Provided by: abcde_2.5.4-1_all bug


       abcde  -  Grab  an  entire  CD  and compress it to Ogg/Vorbis, MP3, FLAC, Ogg/Speex and/or
       MPP/MP+(Musepack) format.


       abcde [options] [tracks]


       Ordinarily, the process of grabbing the data off a CD and encoding  it,  then  tagging  or
       commenting  it,  is  very  involved.   abcde is designed to automate this. It will take an
       entire CD and convert it into a compressed audio format -  Ogg/Vorbis,  MPEG  Audio  Layer
       III,  Free  Lossless  Audio  Codec  (FLAC),  Ogg/Speex, MPP/MP+(Musepack) and/or M4A (AAC)
       format(s).  With one command, it will:

       *      Do a CDDB or Musicbrainz query over the Internet to  look  up  your  CD  or  use  a
              locally stored CDDB entry

       *      Grab an audio track (or all the audio CD tracks) from your CD

       *      Normalize the volume of the individual file (or the album as a single unit)

       *      Compress   to  Ogg/Vorbis,  MP3,  FLAC,  Ogg/Speex,  MPP/MP+(Musepack)  and/or  M4A
              format(s), all in one CD read

       *      Comment or ID3/ID3v2 tag

       *      Give an intelligible filename

       *      Calculate replaygain values for the individual file (or the album as a single unit)

       *      Delete the intermediate WAV file (or save it for later use)

       *      Repeat until finished

       Alternatively, abcde can also grab a CD and turn it  into  a  single  FLAC  file  with  an
       embedded  cuesheet  which  can be user later on as a source for other formats, and will be
       treated as if it was the original CD. In a way, abcde can take a compressed backup of your
       CD collection.


       -1     Encode  the  whole  CD  in  a single file. The resulting file uses the CD title for
              tagging. If the resulting format is a flac file with an embedded cuesheet, the file
              can be used as a source for creating other formats. Use "-1 -o flac -a default,cue"
              for obtaining such a file.

       -a [actions]
              Comma-delimited list of actions to perform. Can be one or more of: cddb, cue, read,
              normalize,  encode,  tag,  move,  replaygain, playlist, clean. Normalize and encode
              imply read. Tag implies cddb, read, encode. Move implies cddb, read,  encode,  tag.
              Replaygain  implies  cddb,  read, encode, tag and move.  Playlist implies cddb. The
              default is to do all actions except cue, normalize, replaygain and playlist.

       -b     Enable batch mode normalization. See the BATCHNORM configuration variable.

       -B     Disable batch mode replaygain. It processes file by  file  to  add  the  replaygain
              information. See the NOBATCHREPLAYGAIN configuration variable.

       -c [filename]
              Specifies  an additional configuration file to parse. Configuration options in this
              file override those in /etc/abcde.conf or $HOME/.abcde.conf.

       -C [discid]
              Allows you to resume a session for discid when you no longer have the CD  available
              (abcde  will  automatically resume if you still have the CD in the drive). You must
              have already finished at least the "read" action during the previous session.

       -d [devicename | filename]
              CD-ROM block device that contains audio tracks to be read. Alternatively, a single-
              track flac file with embedded cuesheet.

       -D     Capture  debugging  information  (you'll  want  to  redirect  this  - try 'abcde -D

       -e     Erase information about encoded tracks from the internal  status  file,  to  enable
              other encodings if the wav files have been kept.

       -f     Force  the  removal  of the temporary ABCDETEMPDIR directory, even when we have not
              finished. For example, one can read and encode several formats,  including  ´.ogg´,
              and  later  on  execute  a  ´move´  action with only one of the given formats. On a
              normal situation it would erase the rest of those encoded formats.  In  this  case,
              abcde will refuse to execute such command, except if -f is used.

       -g     Enable  lame's  --nogap  option.   See  the NOGAP variable. WARNING: lame's --nogap
              disables the Xing mp3 tag.  This tag is  required  for  mp3  players  to  correctly
              display track lengths when playing variable-bit-rate mp3 files.

       -h     Get help information.

       -j [number]
              Start  [number]  encoder  processes  at once. Useful for SMP systems. Overrides the
              MAXPROCS configuration variable. Set it to "0" when using distmp3  to  avoid  local
              encoding processes.

       -k     Keep the wav files after encoding.

       -l     Use the low-diskspace algorithm. See the LOWDISK configuration variable.

       -L     Use a local CDDB repository. See CDDBLOCALDIR variable.

