foo/file1  and
       foo/file3, then:

              zip -r foo

       or more concisely

              zip -r foo foo

       will  replace  foo/file1  in  and  add foo/file3 to  After this,
       contains foo/file1, foo/file2, and foo/file3, with foo/file2 unchanged from before.

       So if before the zip command is executed has:

               foo/file1 foo/file2

       and directory foo has:

               file1 file3

       then will have:

               foo/file1 foo/file2 foo/file3

       where foo/file1 is replaced and foo/file3 is new.

       -@ file lists.  If a file list is specified as -@ [Not on MacOS], zip takes  the  list  of
       input files from standard input instead of from the command line.  For example,

              zip -@ foo

       will store the files listed one per line on stdin in

       Under  Unix,  this  option can be used to powerful effect in conjunction with the find (1)
       command.  For example, to archive all the C source files in the current directory and  its

              find . -name "*.[ch]" -print | zip source -@

       (note that the pattern must be quoted to keep the shell from expanding it).

       Streaming input and output.   zip  will  also  accept  a single dash ("-") as the zip file
       name, in which case it will write the zip file to standard output, allowing the output  to
       be piped to another program. For example:

              zip -r - . | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       would  write  the  zip  output  directly  to  a tape with the specified block size for the
       purpose of backing up the current directory.

       zip also accepts a single dash ("-") as the name of a file to be compressed, in which case
       it  will  read  the  file  from  standard  input,  allowing zip to take input from another
       program. For example:

              tar cf - . | zip backup -

       would compress the output of the tar command for the purpose of  backing  up  the  current
       directory.  This generally produces better compression than the previous example using the
       -r option because zip can take advantage of redundancy between files. The  backup  can  be
       restored using the command

              unzip -p backup | tar xf -

       When  no  zip  file  name  is  given  and  stdout is not a terminal, zip acts as a filter,
       compressing standard input to standard output.  For example,

              tar cf - . | zip | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       is equivalent to

              tar cf - . | zip - - | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       zip archives created in this manner can be extracted with  the  program  funzip  which  is
       provided  in  the  unzip  package, or by gunzip which is provided in the gzip package (but
       some gunzip may not support this if zip used the Zip64 extensions). For example:

              dd if=/dev/nrst0  ibs=16k | funzip | tar xvf -

       The stream can also be saved to a file and unzip used.

       If Zip64 support for large files and archives is enabled and zip is used as a filter,  zip
       creates  a  Zip64  archive that requires a PKZIP 4.5 or later compatible unzip to read it.
       This is to avoid amgibuities in the zip file structure  as  defined  in  the  current  zip
       standard  (PKWARE AppNote) where the decision to use Zip64 needs to be made before data is
       written for the entry, but for a stream the size of the data is not known at  that  point.
       If  the  data is known to be smaller than 4 GB, the option -fz- can be used to prevent use
       of Zip64, but zip will exit with an error if Zip64 was in fact needed.  zip 3 and  unzip 6
       and later can read archives with Zip64 entries.  Also, zip removes the Zip64 extensions if
       not needed when archive entries are copied (see the -U (--copy) option).

       When directing the output to another file, note that all  options  should  be  before  the
       redirection including -x.  For example:

              zip archive "*.h" "*.c" -x donotinclude.h orthis.h > tofile

       Zip files.   When  changing  an existing zip archive, zip will write a temporary file with
       the new contents, and only replace the old one  when  the  process  of  creating  the  new
       version has been completed without error.

       If the name of the zip archive does not contain an extension, the extension .zip is added.
       If the name already contains an extension other than .zip, the existing extension is  kept
       unchanged.   However, split archives (archives split over multiple files) require the .zip
       extension on the last split.

       Scanning and reading files.  When zip starts, it scans for files to process  (if  needed).
       If  this  scan  takes  longer  than  about  5 seconds, zip will display a "Scanning files"
       message and start displaying progress dots every  2  seconds  or  every  so  many  entries
       processed,  whichever takes longer.  If there is more than 2 seconds between dots it could
       indicate that finding each file is taking time and could mean a  slow  network  connection
       for  example.   (Actually  the initial file scan is a two-step process where the directory
       scan is followed by a sort and these two steps are separated with a space in the dots.  If
       updating  an existing archive, a space also appears between the existing file scan and the
       new file scan.)  The scanning files dots are not controlled by the -ds  dot  size  option,
       but the dots are turned off by the -q quiet option.  The -sf show files option can be used
       to scan for files and get the list of files scanned without actually processing them.

       If zip is not able to read a file, it issues a warning but continues.  See the -MM  option
       below  for  more  on  how zip handles patterns that are not matched and files that are not
       readable.  If some files were skipped, a warning is issued at the end of the zip operation
       noting how many files were read and how many skipped.

       Command modes.   zip  now  supports  two  distinct  types  of  command modes, external and
       internal.  The external modes (add, update, and freshen) read files from the  file  system
       (as  well  as from an existing archive) while the internal modes (delete and copy) operate
       exclusively on entries in an existing archive.

              Update existing entries and add new files.  If the archive does  not  exist  create
              it.  This is the default mode.

       update (-u)
              Update  existing  entries  if  newer  on the file system and add new files.  If the
              archive does not exist issue warning then create a new archive.

       freshen (-f)
              Update existing entries of an archive if newer on the file system.   Does  not  add
              new files to the archive.

       delete (-d)
              Select entries in an existing archive and delete them.

       copy (-U)
              Select  entries  in  an  existing archive and copy them to a new archive.  This new
              mode is similar to update but command line patterns select entries in the  existing
              archive  rather  than  files  from  the file system and it uses the --out option to
              write the resulting archive to a new file rather than update the existing  archive,
              leaving the original archive unchanged.

       The  new  File  Sync  option  (-FS) is also considered a new mode, though it is similar to
       update.  This mode synchronizes the archive with the files on the OS, only replacing files
       in the archive if the file time or size of the OS file is different, adding new files, and
       deleting entries from the archive where there is no  matching  file.   As  this  mode  can
       delete entries from the archive, consider making a backup copy of the archive.

       Also see -DF for creating difference archives.

       See each option description below for details and the EXAMPLES section below for examples.

       Split archives.   zip version 3.0 and later can create split archives.  A split archive is
       a standard zip archive split over multiple files.  (Note that split archives are not  just
       archives  split in to pieces, as the offsets of entries are now based on the start of each
       split.  Concatenating the pieces together will invalidate these  offsets,  but  unzip  can
       usually  deal  with  it.  zip will usually refuse to process such a spliced archive unless
       the -FF fix option is used to fix the offsets.)

       One use of split archives is storing a large archive on multiple removable media.   For  a
       split  archive with 20 split files the files are typically named (replace ARCHIVE with the
       name of your archive) ARCHIVE.z01, ARCHIVE.z02, ..., ARCHIVE.z19,  Note  that
       the last file is the .zip file.  In contrast, spanned archives are the original multi-disk
       archive generally requiring floppy disks and using volume labels to  store  disk  numbers.
       zip  supports  split  archives  but  not  spanned  archives, though a procedure exists for
       converting split archives of the right size to spanned  archives.   The  reverse  is  also
       true,  where each file of a spanned archive can be copied in order to files with the above
       names to create a split archive.

       Use -s to set the split size and create a split archive.  The size is given  as  a  number
       followed  optionally  by one of k (kB), m (MB), g (GB), or t (TB) (the default is m).  The
       -sp option can be used to pause zip between splits to allow changing removable media,  for
       example, but read the descriptions and warnings for both -s and -sp below.

       Though  zip  does not update split archives, zip provides the new option -O (--output-file
       or --out) to allow split archives to be updated and saved in a new archive.  For example,

              zip foo.c bar.c --out

       reads archive, even if split, adds the files foo.c and bar.c, and writes the
       resulting  archive  to   If  is  split then
       defaults to the same split size.  Be aware that if and any split files that
       are created with it already exist, these are always overwritten as needed without warning.
       This may be changed in the future.

