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     style — kernel source file style guide


     This file specifies the preferred style for kernel source files in the FreeBSD source tree.
     It is also a guide for the preferred userland code style.  Many of the style rules are
     implicit in the examples.  Be careful to check the examples before assuming that style is
     silent on an issue.

      * Style guide for FreeBSD.  Based on the CSRG's KNF (Kernel Normal Form).
      *      @(#)style       1.14 (Berkeley) 4/28/95
      * $FreeBSD: releng/10.1/share/man/man9/style.9 217087 2011-01-07 08:34:12Z trasz $

      * VERY important single-line comments look like this.

     /* Most single-line comments look like this. */

      * Multi-line comments look like this.  Make them real sentences.  Fill
      * them so they look like real paragraphs.

     The copyright header should be a multi-line comment, with the first line of the comment
     having a dash after the star like so:

      * Copyright (c) 1984-2025 John Q. Public
      * All rights reserved.
      * Long, boring license goes here, but trimmed for brevity

     An automatic script collects license information from the tree for all comments that start
     in the first column with “/*-”.  If you desire to flag indent(1) to not reformat a comment
     that starts in the first column which is not a license or copyright notice, change the dash
     to a star for those comments.  Comments starting in columns other than the first are never
     considered license statements.

     After any copyright header, there is a blank line, and the $FreeBSD$ for non C/C++ language
     source files.  Version control system ID tags should only exist once in a file (unlike in
     this one).  Non-C/C++ source files follow the example above, while C/C++ source files follow
     the one below.  All VCS (version control system) revision identification in files obtained
     from elsewhere should be maintained, including, where applicable, multiple IDs showing a
     file's history.  In general, do not edit foreign IDs or their infrastructure.  Unless
     otherwise wrapped (such as “#if defined(LIBC_SCCS)”), enclose both in “#if 0 ... #endif” to
     hide any uncompilable bits and to keep the IDs out of object files.  Only add “From: ” in
     front of foreign VCS IDs if the file is renamed.

     #if 0
     #ifndef lint
     static char sccsid[] = "@(#)style       1.14 (Berkeley) 4/28/95";
     #endif /* not lint */

     #include <sys/cdefs.h>
     __FBSDID("$FreeBSD: releng/10.1/share/man/man9/style.9 217087 2011-01-07 08:34:12Z trasz $");

     Leave another blank line before the header files.

     Kernel include files (i.e. sys/*.h) come first; normally, include <sys/types.h> OR
     <sys/param.h>, but not both.  <sys/types.h> includes <sys/cdefs.h>, and it is okay to depend
     on that.

     #include <sys/types.h>  /* Non-local includes in angle brackets. */

     For a network program, put the network include files next.

     #include <net/if.h>
     #include <net/if_dl.h>
     #include <net/route.h>
     #include <netinet/in.h>
     #include <protocols/rwhod.h>

     Do not use files in /usr/include for files in the kernel.

     Leave a blank line before the next group, the /usr/include files, which should be sorted
     alphabetically by name.

     #include <stdio.h>

     Global pathnames are defined in <paths.h>.  Pathnames local to the program go in
     "pathnames.h" in the local directory.

     #include <paths.h>

     Leave another blank line before the user include files.

     #include "pathnames.h"          /* Local includes in double quotes. */

     Do not #define or declare names in the implementation namespace except for implementing
     application interfaces.

     The names of “unsafe” macros (ones that have side effects), and the names of macros for
     manifest constants, are all in uppercase.  The expansions of expression-like macros are
     either a single token or have outer parentheses.  Put a single tab character between the
     #define and the macro name.  If a macro is an inline expansion of a function, the function
     name is all in lowercase and the macro has the same name all in uppercase.  Right-justify
     the backslashes; it makes it easier to read.  If the macro encapsulates a compound
     statement, enclose it in a do loop, so that it can safely be used in if statements.  Any
     final statement-terminating semicolon should be supplied by the macro invocation rather than
     the macro, to make parsing easier for pretty-printers and editors.

     #define MACRO(x, y) do {                                                \
             variable = (x) + (y);                                           \
             (y) += 2;                                                       \
     } while (0)

     When code is conditionally compiled using #ifdef or #if, a comment may be added following
     the matching #endif or #else to permit the reader to easily discern where conditionally
     compiled code regions end.  This comment should be used only for (subjectively) long
     regions, regions greater than 20 lines, or where a series of nested #ifdef 's may be
     confusing to the reader.  Exceptions may be made for cases where code is conditionally not
     compiled for the purposes of lint(1), even though the uncompiled region may be small.  The
     comment should be separated from the #endif or #else by a single space.  For short
     conditionally compiled regions, a closing comment should not be used.