       -m     Create  DOS-style  playlists,  modifying  the  resulting  one  by  adding CRLF line
              endings. Some hardware players insist on having those to work.

       -n     Do not query CDDB database. Create and use a template. Edit the template to provide
              song names, artist(s), ...

       -N     Non interactive mode. Do not ask anything from the user. Just go ahead.

       -o [filetype][:filetypeoptions]
              Select  output type. Can be "vorbis" (or "ogg"), "mp3", "flac", "spx", "mpc", "m4a"
              or "wav".  Specify a comma-delimited list of output types to obtain  all  specified
              types.   See  the  OUTPUTTYPE  configuration  variable. One can pass options to the
              encoder for a specific filetype on the command line separating them with  a  colon.
              The options must be escaped with double-quotes.

       -p     Pads track numbers with 0´s.

       -P     Use  Unix  PIPES  to  read  and encode in one step. It disables multiple encodings,
              since the WAV audio file is never stored in the disc.

       -q [quality]
              Use a pre-defined quality level for the encoding process. Defined as low, medium or
              high.  The  "medium" value is used to reset the default values if other are used in
              the config file(s).

       -r [hosts...]
              Remote encode on this comma-delimited list  of  machines  using  distmp3.  See  the
              REMOTEHOSTS configuration variable.

       -s [fields...]
              List,  separated  by  commas,  the  fields  to be shown in the CDDB parsed entries.
              Right now it only uses "year" and "genre".

       -S [speed]
              Set the speed of the CD drive. Needs CDSPEED and CDSPEEDOPTS set properly and  both
              the program and device must support the capability.

       -t [number]
              Start  the numbering of the tracks at a given number. It only affects the filenames
              and the playlist. Internal (tag) numbering remains the same.

       -T [number]
              Same as -t but changes also the internal (tag) numbering. Keep  in  mind  that  the
              default TRACK tag for MP3 is $T/$TRACKS so it is changed to simply $T.

       -U     Set  CDDBPROTO  to  version  5,  so  that  we  retrieve  ISO-8859-15  encoded  CDDB
              information, and we tag and add comments with Latin1 encoding.

       -v     Show the version and exit

       -V     Be more verbose. On slow networks  the  CDDB  requests  might  give  the  sensation
              nothing is happening. Add this more than once to make things even more verbose.

       -x     Eject  the  CD  when  all  tracks  have  been  read.  See the EJECTCD configuration

       -X [cue2discid]
              Use an alternative "cue2discid" implementation. The name  of  the  binary  must  be
              exactly  that.  abcde  comes  with  an  implementation in python under the examples
              directory. The special keyword "builtin" forces the usage of the internal (default)
              implementation in shell script.

       -w [comment]
              Add a comment to the tracks ripped from the CD.

       -W [number]
              Concatenate  CD´s.  It  uses  the number provided to define a comment "CD #" and to
              modify the numbering of the tracks, starting with "#01". For  Ogg/Vorbis  and  FLAC
              files, it also defines a DISCNUMBER tag.

       -z     DEBUG  mode: it will rip, using cdparanoia, the very first second of each track and
              proceed with the actions requested  very  quickly,  also  providing  some  "hidden"
              information  about  what  happens  on  the  background.  CAUTION: IT WILL ERASE ANY

              A list of tracks you want abcde to process. If this  isn't  specified,  abcde  will
              process  the  entire  CD.  Accepts  ranges  of track numbers - "abcde 1-5 7 9" will
              process tracks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 9.


       Each track is, by default,  placed  in  a  separate  file  named  after  the  track  in  a
       subdirectory  named  after  the  artist under the current directory.  This can be modified
       using the OUTPUTFORMAT and VAOUTPUTFORMAT variables in your abcde.conf. Each file is given
       an  extension  identifying  its  compression format, 'vorbis' for '.ogg', '.mp3', '.flac',
       '.spx', '.mpc', '.aac' or '.wav'.


       abcde sources two configuration files on startup - /etc/abcde.conf and  $HOME/.abcde.conf,
       in that order.

       The  configuration  options  stated  in  those  files  can  be overridden by providing the
       appropriate flags at runtime.

       The configuration variables have to be set as follows:

              Except when "value" needs to be quoted or otherwise interpreted. If other variables
              within  "value" are to be expanded upon reading the configuration file, then double
              quotes should be used. If they are only supposed  to  be  expanded  upon  use  (for
              example OUTPUTFORMAT) then single quotes must be used.

       All shell escaping/quoting rules apply.