       Unicode.  Though the zip standard requires storing paths in an archive  using  a  specific
       character  set,  in  practice  zips  have  stored  paths in archives in whatever the local
       character set is.  This creates problems when an archive is created or updated on a system
       using  one  character set and then extracted on another system using a different character
       set.   When  compiled  with  Unicode  support  enabled  on  platforms  that  support  wide
       characters,  zip  now  stores,  in  addition  to  the  standard  local  path  for backward
       compatibility, the UTF-8 translation of  the  path.   This  provides  a  common  universal
       character  set  for  storing  paths that allows these paths to be fully extracted on other
       systems that support Unicode and to match as close as possible on systems that don't.

       On Win32 systems where paths are internally stored as Unicode but represented in the local
       character  set, it's possible that some paths will be skipped during a local character set
       directory scan.  zip with Unicode support now can read and store these paths.   Note  that
       Win 9x systems and FAT file systems don't fully support Unicode.

       Be  aware  that console windows on Win32 and Unix, for example, sometimes don't accurately
       show all characters due to how each  operating  system  switches  in  character  sets  for
       display.   However, directory navigation tools should show the correct paths if the needed
       fonts are loaded.

       Command line format.  This version of zip has updated command line processing and  support
       for long options.

       Short options take the form

              -s[-][s[-]...][value][=value][ value]

       where s is a one or two character short option.  A short option that takes a value is last
       in an argument and anything after it is taken as the value.  If the option can be  negated
       and  "-" immediately follows the option, the option is negated.  Short options can also be
       given as separate arguments

              -s[-][value][=value][ value] -s[-][value][=value][ value] ...

       Short options in general take values either as  part  of  the  same  argument  or  as  the
       following argument.  An optional = is also supported.  So





              -tt mmddyyyy

       all  work.   The  -x  and  -i  options accept lists of values and use a slightly different
       format described below.  See the -x and -i options.

       Long options take the form

              --longoption[-][=value][ value]

       where the option starts with --, has a multicharacter name, can include a trailing dash to
       negate  the  option  (if  the  option supports it), and can have a value (option argument)
       specified by preceding it with = (no spaces).  Values can also follow the argument.  So



              --before-date mmddyyyy

       both work.

       Long option names can be shortened to the shortest unique abbreviation.   See  the  option
       descriptions below for which support long options.  To avoid confusion, avoid abbreviating
       a negatable option with an embedded dash ("-") at the dash if you plan to negate  it  (the
       parser  would consider a trailing dash, such as for the option --some-option using --some-
       as the option, as part of the name rather than a negating dash).  This may be  changed  to
       force the last dash in --some- to be negating in the future.


              [Systems using EBCDIC] Translate file to ASCII format.

              Adjust self-extracting executable archive.  A self-extracting executable archive is
              created by prepending the SFX stub to an existing archive. The -A option tells  zip
              to  adjust  the  entry  offsets  stored  in  the  archive to take into account this
              "preamble" data.

       Note: self-extracting archives for the Amiga are a special case.   At  present,  only  the
       Amiga  port  of  zip is capable of adjusting or updating these without corrupting them. -J
       can be used to remove the SFX stub if other updates need to be made.

              [WIN32]  Once archive is created (and tested if -T is used, which is  recommended),
              clear the archive bits of files processed.  WARNING: Once the bits are cleared they
              are cleared.  You may want to use the -sf show files option to store  the  list  of
              files  processed  in  case  the  archive operation must be repeated.  Also consider
              using the -MM must match option.  Be sure to check out -DF as a possibly better way
              to do incremental backups.

              [WIN32]   Only  include  files  that have the archive bit set.  Directories are not
              stored when -AS is  used,  though  by  default  the  paths  of  entries,  including
              directories,  are  stored  as  usual  and  can  be  used by most unzips to recreate

              The archive bit is set by the operating system when a file is modified and, if used
              with  -AC,  -AS  can  provide  an  incremental  backup  capability.  However, other
              applications can modify the archive bit and it may not be a reliable  indicator  of
              which  files  have  changed  since the last archive operation.  Alternative ways to
              create incremental backups are using -t to use file dates, though this won't  catch
              old  files  copied  to directories being archived, and -DF to create a differential

              [VM/CMS and MVS] force file to be read binary (default is text).

       -Bn    [TANDEM] set Edit/Enscribe formatting options with n defined as
              bit  0: Don't add delimiter (Edit/Enscribe)
              bit  1: Use LF rather than CR/LF as delimiter (Edit/Enscribe)
              bit  2: Space fill record to maximum record length (Enscribe)
              bit  3: Trim trailing space (Enscribe)
              bit  8: Force 30K (Expand) large read for unstructured files

       -b path
       --temp-path path
              Use the specified path for the temporary zip archive. For example:

                     zip -b /tmp stuff *

              will put the temporary zip archive in the directory /tmp, copying over to
              the  current  directory  when done. This option is useful when updating an existing
              archive and the file system containing this old archive does not have enough  space
              to  hold  both  old  and new archives at the same time.  It may also be useful when
              streaming in some cases to avoid the need for data descriptors.   Note  that  using
              this option may require zip take additional time to copy the archive file when done
              to the destination file system.

              Add one-line comments for each file.  File operations (adding, updating)  are  done
              first,  and  the user is then prompted for a one-line comment for each file.  Enter
              the comment followed by return, or just return for no comment.

              [VMS]  Preserve case all on VMS.  Negating this option (-C-) downcases.

              [VMS]  Preserve case ODS2 on VMS.  Negating this option (-C2-) downcases.

              [VMS]  Preserve case ODS5 on VMS.  Negating this option (-C5-) downcases.

              Remove (delete) entries from a zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -d foo foo/tom/junk foo/harry/\* \*.o

              will remove the entry foo/tom/junk, all of the files that  start  with  foo/harry/,
              and  all  of  the  files  that end with .o (in any path).  Note that shell pathname
              expansion has been inhibited with backslashes, so that zip can see  the  asterisks,
              enabling zip to match on the contents of the zip archive instead of the contents of
              the current directory.  (The backslashes are not used  on  MSDOS-based  platforms.)
              Can also use quotes to escape the asterisks as in

                     zip -d foo foo/tom/junk "foo/harry/*" "*.o"

              Not  escaping  the  asterisks  on  a system where the shell expands wildcards could
              result in the asterisks being converted to a list of files in the current directory
              and that list used to delete entries from the archive.

              Under  MSDOS,  -d is case sensitive when it matches names in the zip archive.  This
              requires that file names be entered in upper case if they were zipped by  PKZIP  on
              an  MSDOS  system.   (We  considered  making this case insensitive on systems where
              paths were case insensitive, but it is possible the  archive  came  from  a  system
              where  case  does matter and the archive could include both Bar and bar as separate
              files in the archive.)  But see the new option -ic to ignore case in the archive.

              Display running byte counts showing the bytes zipped and the bytes to go.

              Display running count of entries zipped and entries to go.

              Display dots while each entry is zipped  (except  on  ports  that  have  their  own
              progress  indicator).   See  -ds  below for setting dot size.  The default is a dot
              every 10 MB of input file processed.  The -v option also displays dots  (previously
              at a much higher rate than this but now -v also defaults to 10 MB) and this rate is
              also controlled by -ds.

              [MacOS] Include only  data-fork  of  files  zipped  into  the  archive.   Good  for
              exporting  files  to  foreign operating-systems.  Resource-forks will be ignored at

              Display progress dots for the archive instead of for each file.  The command

                         zip -qdgds 10m

              will turn off most output except dots every 10 MB.