     The comment for #endif should match the expression used in the corresponding #if or #ifdef.
     The comment for #else and #elif should match the inverse of the expression(s) used in the
     preceding #if and/or #elif statements.  In the comments, the subexpression “defined(FOO)” is
     abbreviated as “FOO”.  For the purposes of comments, “#ifndef FOO” is treated as “#if

     #ifdef KTRACE
     #include <sys/ktrace.h>

     #ifdef COMPAT_43
     /* A large region here, or other conditional code. */
     #else /* !COMPAT_43 */
     /* Or here. */
     #endif /* COMPAT_43 */

     #ifndef COMPAT_43
     /* Yet another large region here, or other conditional code. */
     #else /* COMPAT_43 */
     /* Or here. */
     #endif /* !COMPAT_43 */

     The project is slowly moving to use the ISO/IEC 9899:1999 (“ISO C99”) unsigned integer
     identifiers of the form uintXX_t in preference to the older BSD-style integer identifiers of
     the form u_intXX_t.  New code should use the former, and old code should be converted to the
     new form if other major work is being done in that area and there is no overriding reason to
     prefer the older BSD-style.  Like white-space commits, care should be taken in making
     uintXX_t only commits.

     Enumeration values are all uppercase.

     enum enumtype { ONE, TWO } et;

     The use of internal_underscores in identifiers is preferred over camelCase or TitleCase.

     In declarations, do not put any whitespace between asterisks and adjacent tokens, except for
     tokens that are identifiers related to types.  (These identifiers are the names of basic
     types, type qualifiers, and typedef-names other than the one being declared.)  Separate
     these identifiers from asterisks using a single space.

     When declaring variables in structures, declare them sorted by use, then by size (largest to
     smallest), and then in alphabetical order.  The first category normally does not apply, but
     there are exceptions.  Each one gets its own line.  Try to make the structure readable by
     aligning the member names using either one or two tabs depending upon your judgment.  You
     should use one tab only if it suffices to align at least 90% of the member names.  Names
     following extremely long types should be separated by a single space.

     Major structures should be declared at the top of the file in which they are used, or in
     separate header files if they are used in multiple source files.  Use of the structures
     should be by separate declarations and should be extern if they are declared in a header

     struct foo {
             struct foo      *next;          /* List of active foo. */
             struct mumble   amumble;        /* Comment for mumble. */
             int             bar;            /* Try to align the comments. */
             struct verylongtypename *baz;   /* Won't fit in 2 tabs. */
     struct foo *foohead;                    /* Head of global foo list. */

     Use queue(3) macros rather than rolling your own lists, whenever possible.  Thus, the
     previous example would be better written:

     #include <sys/queue.h>

     struct foo {
             LIST_ENTRY(foo) link;           /* Use queue macros for foo lists. */
             struct mumble   amumble;        /* Comment for mumble. */
             int             bar;            /* Try to align the comments. */
             struct verylongtypename *baz;   /* Won't fit in 2 tabs. */
     LIST_HEAD(, foo) foohead;               /* Head of global foo list. */

     Avoid using typedefs for structure types.  Typedefs are problematic because they do not
     properly hide their underlying type; for example you need to know if the typedef is the
     structure itself or a pointer to the structure.  In addition they must be declared exactly
     once, whereas an incomplete structure type can be mentioned as many times as necessary.
     Typedefs are difficult to use in stand-alone header files: the header that defines the
     typedef must be included before the header that uses it, or by the header that uses it
     (which causes namespace pollution), or there must be a back-door mechanism for obtaining the

     When convention requires a typedef, make its name match the struct tag.  Avoid typedefs
     ending in “_t”, except as specified in Standard C or by POSIX.

     /* Make the structure name match the typedef. */
     typedef struct bar {
             int     level;
     } BAR;
     typedef int             foo;            /* This is foo. */
     typedef const long      baz;            /* This is baz. */

     All functions are prototyped somewhere.

     Function prototypes for private functions (i.e., functions not used elsewhere) go at the top
     of the first source module.  Functions local to one source module should be declared static.