       Here is a list of options abcde recognizes:

              Specifies  the  method we want to use to retrieve the track information. Two values
              are recognized: "cddb" and "musicbrainz". The "cddb" value needs  the  CDDBURL  and
              HELLOINFO  variables  described below. The "musicbrainz" value uses the Perl helper
              script abcde-musicbrainz-tool to establish  a  conversation  with  the  Musicbrainz
              server for information retrieval.

              Specifies a server to use for CDDB lookups.

              Specifies  the  protocol  version used for the CDDB retrieval of results. Version 6
              retrieves CDDB entries in UTF-8 format.

              Specifies the Hello information to send to  the  CDDB  server.  The  CDDB  protocol
              requires  you  to  send  a  valid  username and hostname each time you connect. The
              format of this is username@hostname.

              Specifies a directory where we store a local CDDB repository. The entries  must  be
              standard  CDDB  entries, with the filename being the DISCID value. Other CD playing
              and ripping programs (like Grip) store the entries under ~/.cddb and  we  can  make
              use of those entries.

              Specifies if the CDDBLOCALDIR has to be searched recursively trying to find a match
              for the CDDB entry. If  a  match  is  found  and  selected,  and  CDDBCOPYLOCAL  is
              selected,  it  will be copied to the root of the CDDBLOCALDIR if CDDBLOCALPOLICY is
              "modified" or "new".

              Defines when a CDDB entry  should  be  stored  in  the  defined  CDDBLOCALDIR.  The
              possible  policies are: "net" for a CDDB entry which has been received from the net
              (overwriting any possible local CDDB entry); "new"  for  a  CDDB  entry  which  was
              received  from  the  net,  but  will request confirmation to overwrite a local CDDB
              entry found in the root of the CDDBLOCALDIR directory; "modified" for a CDDB  entry
              found in the local repository but which has been modified by the user; and "always"
              which forces the CDDB entry to be stored back in the root of  the  CDDBLOCALDIR  no
              matter  where it was found, and no matter it was not edited.  This last option will
              always overwrite the one found in the root of the local repository (if any).  STILL
              NOT WORKING!!

              Store local copies of the CDDB entries under the $CDDBLOCALDIR directory.

              Actually  use  the  stored  copies of the CDDB entries. Can be overridden using the
              "-L" flag (if is CDDBUSELOCAL in "n"). If an entry is found,  we  always  give  the
              choice of retrieving a CDDB entry from the internet.

              Coma-separated  list  of fields we want to parse during the CDDB parsing.  Defaults
              to "year,genre".

              Specifies the style of encoder to use for the Ogg/Vorbis encoder. Valid options are
              ´oggenc´ (default for Ogg/Vorbis) and ´vorbize´.  This affects the default location
              of the binary, the variable to pick encoder command-line options  from,  and  where
              the options are given.

              Specifies the style of encoder to use for the MP3 encoder. Valid options are ´lame´
              (default for MP3), ´gogo´, ´bladeenc´, ´l3enc´ and ´mp3enc´.  Affects the same  way
              as explained above for Ogg/Vorbis.

              Specifies  the  style  of  encoder  to use for the FLAC encoder. At this point only
              ´flac´ is available for FLAC encoding.

              Specifies the style of encoder to  use  for  Speex  encoder.  At  this  point  only
              ´speexenc´ is available for Ogg/Speex encoding.

              Specifies the style of encoder to use for MPP/MP+ (Musepack) encoder. At this point
              we only have ´mppenc´ available, from

              Specifies the style of encoder to use for M4A (AAC) encoder. At this point we  only
              support ´faac´, so ´default´ points to it.

              Specifies  the  style  of  normalizer  to  use.   Valid  options  are ´default´ and
              ´normalize' (and both run ´normalize-audio´), since we only support it, ATM.

              Specifies the style of cdrom reader to use. Valid options are ´cdparanoia´, ´debug´
              and ´flac´. It is used for querying the CDROM and obtain a list of valid tracks and
              DATA tracks. The special ´flac´ case is used to "rip" CD tracks from a single-track
              flac file.

              Specifies  the  syntax of the program we use to read the CD CUE sheet. Right now we
              only support ´mkcue´, but in the future other readers might be used.

              It defaults to no, so if you want to keep those wavs ripped from your CD, set it to
              "y".  You  can  use the "-k" switch in the command line. The default behaviour with
              KEEPWAVS set is to keep the temporary directory and the wav  files  even  you  have
              requested the "clean" action.