       -ds size
       --dot-size size
              Set amount of input file processed for each  dot  displayed.   See  -dd  to  enable
              displaying  dots.  Setting this option implies -dd.  Size is in the format nm where
              n is a number and m is a multiplier.  Currently m can be k (KB), m (MB), g (GB), or
              t (TB), so if n is 100 and m is k, size would be 100k which is 100 KB.  The default
              is 10 MB.

              The -v option also displays dots and now defaults to 10 MB also.  This rate is also
              controlled by this option.  A size of 0 turns dots off.

              This  option  does  not  control  the dots from the "Scanning files" message as zip
              scans for input files.  The dot size for that is fixed at  2  seconds  or  a  fixed
              number of entries, whichever is longer.

              Display the uncompressed size of each entry.

              Display  the  volume  (disk)  number  each  entry is being read from, if reading an
              existing archive, and being written to.

              Do not create entries in the zip archive for directories.   Directory  entries  are
              created  by  default so that their attributes can be saved in the zip archive.  The
              environment variable ZIPOPT can be used to change the default options. For  example
              under Unix with sh:

                     ZIPOPT="-D"; export ZIPOPT

              (The  variable  ZIPOPT  can be used for any option, including -i and -x using a new
              option format detailed below, and can include several options.) The option -D is  a
              shorthand  for -x "*/" but the latter previously could not be set as default in the
              ZIPOPT environment variable as the  contents  of  ZIPOPT  gets  inserted  near  the
              beginning of the command line and the file list had to end at the end of the line.

              This version of zip does allow -x and -i options in ZIPOPT if the form

               -x file file ... @

              is used, where the @ (an argument that is just @) terminates the list.

              Create  an  archive  that  contains  all  new  and changed files since the original
              archive was created.  For this to work, the input file list and  current  directory
              must be the same as during the original zip operation.

              For example, if the existing archive was created using

                     zip -r foofull .

              from the bar directory, then the command

                     zip -r foofull . -DF --out foonew

              also  from  the bar directory creates the archive foonew with just the files not in
              foofull and the files where the size or file time of the files do not  match  those
              in foofull.

              Note that the timezone environment variable TZ should be set according to the local
              timezone in order for this option to work correctly.  A change  in  timezone  since
              the  original  archive  was created could result in no times matching and all files
              being included.

              A possible approach to backing up a directory might be to create a  normal  archive
              of  the  contents of the directory as a full backup, then use this option to create
              incremental backups.

              Encrypt the contents of the zip archive using a password which is  entered  on  the
              terminal in response to a prompt (this will not be echoed; if standard error is not
              a tty, zip will exit with an error).  The password prompt is repeated to  save  the
              user from typing errors.

              [OS/2] Use the .LONGNAME Extended Attribute (if found) as filename.

              Replace (freshen) an existing entry in the zip archive only if it has been modified
              more recently than the version already in the zip archive; unlike the update option
              (-u) this will not add files that are not already in the zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -f foo

              This  command  should  be  run  from the same directory from which the original zip
              command was run, since paths stored in zip archives are always relative.

              Note that the timezone environment variable TZ should be set according to the local
              timezone in order for the -f, -u and -o options to work correctly.

              The  reasons  behind  this  are somewhat subtle but have to do with the differences
              between the Unix-format file times (always in GMT) and most of the other  operating
              systems  (always  local  time)  and the necessity to compare the two.  A typical TZ
              value  is  ``MET-1MEST''  (Middle  European  time  with  automatic  adjustment  for
              ``summertime'' or Daylight Savings Time).

              The  format  is  TTThhDDD,  where  TTT  is  the  time  zone  such as MET, hh is the
              difference between GMT and local time such as -1 above, and DDD is  the  time  zone
              when daylight savings time is in effect.  Leave off the DDD if there is no daylight
              savings time.  For the US Eastern time zone EST5EDT.

              Fix the zip archive. The -F option can be used if some portions of the archive  are
              missing,  but requires a reasonably intact central directory.  The input archive is
              scanned as usual, but zip will ignore some problems.  The resulting archive  should
              be valid, but any inconsistent entries will be left out.

              When doubled as in -FF, the archive is scanned from the beginning and zip scans for
              special signatures to identify the limits between the archive members.  The  single
              -F  is  more  reliable  if  the archive is not too much damaged, so try this option

              If the archive is too damaged or the end has been  truncated,  you  must  use  -FF.
              This  is  a  change  from zip 2.32, where the -F option is able to read a truncated
              archive.  The -F option now more reliably fixes archives with minor damage and  the
              -FF option is needed to fix archives where -F might have been sufficient before.

              Neither  option  will  recover  archives  that have been incorrectly transferred in
              ascii mode instead of binary. After the repair, the -t option  of  unzip  may  show
              that some files have a bad CRC. Such files cannot be recovered; you can remove them
              from the archive using the -d option of zip.

              Note that -FF may have trouble fixing archives that include an embedded zip archive
              that  was stored (without compression) in the archive and, depending on the damage,
              it may find the entries in the embedded archive rather  than  the  archive  itself.
              Try -F first as it does not have this problem.

              The  format  of  the  fix  commands  have changed.  For example, to fix the damaged

                     zip -F foo --out foofix

              tries to read the entries  normally,  copying  good  entries  to  the  new  archive
       If  this  doesn't  work, as when the archive is truncated, or if some
              entries you know are in the archive are missed, then try

                     zip -FF foo --out foofixfix

              and compare the resulting archive to the archive created by -F.  The -FF option may
              create an inconsistent archive.  Depending on what is damaged, you can then use the
              -F option to fix that archive.

              A split archive with missing split files can be fixed using -F if you have the last
              split of the archive (the .zip file).  If this file is missing, you must use -FF to
              fix the archive, which will prompt you for the splits you have.

              Currently the fix options can't recover entries that have a  bad  checksum  or  are
              otherwise damaged.

       --fifo [Unix]   Normally zip skips reading any FIFOs (named pipes) encountered, as zip can
              hang if the FIFO is not being fed.  This option tells zip to read the  contents  of
              any FIFO it finds.

              Synchronize  the contents of an archive with the files on the OS.  Normally when an
              archive is updated, new files are added and changed files  are  updated  but  files
              that  no  longer  exist  on  the  OS are not deleted from the archive.  This option
              enables a new mode that checks entries in the archive against the file system.   If
              the  file time and file size of the entry matches that of the OS file, the entry is
              copied from the old archive  instead  of  being  read  from  the  file  system  and
              compressed.  If the OS file has changed, the entry is read and compressed as usual.
              If the entry in the archive does not match a file on the OS, the entry is  deleted.
              Enabling  this option should create archives that are the same as new archives, but
              since existing entries are copied  instead  of  compressed,  updating  an  existing
              archive  with  -FS  can  be much faster than creating a new archive.  Also consider
              using -u for updating an archive.

              For this option to work, the archive should be updated from the same  directory  it
              was created in so the relative paths match.  If few files are being copied from the
              old archive, it may be faster to create a new archive instead.

              Note that the timezone environment variable TZ should be set according to the local
              timezone  in  order  for this option to work correctly.  A change in timezone since
              the  original  archive  was  created  could  result  in  no  times   matching   and
              recompression of all files.

              This  option  deletes files from the archive.  If you need to preserve the original
              archive, make a copy of the archive first or use the --out  option  to  output  the
              updated  archive  to  a  new  file.   Even  though it may be slower, creating a new
              archive with a new archive name is safer, avoids mismatches between archive and  OS
              paths, and is preferred.

              Grow  (append to) the specified zip archive, instead of creating a new one. If this
              operation fails, zip attempts to restore the archive to its original state. If  the
              restoration  fails, the archive might become corrupted. This option is ignored when
              there's no existing archive or when at least one archive member must be updated  or

              Display  the  zip  help  information  (this  also  appears  if  zip  is run with no

              Display extended help including more on command line format, pattern matching,  and
              more obscure options.