     Functions used from other parts of the kernel are prototyped in the relevant include file.
     Function prototypes should be listed in a logical order, preferably alphabetical unless
     there is a compelling reason to use a different ordering.

     Functions that are used locally in more than one module go into a separate header file, e.g.

     Do not use the __P macro.

     In general code can be considered “new code” when it makes up about 50% or more of the
     file(s) involved.  This is enough to break precedents in the existing code and use the
     current style guidelines.

     The kernel has a name associated with parameter types, e.g., in the kernel use:

     void    function(int fd);

     In header files visible to userland applications, prototypes that are visible must use
     either “protected” names (ones beginning with an underscore) or no names with the types.  It
     is preferable to use protected names.  E.g., use:

     void    function(int);


     void    function(int _fd);

     Prototypes may have an extra space after a tab to enable function names to line up:

     static char     *function(int _arg, const char *_arg2, struct foo *_arg3,
                         struct bar *_arg4);
     static void      usage(void);

      * All major routines should have a comment briefly describing what
      * they do.  The comment before the "main" routine should describe
      * what the program does.
     main(int argc, char *argv[])
             char *ep;
             long num;
             int ch;

     For consistency, getopt(3) should be used to parse options.  Options should be sorted in the
     getopt(3) call and the switch statement, unless parts of the switch cascade.  Elements in a
     switch statement that cascade should have a FALLTHROUGH comment.  Numerical arguments should
     be checked for accuracy.  Code which is unreachable for non-obvious reasons may be marked /*

             while ((ch = getopt(argc, argv, "abNn:")) != -1)
                     switch (ch) {           /* Indent the switch. */
                     case 'a':               /* Don't indent the case. */
                             aflag = 1;      /* Indent case body one tab. */
                             /* FALLTHROUGH */
                     case 'b':
                             bflag = 1;
                     case 'N':
                             Nflag = 1;
                     case 'n':
                             num = strtol(optarg, &ep, 10);
                             if (num <= 0 || *ep != '\0') {
                                     warnx("illegal number, -n argument -- %s",
                     case '?':
             argc -= optind;
             argv += optind;

     Space after keywords (if, while, for, return, switch).  No braces (‘{’ and ‘}’) are used for
     control statements with zero or only a single statement unless that statement is more than a
     single line in which case they are permitted.  Forever loops are done with for's, not

             for (p = buf; *p != '\0'; ++p)
                     ;       /* nothing */
             for (;;)
             for (;;) {
                     z = a + really + long + statement + that + needs +
                         two + lines + gets + indented + four + spaces +
                         on + the + second + and + subsequent + lines;
             for (;;) {
                     if (cond)
             if (val != NULL)
                     val = realloc(val, newsize);

     Parts of a for loop may be left empty.  Do not put declarations inside blocks unless the
     routine is unusually complicated.

             for (; cnt < 15; cnt++) {

     Indentation is an 8 character tab.  Second level indents are four spaces.  If you have to
     wrap a long statement, put the operator at the end of the line.

             while (cnt < 20 && this_variable_name_is_too_long &&
                 ep != NULL)
                     z = a + really + long + statement + that + needs +
                         two + lines + gets + indented + four + spaces +
                         on + the + second + and + subsequent + lines;

     Do not add whitespace at the end of a line, and only use tabs followed by spaces to form the
     indentation.  Do not use more spaces than a tab will produce and do not use spaces in front
     of tabs.

     Closing and opening braces go on the same line as the else.  Braces that are not necessary
     may be left out.

             if (test)
             else if (bar) {
             } else

     No spaces after function names.  Commas have a space after them.  No spaces after ‘(’ or ‘[’
     or preceding ‘]’ or ‘)’ characters.

             error = function(a1, a2);
             if (error != 0)

     Unary operators do not require spaces, binary operators do.  Do not use parentheses unless
     they are required for precedence or unless the statement is confusing without them.
     Remember that other people may confuse easier than you.  Do YOU understand the following?

             a = b->c[0] + ~d == (e || f) || g && h ? i : j >> 1;
             k = !(l & FLAGS);

     Exits should be 0 on success, or 1 on failure.

             exit(0);        /*
                              * Avoid obvious comments such as
                              * "Exit 0 on success."

     The function type should be on a line by itself preceding the function.  The opening brace
     of the function body should be on a line by itself.

     static char *
     function(int a1, int a2, float fl, int a4)

     When declaring variables in functions declare them sorted by size, then in alphabetical
     order; multiple ones per line are okay.  If a line overflows reuse the type keyword.