              If  set  to  "y",  it adds 0's to the file numbers to complete a two-number holder.
              Useful when encoding tracks 1-9.

              Set to "n" if you want to perform automatic rips, without user intervention.

              Define the values  for  priorities  (nice  values)  for  the  different  CPU-hungry
              processes:  encoding  (ENCNICE), CDROM read (READNICE) and distributed encoder with
              distmp3 (DISTMP3NICE).

              The following configuration file options specify the pathnames of their  respective
              utilities:  LAME,  TOOLAME,  GOGO,  BLADEENC,  L3ENC,  XINGMP3ENC, MP3ENC, VORBIZE,
              option "-X"), DIFF and HTTPGET.

              If  you wish to specify command-line options to any of the programs abcde uses, set
              the  following  configuration  file  options:  LAMEOPTS,   TOOLAMEOPTS,   GOGOOPTS,

              Set  the  value  of the CDROM speed. The default is to read the disc as fast as the
              reading program and the system permits. The steps are defined as 150kB/s (1x).

              The default actions to be performed when reading a disc.

       CDROM  If set, it points to the CD-Rom device which has to be used for  audio  extraction.
              Abcde  tries  to guess the right device, but it may fail. The special ´flac´ option
              is defined to extract tracks from a single-track flac file.

              Defined as "d" when using cdparanoia  with  an  IDE  bus  and  as  "g"  when  using
              cdparanoia with the ide-scsi emulation layer.

              Specifies the directory to place completed tracks/playlists in.

              Specifies the temporary directory to store .wav files in. Abcde may use up to 700MB
              of temporary space for each session (although it is rare to use over  100MB  for  a
              machine that can encode music as fast as it can read it).

              Specifies  the  encoding  format  to  output,  as well as the default extension and
              encoder. Defaults to "vorbis". Valid settings are "vorbis" (or "ogg") (Ogg/Vorbis),
              "mp3"  (MPEG-1  Audio  Layer  III),  "flac"  (Free  Lossless  Audio  Codec),  "spx"
              (Ogg/Speex), "mpc" (MPP/MP+ (Musepack)), "m4a" (for M4A (AAC)) or "wav"  (Microsoft
              Waveform).  Values  like  "vorbis,mp3" encode the tracks in both Ogg/Vorbis and MP3
              formats. For example
              For each value in OUTPUTTYPE, abcde  expands  a  different  process  for  encoding,
              tagging  and  moving,  so  you  can  use  the format placeholder, OUTPUT, to create
              different subdirectories to hold the different types. The variable OUTPUT  will  be
              'vorbis',  'mp3',  'flac',  'spx',  'mpc',  'm4a'  and/or  'wav',  depending on the
              OUTPUTTYPE you define. For example

              Specifies the format  for  completed  Ogg/Vorbis,  MP3,  FLAC,  Ogg/Speex,  MPP/MP+
              (Musepack)  or  M4A  filenames. Variables are included using standard shell syntax.
              Allowed variables are GENRE, ALBUMFILE, ARTISTFILE, TRACKFILE, TRACKNUM, and  YEAR.
              Default is ´${ARTISTFILE}-${ALBUMFILE}/${TRACKNUM}-${TRACKFILE}´.  Make sure to use
              single quotes around this variable. TRACKNUM is automatically zero-padded, when the
              number  of  encoded tracks is higher than 9. When lower, you can force with '-p' in
              the command line.

              Just  like  OUTPUTFORMAT  but  for  Various   Artists   discs.   The   default   is

              Just  like OUTPUTFORMAT but for single-track rips (see option "-1"). The default is

              Just like ONETRACKOUTPUTFORMAT but  for  Various  Artists  discs.  The  default  is

              Defines  how  many  encoders  to  run  at once. This makes for huge speedups on SMP
              systems. You should run one  encoder  per  CPU  at  once  for  maximum  efficiency,
              although  more  doesn't  hurt  very  much.  Set  it "0" when using mp3dist to avoid
              getting encoding processes in the local host.

              If set to y, conserves disk space by  encoding  tracks  immediately  after  reading
              them.  This  is  substantially  slower  than  normal operation but requires several
              hundred MB less space to complete the encoding of an entire CD. Use  only  if  your
              system is low on space and cannot encode as quickly as it can read.

              Note  that this option may also help when reading a CD with errors. This is because
              on a scratchy disk reading is quite timing sensitive and this  option  reduces  the
              background  load  on  the  system  which  allows  the  ripping program more precise

              If set to y, enables batch mode  normalization,  which  preserves  relative  volume
              differences  between tracks of an album. Also enables nogap encoding when using the
              ´lame´ encoder.

