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     faith — IPv6-to-IPv4 TCP relay capturing interface


     device faith


     The faith interface captures IPv6 TCP traffic, for implementing userland IPv6-to-IPv4 TCP
     relay like faithd(8).

     Each faith interface is created at runtime using interface cloning.  This is most easily
     done with the ifconfig(8) create command or using the cloned_interfaces variable in

     Special action will be taken when IPv6 TCP traffic is seen on a router, and the default
     routing table suggests to route it to the faith interface.  In this case, the packet will be
     accepted by the router, regardless of the list of IPv6 interface addresses assigned to the
     router.  The packet will be captured by an IPv6 TCP socket, if it has the IN6P_FAITH flag
     turned on and matching address/port pairs.  As a result, faith will let you capture IPv6 TCP
     traffic to some specific destination addresses.  Userland programs, such as faithd(8) can
     use this behavior to relay IPv6 TCP traffic to IPv4 TCP traffic.  The program can accept
     some specific IPv6 TCP traffic, perform getsockname(2) to get the IPv6 destination address
     specified by the client, and perform application-specific address mapping to relay IPv6 TCP
     to IPv4 TCP.

     The IN6P_FAITH flag on a IPv6 TCP socket can be set by using setsockopt(2), with level
     IPPROTO_IPV6 and optname IPv6_FAITH.

     To handle error reports by ICMPv6, some ICMPv6 packets routed to an faith interface will be
     delivered to IPv6 TCP, as well.

     To understand how faith can be used, take a look at the source code of faithd(8).

     As the faith interface implements potentially dangerous operations, great care must be taken
     when configuring it.  To avoid possible misuse, the sysctl(8) variable
     net.inet6.ip6.keepfaith must be set to 1 prior to using the interface.  When
     net.inet6.ip6.keepfaith is 0, no packets will be captured by the faith interface.

     The faith interface is intended to be used on routers, not on hosts.


     inet(4), inet6(4), faithd(8)

     Jun-ichiro itojun Hagino and Kazu Yamamoto, An IPv6-to-IPv4 transport relay translator,


     The FAITH IPv6-to-IPv4 TCP relay translator first appeared in the WIDE hydrangea IPv6 stack.