       -i files
       --include files
              Include only the specified files, as in:

                     zip -r foo . -i \*.c

              which  will  include only the files that end in .c in the current directory and its
              subdirectories. (Note for PKZIP users: the equivalent command is

                     pkzip -rP foo *.c

              PKZIP does not allow recursion in directories other than  the  current  one.)   The
              backslash  avoids  the  shell  filename  substitution, so that the name matching is
              performed by zip at all directory levels.  [This is  for  Unix  and  other  systems
              where  \   escapes  the next character.  For other systems where the shell does not
              process * do not use \ and the above is

                     zip -r foo . -i *.c

              Examples are for Unix unless otherwise specified.]  So to include dir, a  directory
              directly under the current directory, use

                     zip -r foo . -i dir/\*


                     zip -r foo . -i "dir/*"

              to  match paths such as dir/a and dir/b/file.c [on ports without wildcard expansion
              in the shell such as MSDOS and Windows

                     zip -r foo . -i dir/*

              is used.]  Note that currently the trailing / is needed for directories (as in

                     zip -r foo . -i dir/

              to include directory dir).

              The long option form of the first example is

                     zip -r foo . --include \*.c

              and does the same thing as the short option form.

              Though the command syntax used to require -i at the end of the command  line,  this
              version  actually  allows -i (or --include) anywhere.  The list of files terminates
              at the next argument starting with -, the end of the  command  line,  or  the  list
              terminator @ (an argument that is just @).  So the above can be given as

                     zip -i \*.c @ -r foo .

              for  example.   There  must  be  a space between the option and the first file of a
              list.  For just one file you can use the single value form

                     zip -i\*.c -r foo .

              (no space between option and value) or

                     zip --include=\*.c -r foo .

              as additional examples.  The single value forms are not  recommended  because  they
              can  be  confusing  and, in particular, the -ifile format can cause problems if the
              first letter of file combines with i to form a two-letter option starting  with  i.
              Use -sc to see how your command line will be parsed.

              Also possible:

                     zip -r foo  . -i@include.lst

              which  will  only include the files in the current directory and its subdirectories
              that match the patterns in the file include.lst.

              Files to -i and -x are patterns matching internal archive paths.  See -R  for  more
              on patterns.

              [Acorn  RISC  OS] Don't scan through Image files.  When used, zip will not consider
              Image files (eg. DOS partitions or  Spark  archives  when  SparkFS  is  loaded)  as
              directories but will store them as single files.

              For  example,  if you have SparkFS loaded, zipping a Spark archive will result in a
              zipfile containing a directory (and its content) while using the  'I'  option  will
              result  in  a  zipfile  containing a Spark archive. Obviously this second case will
              also be obtained (without the 'I' option) if SparkFS isn't loaded.

              [VMS, WIN32] Ignore case when  matching  archive  entries.   This  option  is  only
              available  on  systems  where  the case of files is ignored.  On systems with case-
              insensitive file systems, case is normally ignored when matching files on the  file
              system  but  is  not  ignored for -f (freshen), -d (delete), -U (copy), and similar
              modes when matching against archive entries (currently  -f  ignores  case  on  VMS)
              because  archive  entries can be from systems where case does matter and names that
              are the same except for case can exist in an archive.  The  -ic  option  makes  all
              matching  case insensitive.  This can result in multiple archive entries matching a
              command line pattern.

              Store just the name of a saved file (junk the path), and  do  not  store  directory
              names.  By  default,  zip  will  store  the  full  path  (relative  to  the current

              [MacOS] record Fullpath (+ Volname). The complete path  including  volume  will  be
              stored. By default the relative path will be stored.

              Strip any prepended data (e.g. a SFX stub) from the archive.

              Attempt  to  convert  the names and paths to conform to MSDOS, store only the MSDOS
              attribute (just the user write attribute from Unix), and mark  the  entry  as  made
              under  MSDOS  (even  though it was not); for compatibility with PKUNZIP under MSDOS
              which cannot handle certain names such as those with two dots.

              Translate the Unix end-of-line character LF into the MSDOS convention CR  LF.  This
              option  should not be used on binary files.  This option can be used on Unix if the
              zip file is intended for PKUNZIP under MSDOS. If the input files already contain CR
              LF,  this option adds an extra CR. This is to ensure that unzip -a on Unix will get
              back an exact copy of the original file, to undo the effect of zip -l.  See -ll for
              how binary files are handled.

              Append to existing logfile.  Default is to overwrite.

       -lf logfilepath
       --logfile-path logfilepath
              Open a logfile at the given path.  By default any existing file at that location is
              overwritten, but the -la option will result in an existing file  being  opened  and
              the  new  log  information appended to any existing information.  Only warnings and
              errors are written to the log unless  the  -li  option  is  also  given,  then  all
              information messages are also written to the log.

              Include  information  messages,  such  as file names being zipped, in the log.  The
              default is to only include the command line, any warnings and errors, and the final

              Translate the MSDOS end-of-line CR LF into Unix LF.  This option should not be used
              on binary files.  This option can be used on MSDOS if the zip file is intended  for
              unzip  under Unix.  If the file is converted and the file is later determined to be
              binary a warning is issued and the file is probably corrupted.  In this release  if
              -ll  detects  binary in the first buffer read from a file, zip now issues a warning
              and skips line end conversion on the file.  This check seems to  catch  all  binary
              files  tested,  but  the  original  check  remains and if a converted file is later
              determined to be binary that warning is still issued.  A new algorithm is now being
              used  for  binary  detection that should allow line end conversion of text files in
              UTF-8 and similar encodings.

              Display the zip license.

              Move the specified files into the zip archive; actually, this  deletes  the  target
              directories/files  after  making  the specified zip archive. If a directory becomes
              empty after removal of the files, the directory is also removed. No  deletions  are
              done  until  zip  has  created  the  archive  without  error.   This  is useful for
              conserving disk space, but is potentially dangerous so it is recommended to use  it
              in combination with -T to test the archive before removing all input files.

              All  input  patterns must match at least one file and all input files found must be
              readable.  Normally when an input pattern does not  match  a  file  the  "name  not
              matched"  warning  is  issued  and  when  an input file has been found but later is
              missing or not readable a missing or not readable warning  is  issued.   In  either
              case zip continues creating the archive, with missing or unreadable new files being
              skipped and files already in the archive remaining unchanged.  After the archive is
              created, if any files were not readable zip returns the OPEN error code (18 on most
              systems) instead of the normal success return (0 on most systems).  With  -MM  set,
              zip  exits  as  soon  as  an  input  pattern is not matched (whenever the "name not
              matched" warning would be issued) or when an input file is not readable.  In either
              case zip exits with an OPEN error and no archive is created.

              This  option is useful when a known list of files is to be zipped so any missing or
              unreadable files will result in an  error.   It  is  less  useful  when  used  with
              wildcards, but zip will still exit with an error if any input pattern doesn't match
              at least one file and if any matched files are unreadable.  If you want  to  create
              the  archive  anyway and only need to know if files were skipped, don't use -MM and
              just check the return code.  Also -lf could be useful.

       -n suffixes
       --suffixes suffixes
              Do not attempt to compress files named with the given  suffixes.   Such  files  are
              simply  stored  (0%  compression) in the output zip file, so that zip doesn't waste
              its time trying to compress them.  The suffixes are separated by either  colons  or
              semicolons.  For example:

                     zip -rn  foo foo

              will  copy  everything  from foo into, but will store any files that end in
              .Z, .zip, .tiff, .gif, or .snd without trying to compress  them  (image  and  sound
              files  often have their own specialized compression methods).  By default, zip does
              not compress files with extensions in the list   Such
              files  are  stored directly in the output archive.  The environment variable ZIPOPT
              can be used to change the default options. For example under Unix with csh:

                     setenv ZIPOPT "-n"

              To attempt compression on all files, use:

                     zip -n : foo

              The maximum compression option -9 also attempts compression on all files regardless
              of extension.

