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**NAME**

strtoul - convert a string to an unsigned long integer.

**SYNOPSIS**

#include<stdlib.h>unsignedlongintstrtoul(constchar*nptr,char**endptr,intbase)

**DESCRIPTION**

Thestrtoul()function converts the string innptrto an unsigned long integer value according to the givenbase, which must be between 2 and 36 inclusive, or be the special value 0. The string must begin with an arbitrary amount of white space (as determined byisspace(3)) followed by a single optional `+' or `-' sign. Ifbaseis zero or 16, the string may then include a `0x' prefix, and the number will be read in base 16; otherwise, a zerobaseis taken as 10 (decimal) unless the next character is `0', in which case it is taken as 8 (octal). The remainder of the string is converted to an unsigned long int value in the obvious manner, stopping at the first character which is not a valid digit in the given base. (In bases above 10, the letter `A' in either upper or lower case represents 10, `B' represents 11, and so forth, with `Z' representing 35.) Ifendptris not NULL,strtoul()stores the address of the first invalid character in*endptr. If there were no digits at all,strtoul()stores the original value ofnptrin*endptr. (Thus, if*nptris not `\0' but**endptris `\0' on return, the entire string is valid.)

**RETURN** **VALUE**

Thestrtoul()function returns either the result of the conversion or, if there was a leading minus sign, the negation of the result of the conversion, unless the original (non-negated) value would overflow; in the latter case,strtoul()returns ULONG_MAX and sets the global variableerrnoto ERANGE.

**ERRORS**

ERANGEThe given string was out of range; the value converted has been clamped.

**CONFORMING** **TO**

SVID 3, BSD 4.3, ISO 9899

**SEE** **ALSO**

atof(3),atoi(3),atol(3),strtod(3),strtol(3)

**BUGS**

Ignores the current locale.