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       pnmtotiff - convert a portable anymap into a TIFF file


       pnmtotiff  [-none|-packbits|-lzw|-g3|-g4] [-2d] [-fill] [-predictor n] [-msb2lsb|-lsb2msb]
       [-rowsperstrip n] [-minisblack|-miniswhite]  [-truecolor]  [-color]  [-indexbits  1|2|4|8]

       Minimum unambiguous abbreviations of options are acceptable.


       Reads a PNM image as input.  Produces a TIFF file as output.

       The  output  goes to Standard Output, which must be a seekable file.  That means no pipes,
       but any regular file should work.


       By default, pnmtotiff creates a TIFF file with no compression.  This is your best bet most
       of  the  time.   If  you want to try another compression scheme or tweak some of the other
       even more obscure output options, there are a number of flags to play with.

       Actually, the best default would be to use LZW compression, which is what  pnmtotiff  used
       to  do  by  default.   However,  the  Tiff  library  no longer does LZW compression due to
       concerns with violating Unisys's patent on LZW compression.

       The -none, -packbits, -lzw, -g3, -g4, -flate, and -adobeflat options are used to  override
       the  default  and  set the compression scheme used in creating the output file.  The CCITT
       Group 3 and Group 4 compression algorithms can only  be  used  with  bilevel  data.   -lzw
       doesn't  really work because the Tiff library doesn't do LZW compression.  It used to, but
       its developers removed the function out of concern about violating Unisys's patent.   This
       option  remains in case you use a Tiff library that cooperates, now or in the future.  The
       -2d and -fill  options  are  meaningful  only  with  Group  3  compression:  -2d  requests
       2-dimensional  encoding, while -fill requests that each encoded scanline be zero-filled to
       a byte boundry.  The  -predictor  option  is  only  meaningful  with  LZW  compression:  a
       predictor  value  of  2  causes  each  scanline  of the output image to undergo horizontal
       differencing before it is encoded; a value of 1 forces each scanline to be encoded without

       By  default,  pnmtotiff  creates a TIFF file with msb-to-lsb fill order.  The -msb2lsb and
       -lsb2msb options are used to override the default and set the fill order used in  creating
       the file.

       The  fill order is the order in which pixels are packed into a byte in the Tiff raster, in
       the case that there are multiple pixels per byte.   msb-to-lsb  means  that  the  leftmost
       columns  go  into the most significant bits of the byte in the Tiff image.  However, there
       is considerable confusion about the meaning of fill order.  Some believe it means  whether
       16  bit  sample values in the Tiff image are little-endian or big-endian.  This is totally
       erroneous (The endianness of integers in a Tiff image is designated by the  image's  magic
       number).   However,  ImageMagick  and  older Netpbm both have been known to implement that
       interpretation.  2001.09.06.

       If the image does not have sub-byte pixels, these options have no effect other than to set
       the  value  of the FILLORDER tag in the Tiff image (which may be useful for those programs
       that misinterpret the tag with reference to 16 bit samples).

       The -rowsperstrip option can be used to set the number of rows (scanlines) in  each  strip
       of  data in the output file.  By default, the output file has the number of rows per strip
       set to a value that will ensure each strip is no more than 8 kilobytes long.

       The -minisblack and -miniswhite option force the output image to have a "minimum is black"
       or  "minimum  is white" photometric, respectively.  If you don't specify either, pnmtotiff
       uses minimum is black except when using Group 3 or Group  4  compression,  in  which  case
       pnmtotiff  follows  CCITT fax standards and uses "minimum is white."  This usually results
       in better compression and is generally preferred for bilevel coding.

       Before February 2001, pnmtotiff always produced "minimum is black,"  due  to  a  bug.   In
       either  case,  pnmtotiff  sets  the  photometric  interpretation  tag  in  the TIFF output
       according to which photometric is actually used.

       -truecolor tells pnmtotiff to produce the  24-bit  RGB  form  of  TIFF  output  if  it  is
       producing  a  color  TIFF  image.   Without  this option, pnmtotiff produces a colormapped
       (paletted) 8-bit TIFF image unless there are more than 256 colors (and in the latter case,
       issues a warning).

       The -truecolor option can prevent pnmtotiff from making two passes through the input file,
       thus improving speed and memory usage.  See the section MULTIPLE PASSES.

       If pnmtotiff produces a grayscale TIFF image, this option has no effect.

       -color tells pnmtotiff to produce a color, as opposed to  grayscale,  TIFF  image  if  the
       input  is  PPM,  even  if it contains only shades of gray.  Without this option, pnmtotiff
       produces a grayscale TIFF image if the input is PPM and contains only shades of gray,  and
       at  most  256 shades.  Otherwise, it produces a color TIFF output.  For PBM and PGM input,
       pnmtotiff always produces grayscale TIFF output and this option has no effect.

       The -color option can prevent pnmtotiff from making two passes  through  the  input  file,
       thus improving speed and memory usage.  See the section MULTIPLE PASSES.

       The  -indexbits option is meaningful only for a colormapped (paletted) image. In this kind
       of image, the raster contains values which are indexes into a table of  colors,  with  the
       indexes  normally taking less space that the color description in the table. pnmtotiff can
       generate indexes of 1, 2, 4, or 8 bits. By default, it will use 8, because  many  programs
       that interpret TIFF images can't handle any other width.


       There  are  myriad variations of the TIFF format, and this program generates only a few of
       them.  pnmtotiff creates a grayscale TIFF file if its input is a PBM (monochrome)  or  PGM
       (grayscale) file.  pnmtotiff also creates a grayscale file if it input is PPM (color), but
       there is only one color in the image.  If the input is a PPM (color) file  and  there  are
       256  colors  or fewer, but more than 1, pnmtotiff generates a color palette TIFF file.  If
       there are more colors than that, pnmtotiff generates an RGB (not RGBA) single  plane  TIFF
       file.   Use  pnmtotiffcmyk  to generate the cyan-magenta-yellow-black ink color separation
       TIFF format.

       The number of bits per sample in the TIFF output is determined by the maxval  of  the  PNM
       input.   If the maxval is less than 256, the bits per sample in the output is the smallest
       number that can encode the maxval.  If the maxval is greater than or equal to  256,  there
       are 16 bits per sample in the output.

   Multiple Passes
       pnmtotiff reads the input image once if it can, and otherwise twice.  It needs that second
       pass to analyze the colors in the image and generate a color map (pallette) and  determine
       if  the  image  is grayscale.  So the second pass only happens when the input is PPM.  And
       you can avoid it then by specifying both the -truecolor and -color options.

       If the input image is small enough to fit in your system's file cache, the second pass  is
       very fast.  If not, it requires reading from disk twice, which can be slow.

       When  the  input  is  from  a  file that cannot be rewound and reread, pnmtotiff reads the
       entire input image into a temporary file which can, and works from that.  Even if it  only
       needs one pass.


       tifftopnm(1), pnmtotiffcmyk(1), pnmdepth(1), pnm(5)


       Derived by Jef Poskanzer from ras2tiff.c, which is Copyright (c) 1990 by Sun Microsystems,
       Inc.  Author: Patrick J. Naughton (

                                         24 January 2001                             pnmtotiff(1)