              On  Acorn RISC OS systems the suffixes are actually filetypes (3 hex digit format).
              By default, zip does not compress files with  filetypes  in  the  list  DDC:D96:68E
              (i.e. Archives, CFS files and PackDir files).

              Do not perform internal wildcard processing (shell processing of wildcards is still
              done by the shell unless the arguments are escaped).  Useful if a list of paths  is
              being read and no wildcard substitution is desired.

              [Amiga,  MacOS]  Save  Amiga  or  MacOS  filenotes as zipfile comments. They can be
              restored by using the -N option of unzip. If -c is used also, you are prompted  for
              comments only for those files that do not have filenotes.

              Set  the  "last  modified"  time  of  the  zip archive to the latest (oldest) "last
              modified" time found among the entries in  the  zip  archive.   This  can  be  used
              without any other operations, if desired.  For example:

              zip -o foo

              will  change the last modified time of to the latest time of the entries in

       -O output-file
       --output-file output-file
              Process the archive changes as usual, but instead of updating the existing archive,
              output  the  new  archive  to  output-file.  Useful for updating an archive without
              changing the existing archive and the input archive must be a different  file  than
              the output archive.

              This option can be used to create updated split archives.  It can also be used with
              -U to copy entries from an existing archive to a new  archive.   See  the  EXAMPLES
              section below.

              Another  use is converting zip files from one split size to another.  For instance,
              to convert an archive with 700 MB CD splits to one with 2 GB DVD splits, can use:

                     zip -s 2g --out

              which uses copy mode.  See -U below.  Also:

                     zip -s 0 --out

              will convert a split archive to a single-file archive.

              Copy mode will convert stream entries (using data descriptors and which  should  be
              compatible with most unzips) to normal entries (which should be compatible with all
              unzips), except if standard encryption  was  used.   For  archives  with  encrypted
              entries, zipcloak will decrypt the entries and convert them to normal entries.

              Include  relative  file  paths as part of the names of files stored in the archive.
              This is the default.  The -j option junks the paths and just stores  the  names  of
              the files.

       -P password
       --password password
              Use  password  to encrypt zipfile entries (if any).  THIS IS INSECURE!  Many multi-
              user operating systems provide ways for any user to see the current command line of
              any other user; even on stand-alone systems there is always the threat of over-the-
              shoulder peeking.  Storing the plaintext password as part of a command line  in  an
              automated   script   is  even  worse.   Whenever  possible,  use  the  non-echoing,
              interactive prompt to enter passwords.  (And where security is truly important, use
              strong  encryption  such  as  Pretty  Good  Privacy  instead of the relatively weak
              standard encryption provided by zipfile utilities.)

              Quiet mode; eliminate informational messages and  comment  prompts.   (Useful,  for
              example, in shell scripts and background tasks).

       --Q-flag n
              [QDOS] store information about the file in the file header with n defined as
              bit  0: Don't add headers for any file
              bit  1: Add headers for all files
              bit  2: Don't wait for interactive key press on exit

              Travel the directory structure recursively; for example:

                     zip -r foo

              or more concisely

                     zip -r foo foo

              In this case, all the files and directories in foo are saved in a zip archive named
    , including files with names starting with ".", since the recursion does not
              use  the  shell's  file-name substitution mechanism.  If you wish to include only a
              specific subset of the files in directory foo and its subdirectories,  use  the  -i
              option  to specify the pattern of files to be included.  You should not use -r with
              the name ".*", since that matches ".."  which will attempt to  zip  up  the  parent
              directory (probably not what was intended).

              Multiple source directories are allowed as in

                     zip -r foo foo1 foo2

              which first zips up foo1 and then foo2, going down each directory.

              Note  that  while  wildcards  to  -r  are  typically  resolved while recursing down
              directories in the file system, any  -R,  -x,  and  -i  wildcards  are  applied  to
              internal  archive  pathnames  once  the directories are scanned.  To have wildcards
              apply to files in subdirectories when recursing on Unix and similar  systems  where
              the  shell  does  wildcard  substitution,  either  escape  all wildcards or put all
              arguments with wildcards in quotes.  This lets zip  see  the  wildcards  and  match
              files in subdirectories using them as it recurses.

              Travel  the  directory structure recursively starting at the current directory; for

                     zip -R foo "*.c"

              In this case, all the files matching *.c  in  the  tree  starting  at  the  current
              directory  are  stored  into a zip archive named  Note that *.c will match
              file.c, a/file.c and a/b/.c.  More than one  pattern  can  be  listed  as  separate
              arguments.  Note for PKZIP users: the equivalent command is

                     pkzip -rP foo *.c

              Patterns  are  relative  file  paths  as  they appear in the archive, or will after
              zipping, and can have optional wildcards in them.  For example, given  the  current
              directory is foo and under it are directories foo1 and foo2 and in foo1 is the file

                     zip -R foo/*

              will zip up foo, foo/foo1, foo/foo1/bar.c, and foo/foo2.

                     zip -R */bar.c

              will zip up foo/foo1/bar.c.  See the note for -r on escaping wildcards.

              [WIN32]  Before zip 3.0, regular expression list matching was enabled by default on
              Windows  platforms.  Because of confusion resulting from the need to escape "[" and
              "]" in names, it is now off by default for Windows so "[" and "]" are  just  normal
              characters in names.  This option enables [] matching again.

       -s splitsize
       --split-size splitsize
              Enable  creating  a  split  archive  and set the split size.  A split archive is an
              archive that could be split over many files.  As the archive  is  created,  if  the
              size  of the archive reaches the specified split size, that split is closed and the
              next split opened.  In general all splits but the last will be the split  size  and
              the last will be whatever is left.  If the entire archive is smaller than the split
              size a single-file archive is created.

              Split archives are stored in numbered files.  For example, if the output archive is
              named  archive  and three splits are required, the resulting archive will be in the
              three files archive.z01, archive.z02, and  Do not change the numbering
              of  these  files or the archive will not be readable as these are used to determine
              the order the splits are read.

              Split size is a number optionally followed by a multiplier.  Currently  the  number
              must  be  an  integer.   The  multiplier  can  currently be one of k (kilobytes), m
              (megabytes), g (gigabytes), or t (terabytes).  As 64k is the  minimum  split  size,
              numbers  without  multipliers default to megabytes.  For example, to create a split
              archive called foo with the contents of the bar directory with  splits  of  670  MB
              that might be useful for burning on CDs, the command:

                     zip -s 670m -r foo bar

              could be used.

              Currently  the  old  splits of a split archive are not excluded from a new archive,
              but they can be specifically excluded.  If possible,  keep  the  input  and  output
              archives out of the path being zipped when creating split archives.

              Using -s without -sp as above creates all the splits where foo is being written, in
              this case the current directory.  This split mode updates the splits as the archive
              is  being  created,  requiring  all  splits  to  remain writable, but creates split
              archives that are readable by any unzip that  supports  split  archives.   See  -sp
              below  for  enabling split pause mode which allows splits to be written directly to
              removable media.

              The option -sv can be used to enable verbose splitting and provide details  of  how
              the  splitting is being done.  The -sb option can be used to ring the bell when zip
              pauses for the next split destination.

              Split archives cannot be updated, but see the -O (--out) option  for  how  a  split
              archive  can be updated as it is copied to a new archive.  A split archive can also
              be converted into a single-file archive using a split size of 0 or negating the  -s

                     zip -s 0 --out

              Also see -U (--copy) for more on using copy mode.

              If  splitting  and  using  split pause mode, ring the bell when zip pauses for each
              split destination.

              Show the command line starting zip as processed and exit.  The new  command  parser
              permutes  the  arguments,  putting  all options and any values associated with them
              before any non-option arguments.  This allows an option to appear anywhere  in  the
              command line as long as any values that go with the option go with it.  This option
              displays the command line  as  zip  sees  it,  including  any  arguments  from  the
              environment  such as from the ZIPOPT variable.  Where allowed, options later in the
              command line can override options earlier in the command line.