     Be careful to not obfuscate the code by initializing variables in the declarations.  Use
     this feature only thoughtfully.  DO NOT use function calls in initializers.

             struct foo one, *two;
             double three;
             int *four, five;
             char *six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve;

             four = myfunction();

     Do not declare functions inside other functions; ANSI C says that such declarations have
     file scope regardless of the nesting of the declaration.  Hiding file declarations in what
     appears to be a local scope is undesirable and will elicit complaints from a good compiler.

     Casts and sizeof's are not followed by a space.  Note that indent(1) does not understand
     this rule.  sizeof's are written with parenthesis always.  The redundant parenthesis rules
     do not apply to sizeof(var) instances.

     NULL is the preferred null pointer constant.  Use NULL instead of (type *)0 or (type *)NULL
     in contexts where the compiler knows the type, e.g., in assignments.  Use (type *)NULL in
     other contexts, in particular for all function args.  (Casting is essential for variadic
     args and is necessary for other args if the function prototype might not be in scope.)  Test
     pointers against NULL, e.g., use:

     (p = f()) == NULL


     !(p = f())

     Do not use ! for tests unless it is a boolean, e.g. use:

     if (*p == '\0')


     if (!*p)

     Routines returning void * should not have their return values cast to any pointer type.

     Values in return statements should be enclosed in parentheses.

     Use err(3) or warn(3), do not roll your own.

             if ((four = malloc(sizeof(struct foo))) == NULL)
                     err(1, (char *)NULL);
             if ((six = (int *)overflow()) == NULL)
                     errx(1, "number overflowed");
             return (eight);

     Old-style function declarations look like this:

     static char *
     function(a1, a2, fl, a4)
             int a1, a2;     /* Declare ints, too, don't default them. */
             float fl;       /* Beware double vs. float prototype differences. */
             int a4;         /* List in order declared. */

     Use ANSI function declarations unless you explicitly need K&R compatibility.  Long parameter
     lists are wrapped with a normal four space indent.

     Variable numbers of arguments should look like this:

     #include <stdarg.h>

     vaf(const char *fmt, ...)
             va_list ap;

             va_start(ap, fmt);
             /* No return needed for void functions. */

     static void
             /* Insert an empty line if the function has no local variables. */

     Use printf(3), not fputs(3), puts(3), putchar(3), whatever; it is faster and usually
     cleaner, not to mention avoiding stupid bugs.

     Usage statements should look like the manual pages SYNOPSIS.  The usage statement should be
     structured in the following order:

     1.   Options without operands come first, in alphabetical order, inside a single set of
          brackets (‘[’ and ‘]’).

     2.   Options with operands come next, also in alphabetical order, with each option and its
          argument inside its own pair of brackets.

     3.   Required arguments (if any) are next, listed in the order they should be specified on
          the command line.

     4.   Finally, any optional arguments should be listed, listed in the order they should be
          specified, and all inside brackets.

     A bar (‘|’) separates “either-or” options/arguments, and multiple options/arguments which
     are specified together are placed in a single set of brackets.

         "usage: f [-aDde] [-b b_arg] [-m m_arg] req1 req2 [opt1 [opt2]]\n"
         "usage: f [-a | -b] [-c [-dEe] [-n number]]\n"

             (void)fprintf(stderr, "usage: f [-ab]\n");

     Note that the manual page options description should list the options in pure alphabetical
     order.  That is, without regard to whether an option takes arguments or not.  The
     alphabetical ordering should take into account the case ordering shown above.

     New core kernel code should be reasonably compliant with the style guides.  The guidelines
     for third-party maintained modules and device drivers are more relaxed but at a minimum
     should be internally consistent with their style.

     Stylistic changes (including whitespace changes) are hard on the source repository and are
     to be avoided without good reason.  Code that is approximately FreeBSD KNF style compliant
     in the repository must not diverge from compliance.

     Whenever possible, code should be run through a code checker (e.g., lint(1) or gcc -Wall)
     and produce minimal warnings.


     indent(1), lint(1), err(3), warn(3), style.Makefile(5)


     This manual page is largely based on the src/admin/style/style file from the 4.4BSD-Lite2
     release, with occasional updates to reflect the current practice and desire of the FreeBSD
     project.  src/admin/style/style is a codification by the CSRG of the programming style of
     Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie in Version 6 AT&T UNIX.