              Show the files that would be operated on, then exit.  For instance, if  creating  a
              new  archive,  this  will  list  the  files  that would be added.  If the option is
              negated, -sf-, output only to an open log file.  Screen display is not  recommended
              for large lists.

              Show  all available options supported by zip as compiled on the current system.  As
              this command reads the option table, it should  include  all  options.   Each  line
              includes the short option (if defined), the long option (if defined), the format of
              any value that goes with the option, if the option can  be  negated,  and  a  small
              description.   The  value  format  can be no value, required value, optional value,
              single character value, number value, or a list of  values.   The  output  of  this
              option is not intended to show how to use any option but only show what options are

              If splitting is enabled with -s, enable  split  pause  mode.   This  creates  split
              archives as -s does, but stream writing is used so each split can be closed as soon
              as it is written and zip will pause between each  split  to  allow  changing  split
              destination or media.

              Though  this  split mode allows writing splits directly to removable media, it uses
              stream archive format that may not be readable by some unzips.  Before  relying  on
              splits created with -sp, test a split archive with the unzip you will be using.

              To  convert a stream split archive (created with -sp) to a standard archive see the
              --out option.

              As -sf, but also show Unicode version of the path if exists.

              As -sf, but only show Unicode version of the path if  exists,  otherwise  show  the
              standard version of the path.

              Enable various verbose messages while splitting, showing how the splitting is being

              [MSDOS, OS/2, WIN32 and ATARI] Include system and hidden files.
              [MacOS] Includes finder invisible files, which are ignored otherwise.

       -t mmddyyyy
       --from-date mmddyyyy
              Do not operate on files modified prior to the specified date, where mm is the month
              (00-12),  dd  is  the day of the month (01-31), and yyyy is the year.  The ISO 8601
              date format yyyy-mm-dd is also accepted.  For example:

                     zip -rt 12071991 infamy foo

                     zip -rt 1991-12-07 infamy foo

              will add all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were last modified on  or
              after 7 December 1991, to the zip archive

       -tt mmddyyyy
       --before-date mmddyyyy
              Do  not  operate  on files modified after or at the specified date, where mm is the
              month (00-12), dd is the day of the month (01-31),  and  yyyy  is  the  year.   The
              ISO 8601 date format yyyy-mm-dd is also accepted.  For example:

                     zip -rtt 11301995 infamy foo

                     zip -rtt 1995-11-30 infamy foo

              will add all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were last modified before
              30 November 1995, to the zip archive

              Test the integrity of the new zip file. If the check fails, the  old  zip  file  is
              unchanged and (with the -m option) no input files are removed.

       -TT cmd
       --unzip-command cmd
              Use  command  cmd  instead of 'unzip -tqq' to test an archive when the -T option is
              used.  On Unix, to use a copy of unzip in the  current  directory  instead  of  the
              standard system unzip, could use:

               zip archive file1 file2 -T -TT "./unzip -tqq"

              In  cmd, {} is replaced by the name of the temporary archive, otherwise the name of
              the archive is appended to the end of the command.  The return code is checked  for
              success (0 on Unix).

              Replace  (update) an existing entry in the zip archive only if it has been modified
              more recently than the version already in the zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -u stuff *

              will add any new files in the current directory, and update any  files  which  have
              been  modified since the zip archive was last created/modified (note that
              zip will not try to pack into itself when you do this).

              Note that the -u option with no input file arguments acts  like  the  -f  (freshen)

              Copy  entries  from one archive to another.  Requires the --out option to specify a
              different output file than the input archive.  Copy  mode  is  the  reverse  of  -d
              delete.   When  delete  is  being used with --out, the selected entries are deleted
              from the archive and all other entries are copied to the new  archive,  while  copy
              mode  selects  the  files  to  include in the new archive.  Unlike -u update, input
              patterns on the command line are matched against archive entries only and  not  the
              file system files.  For instance,

                     zip inarchive "*.c" --copy --out outarchive

              copies  entries with names ending in .c from inarchive to outarchive.  The wildcard
              must be escaped on some systems to prevent the shell  from  substituting  names  of
              files  from  the  file  system  which  may  have no relevance to the entries in the

              If no input files appear on the command line  and  --out  is  used,  copy  mode  is

                     zip inarchive --out outarchive

              This  is  useful  for  changing split size for instance.  Encrypting and decrypting
              entries is not yet supported using copy mode.  Use zipcloak for that.

       -UN v
       --unicode v
              Determine what zip should do with Unicode file names.  zip 3.0, in addition to  the
              standard  file  path,  now  includes the UTF-8 translation of the path if the entry
              path is not entirely 7-bit ASCII.  When an entry is missing the Unicode  path,  zip
              reverts  back  to the standard file path.  The problem with using the standard path
              is this path is in the local character set of the zip that created the entry, which
              may  contain  characters  that are not valid in the character set being used by the
              unzip.  When zip is reading an archive, if an entry also has a  Unicode  path,  zip
              now  defaults  to  using  the  Unicode path to recreate the standard path using the
              current local character set.

              This option can be used to determine what zip should do with this path if there  is
              a  mismatch  between  the stored standard path and the stored UTF-8 path (which can
              happen if the standard path was updated).  In all cases, if there is a mismatch  it
              is  assumed that the standard path is more current and zip uses that.  Values for v

                     q - quit if paths do not match

                     w - warn, continue with standard path

                     i - ignore, continue with standard path

                     n - no Unicode, do not use Unicode paths

              The default is to warn and continue.

              Characters that are not valid in the current character set are  escaped  as  #Uxxxx
              and  #Lxxxxxx, where x is an ASCII character for a hex digit.  The first is used if
              a 16-bit character number is sufficient to represent the Unicode character and  the
              second if the character needs more than 16 bits to represent it's Unicode character
              code.  Setting -UN to

                     e - escape

              as in

                     zip archive -sU -UN=e

              forces zip to escape all characters that are not printable 7-bit ASCII.

              Normally zip stores UTF-8 directly in the standard  path  field  on  systems  where
              UTF-8  is  the  current  character set and stores the UTF-8 in the new extra fields
              otherwise.  The option

                     u - UTF-8

              as in

                     zip archive dir -r -UN=UTF8

              forces zip to store UTF-8 as native  in  the  archive.   Note  that  storing  UTF-8
              directly  is  the  default  on  Unix systems that support it.  This option could be
              useful on Windows systems where the escaped path is too large to be  a  valid  path
              and  the  UTF-8  version  of  the path is smaller, but native UTF-8 is not backward
              compatible on Windows systems.

              Verbose mode or print diagnostic version info.

              Normally, when applied to real operations, this option enables  the  display  of  a
              progress  indicator  during  compression  (see  -dd  for more on dots) and requests
              verbose diagnostic info about zipfile structure oddities.

              However, when -v is the only command line argument a diagnostic screen  is  printed
              instead.   This  should  now  work even if stdout is redirected to a file, allowing
              easy saving of the information for sending  with  bug  reports  to  Info-ZIP.   The
              version  screen  provides  the  help  screen header with program name, version, and
              release date, some pointers to the Info-ZIP home and distribution sites, and  shows
              information  about  the  target environment (compiler type and version, OS version,
              compilation date  and  the  enabled  optional  features  used  to  create  the  zip

              [VMS] Save VMS file attributes.  (Files are  truncated at EOF.)   When a -V archive
              is unpacked on a non-VMS system,  some file types  (notably  Stream_LF  text  files
              and   pure binary files  like fixed-512) should be extracted intact.  Indexed files
              and file types with embedded record sizes (notably  variable-length  record  types)
              will probably be seen as corrupt elsewhere.

              [VMS]  Save  VMS  file  attributes, and  all allocated blocks in a file,  including
              any  data beyond EOF.  Useful for moving  ill-formed  files   among   VMS  systems.
              When  a  -VV  archive is unpacked on a non-VMS system, almost all files will appear

              [VMS] Append the version number of  the  files  to  the  name,  including  multiple
              versions  of  files.  Default is to use only the most recent version of a specified

              [VMS] Append the version number of  the  files  to  the  name,  including  multiple
              versions  of  files, using the .nnn format.  Default is to use only the most recent
              version of a specified file.

              Wildcards match only at a directory level.  Normally zip handles paths  as  strings
              and given the paths



              an input pattern such as


              normally would match both paths, the * matching dir/file1.c and file2.c.  Note that
              in the first case a directory boundary (/) was crossed in the match.  With  -ws  no
              directory  bounds  will  be  included  in  the  match,  making wildcards local to a
              specific directory level.  So, with -ws enabled, only  the  second  path  would  be

              When using -ws, use ** to match across directory boundaries as * does normally.

       -x files
       --exclude files
              Explicitly exclude the specified files, as in:

                     zip -r foo foo -x \*.o

              which  will  include  the  contents of foo in while excluding all the files
              that end in .o.  The backslash avoids the shell filename substitution, so that  the
              name matching is performed by zip at all directory levels.

              Also possible:

                     zip -r foo foo -x@exclude.lst

              which  will  include  the  contents of foo in while excluding all the files
              that match the patterns in the file exclude.lst.

              The long option forms of the above are

                     zip -r foo foo --exclude \*.o


                     zip -r foo foo --exclude @exclude.lst

              Multiple patterns can be specified, as in:

                     zip -r foo foo -x \*.o \*.c

              If there is no space between -x and the pattern, just  one  value  is  assumed  (no

                     zip -r foo foo -x\*.o

              See -i for more on include and exclude.

              Do  not  save  extra file attributes (Extended Attributes on OS/2, uid/gid and file
              times on Unix).  The zip format uses extra fields to include additional information
              for  each entry.  Some extra fields are specific to particular systems while others
              are applicable to all systems.  Normally when zip reads entries  from  an  existing
              archive,  it  reads  the extra fields it knows, strips the rest, and adds the extra
              fields applicable to that system.  With -X, zip strips  all  old  fields  and  only
              includes  the  Unicode  and  Zip64  extra  fields (currently these two extra fields
              cannot be disabled).

              Negating this option, -X-, includes all the default extra fields, but  also  copies
              over any unrecognized extra fields.

              For UNIX and VMS (V8.3 and later), store symbolic links as such in the zip archive,
              instead of compressing and storing the file referred to  by  the  link.   This  can
              avoid  multiple  copies  of files being included in the archive as zip recurses the
              directory trees and accesses files directly and by links.

              Prompt for a multi-line comment for the entire zip archive.  The comment  is  ended
              by  a line containing just a period, or an end of file condition (^D on Unix, ^Z on
              MSDOS, OS/2, and VMS).  The comment can be taken from a file:

                     zip -z foo < foowhat

       -Z cm
       --compression-method cm
              Set the default compression method.  Currently the main methods  supported  by  zip
              are store and deflate.  Compression method can be set to:

              store - Setting the compression method to store forces zip to store entries with no
              compression.  This is generally faster than compressing entries, but results in  no
              space savings.  This is the same as using -0 (compression level zero).

              deflate  -  This  is the default method for zip.  If zip determines that storing is
              better than deflation, the entry will be stored instead.

              bzip2 - If bzip2 support is compiled  in,  this  compression  method  also  becomes
              available.  Only some modern unzips currently support the bzip2 compression method,
              so test the unzip you will be using before relying on archives  using  this  method
              (compression method 12).

              For example, to add bar.c to archive foo using bzip2 compression:

                     zip -Z bzip2 foo bar.c

              The compression method can be abbreviated:

                     zip -Zb foo bar.c

       (-0, -1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, -7, -8, -9)
              Regulate  the  speed of compression using the specified digit #, where -0 indicates
              no compression (store all files), -1 indicates the fastest compression speed  (less
              compression)  and  -9 indicates the slowest compression speed (optimal compression,
              ignores the suffix list). The default compression level is -6.

              Though still being worked, the intention is this setting will  control  compression
              speed for all compression methods.  Currently only deflation is controlled.

              [WIN32] Use privileges (if granted) to obtain all aspects of WinNT security.

              Take the list of input files from standard input. Only one filename per line.

              [MSDOS,  OS/2, WIN32] Include the volume label for the drive holding the first file
              to be compressed.  If you want to include only the  volume  label  or  to  force  a
              specific drive, use the drive name as first file name, as in:

                     zip -$ foo a: c:bar


       The simplest example:

              zip stuff *

       creates  the  archive (assuming it does not exist) and puts all the files in the
       current directory in it, in compressed form  (the  .zip  suffix  is  added  automatically,
       unless  the archive name contains a dot already; this allows the explicit specification of
       other suffixes).

       Because of the way the shell on Unix does filename substitution, files starting  with  "."
       are not included; to include these as well:

              zip stuff .* *

       Even this will not include any subdirectories from the current directory.

       To zip up an entire directory, the command:

              zip -r foo foo

       creates the archive, containing all the files and directories in the directory foo
       that is contained within the current directory.

       You may want to make a zip archive that contains the files in foo, without  recording  the
       directory name, foo.  You can use the -j option to leave off the paths, as in:

              zip -j foo foo/*

       If  you  are short on disk space, you might not have enough room to hold both the original
       directory and the corresponding compressed zip archive.  In this case, you can create  the
       archive  in  steps using the -m option.  If foo contains the subdirectories tom, dick, and
       harry, you can:

              zip -rm foo foo/tom
              zip -rm foo foo/dick
              zip -rm foo foo/harry

       where the first command creates, and the next two add to it.  At the completion of
       each  zip  command,  the  last  created  archive  is deleted, making room for the next zip
       command to function.

       Use -s to set the split size and create a split archive.  The size is given  as  a  number
       followed optionally by one of k (kB), m (MB), g (GB), or t (TB).  The command

              zip -s 2g -r foo

       creates a split archive of the directory foo with splits no bigger than 2 GB each.  If foo
       contained 5 GB of contents and the contents were  stored  in  the  split  archive  without
       compression  (to  make  this example simple), this would create three splits, split.z01 at
       2 GB, split.z02 at 2 GB, and at a little over 1 GB.

       The -sp option can be used to pause zip between splits to allow changing removable  media,
       for example, but read the descriptions and warnings for both -s and -sp below.

       Though  zip does not update split archives, zip provides the new option -O (--output-file)
       to allow split archives to be updated and saved in a new archive.  For example,

              zip foo.c bar.c --out

       reads archive, even if split, adds the files foo.c and bar.c, and writes the
       resulting  archive  to   If  is  split then
       defaults to the same split size.  Be aware that and any  split  files  that
       are  created  with  it are always overwritten without warning.  This may be changed in the


       This section applies only to Unix.   Watch  this  space  for  details  on  MSDOS  and  VMS
       operation.   However,  the  special  wildcard  characters * and [] below apply to at least
       MSDOS also.

       The Unix shells (sh, csh, bash, and others) normally do filename substitution (also called
       "globbing") on command arguments.  Generally the special characters are:

       ?      match any single character

       *      match any number of characters (including none)

       []     match  any  character  in  the range indicated within the brackets (example: [a-f],
              [0-9]).  This form of wildcard  matching  allows  a  user  to  specify  a  list  of
              characters  between  square  brackets  and  if  any  of  the  characters  match the
              expression matches.  For example:

                     zip archive "*.[hc]"

              would archive all files in the current directory that end in .h or .c.

              Ranges of characters are supported:

                     zip archive "[a-f]*"

              would add to the archive all files starting with "a" through "f".

              Negation is also supported, where any character in that position not  in  the  list
              matches.  Negation is supported by adding ! or ^ to the beginning of the list:

                     zip archive "*.[!o]"

              matches files that don't end in ".o".

              On  WIN32,  []  matching  needs  to  be  turned on with the -RE option to avoid the
              confusion that names with [ or ] have caused.

       When these characters are encountered (without being escaped with a backslash or  quotes),
       the  shell  will  look  for files relative to the current path that match the pattern, and
       replace the argument with a list of the names that matched.

       The zip program can do the same matching on names  that  are  in  the  zip  archive  being
       modified or, in the case of the -x (exclude) or -i (include) options, on the list of files
       to be operated on, by using backslashes or quotes to tell the shell not  to  do  the  name
       expansion.   In  general,  when zip encounters a name in the list of files to do, it first
       looks for the name in the file system.  If it finds it, it then adds it  to  the  list  of
       files  to  do.   If  it  does  not find it, it looks for the name in the zip archive being
       modified (if it exists),  using  the  pattern  matching  characters  described  above,  if
       present.   For  each  match,  it  will add that name to the list of files to be processed,
       unless this name matches one given with the -x option, or does not match  any  name  given
       with the -i option.

       The  pattern matching includes the path, and so patterns like \*.o match names that end in
       ".o", no matter what the path prefix is.  Note  that  the  backslash  must  precede  every
       special  character  (i.e.  ?*[]), or the entire argument must be enclosed in double quotes

       In general, use backslashes or double quotes for paths that have wildcards to make zip  do
       the  pattern matching for file paths, and always for paths and strings that have spaces or
       wildcards for -i, -x, -R, -d, and -U and anywhere zip needs to process the wildcards.


       The following environment variables are read and used by zip as described.

              contains default options that will be used when running zip.  The contents of  this
              environment variable will get added to the command line just after the zip command.

              [Not on RISC OS and VMS] see ZIPOPT

              [RISC OS] see ZIPOPT

              [RISC  OS]  contains  extensions  separated by a : that will cause native filenames
              with one of the specified extensions to be added to the zip file with basename  and
              extension swapped.

              [VMS] see ZIPOPT


       compress(1), shar(1), tar(1), unzip(1), gzip(1)


       The  exit  status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by PKWARE and takes
       on the following values, except under VMS:

              0      normal; no errors or warnings detected.

              2      unexpected end of zip file.

              3      a generic error in the zipfile format was  detected.   Processing  may  have
                     completed  successfully  anyway;  some  broken  zipfiles  created  by  other
                     archivers have simple work-arounds.

              4      zip was unable to allocate memory for one or  more  buffers  during  program

              5      a  severe  error  in  the  zipfile format was detected.  Processing probably
                     failed immediately.

              6      entry too large to be processed (such as input files larger than 2  GB  when
                     not  using Zip64 or trying to read an existing archive that is too large) or
                     entry too large to be split with zipsplit

              7      invalid comment format

              8      zip -T failed or out of memory

              9      the user aborted zip prematurely with control-C (or similar)

              10     zip encountered an error while using a temp file

              11     read or seek error

              12     zip has nothing to do

              13     missing or empty zip file

              14     error writing to a file

              15     zip was unable to create a file to write to

              16     bad command line parameters

              18     zip could not open a specified file to read

              19     zip was compiled with options not supported on this system

       VMS interprets standard Unix (or PC) return values as other,  scarier-looking  things,  so
       zip  instead  maps  them into VMS-style status codes.  In general, zip sets VMS Facility =
       1955 (0x07A3), Code = 2*  Unix_status,  and  an  appropriate  Severity  (as  specified  in
       ziperr.h).    More   details   are   included  in  the  VMS-specific  documentation.   See
       [.vms]NOTES.TXT and [.vms]vms_msg_gen.c.


       zip 3.0 is not compatible with PKUNZIP 1.10. Use zip 1.1 to produce zip files which can be
       extracted by PKUNZIP 1.10.

       zip  files  produced  by  zip  3.0  must  not be updated by zip 1.1 or PKZIP 1.10, if they
       contain encrypted members or if they have been produced in a pipe  or  on  a  non-seekable
       device. The old versions of zip or PKZIP would create an archive with an incorrect format.
       The old versions can list the contents of the  zip  file  but  cannot  extract  it  anyway
       (because  of the new compression algorithm).  If you do not use encryption and use regular
       disk files, you do not have to care about this problem.

       Under VMS, not all of the odd file formats are treated properly.   Only  stream-LF  format
       zip files are expected to work with zip.  Others can be converted using Rahul Dhesi's BILF
       program.  This version of zip handles some  of  the  conversion  internally.   When  using
       Kermit  to  transfer zip files from VMS to MSDOS, type "set file type block" on VMS.  When
       transferring from MSDOS to VMS, type "set file type fixed" on VMS.  In  both  cases,  type
       "set file type binary" on MSDOS.

       Under some older VMS versions, zip may hang for file specifications that use DECnet syntax

       On OS/2, zip cannot match some names, such as those including an  exclamation  mark  or  a
       hash  sign.   This  is  a bug in OS/2 itself: the 32-bit DosFindFirst/Next don't find such
       names.  Other programs such as GNU tar are also affected by this bug.

       Under OS/2, the amount of Extended Attributes displayed by DIR is (for compatibility)  the
       amount  returned  by  the 16-bit version of DosQueryPathInfo(). Otherwise OS/2 1.3 and 2.0
       would report different EA sizes  when  DIRing  a  file.   However,  the  structure  layout
       returned  by the 32-bit DosQueryPathInfo() is a bit different, it uses extra padding bytes
       and link pointers (it's a linked list)  to  have  all  fields  on  4-byte  boundaries  for
       portability  to future RISC OS/2 versions. Therefore the value reported by zip (which uses
       this 32-bit-mode size) differs from that reported by DIR.  zip stores  the  32-bit  format
       for  portability,  even the 16-bit MS-C-compiled version running on OS/2 1.3, so even this
       one shows the 32-bit-mode size.


       Copyright (C) 1997-2008 Info-ZIP.

       Currently distributed under the Info-ZIP license.

       Copyright (C) 1990-1997 Mark Adler, Richard B.  Wales,  Jean-loup  Gailly,  Onno  van  der
       Linden, Kai Uwe Rommel, Igor Mandrichenko, John Bush and Paul Kienitz.

       Original copyright:

       Permission  is granted to any individual or institution to use, copy, or redistribute this
       software so long as all of the original files are  included,  that  it  is  not  sold  for
       profit, and that this copyright notice is retained.


       Please  send  bug  reports  and comments using the web page at:  For bug
       reports, please include the version of zip (see zip -h), the make options used to  compile
       it  (see  zip -v),  the  machine  and  operating  system  in  use,  and as much additional
       information as possible.


       Thanks to R. P. Byrne for his Shrink.Pas program, which inspired this  project,  and  from
       which  the  shrink algorithm was stolen; to Phil Katz for placing in the public domain the
       zip file format, compression format, and .ZIP filename extension, and for accepting  minor
       changes  to  the  file  format; to Steve Burg for clarifications on the deflate format; to
       Haruhiko Okumura and Leonid Broukhis for providing some useful ideas for  the  compression
       algorithm;  to  Keith  Petersen, Rich Wales, Hunter Goatley and Mark Adler for providing a
       mailing list and ftp site for the Info-ZIP group to use;  and  most  importantly,  to  the
       Info-ZIP  group itself (listed in the file infozip.who) without whose tireless testing and
       bug-fixing efforts a portable zip would not have been possible.  Finally we  should  thank
       (blame)  the  first Info-ZIP moderator, David Kirschbaum, for getting us into this mess in
       the first place.  The manual page was rewritten for Unix by R. P. C. Rodgers  and  updated
       by E. Gordon for zip 3.0.