       NOGAP  Activate the lame's --nogap option, that allows files found in CDs with no  silence
              between  songs  (such  as  live  concerts)  to  be encoded without noticeable gaps.
              WARNING: lame's --nogap disables the Xing mp3 tag.  This tag is  required  for  mp3
              players  to  correctly  display  track  lengths  when playing variable-bit-rate mp3

              Specifies the format for completed playlist filenames. Works like the  OUTPUTFORMAT
              configuration  variable.  Default is ´${ARTISTFILE}_-_${ALBUMFILE}.m3u´.  Make sure
              to use single quotes around this variable.

              Specifies a prefix for filenames within a playlist. Useful for http playlists, etc.

              If set, the resulting playlist  will  have  CR-LF  line  endings,  needed  by  some
              hardware-based players.

              Specifies  a  comment  to  embed  in  the ID3 or Ogg comment field of each finished
              track. Can be up to 28 characters long. Supports the same syntax  as  OUTPUTFORMAT.
              Does not currently support ID3v2.

              Specifies  a  comma-delimited  list  of  systems  to  use for remote encoding using
              distmp3. Equivalent to -r.

              mungefilename() is an abcde shell function that can be overridden  via  abcde.conf.
              It  takes CDDB data as $1 and outputs the resulting filename on stdout. It defaults
              to eating control characters, apostrophes and question  marks,  translating  spaces
              and  forward  slashes to underscores, and translating colons to an underscore and a
              If you modify this function, it is probably a good idea to keep the  forward  slash
              munging  (UNIX  cannot  store  a file with a '/' char in it) as well as the control
              character munging (NULs can't be in a filename either, and  newlines  and  such  in
              filenames are typically not desirable).

              mungegenre  () is a shell function used to modify the $GENRE variable. As a default
              action, it takes $GENRE as $1 and outputs the resulting value to stdout  converting
              all UPPERCASE characters to lowercase.

              pre_read  () is a shell function which is executed before the CDROM is read for the
              first time, during abcde execution. It can be used to close the CDROM tray, to  set
              its speed (via "setcd" or via "eject", if available) and other preparation actions.
              The default function is empty.

              post_read () is a shell function which is executed after the CDROM is read (and, if
              applies, before the CDROM is ejected). It can be used to read a TOC from the CDROM,
              or to try to read the DATA areas from the CD (if any exist).  The default  function
              is empty.

              If set to "y", abcde will call eject(1) to eject the cdrom from the drive after all
              tracks have been read. It has no effect when CDROM is set to a flac file.

              If set to "1", some operations which are usually now shown  to  the  end  user  are
              visible,  such  as  CDDB queries. Useful for initial debug and if your network/CDDB
              server is slow. Set to "2" or more for even more verbose output.


       Possible ways one can call abcde:

       abcde  Will work in most systems

       abcde -d /dev/cdrom2
              If the CDROM you are reading from is not  the  standard  /dev/cdrom  (in  GNU/Linux

       abcde -o vorbis,flac
              Will create both Ogg/Vorbis and Ogg/FLAC files.

       abcde -o vorbis:"-b 192"
              Will  pass  "-b 192" to the Ogg/Vorbis encoder, without having to modify the config

       abcde -W 1
              For double+ CD settings: will create the 1st CD starting with the track number 101,
              and  will  add  a comment "CD 1" to the tracks, the second starting with 201 and so

       abcde -d singletrack.flac
              Will extract the files contained in singletrack using the embedded cuesheet.


       abcde requires the following backend tools to work:

       *      An Ogg/Vorbis, MP3, FLAC, Ogg/Speex,  MPP/MP+(Musepack)  or  M4A  encoder  (oggenc,
              vorbize, lame, gogo, bladeenc, l3enc, mp3enc, flac, speexenc, mppenc, faac)

       *      An audio CD reading utility (cdparanoia, icedax, cdda2wav, dagrab)

       *      cd-discid, a CDDB DiscID reading program.

       *      An  HTTP retrieval program: wget, fetch (FreeBSD) or curl (Mac OS X, among others).
              Alternatively, abcde-musicbrainz-tool (which depends on Perl and  some  Musicbrainz
              libraries) can be used to retrieve CDDB information about the CD.

       *      (for MP3s) id3 or id3v2, id3 v1 and v2 tagging programs.

       *      (optional) distmp3, a client/server for distributed mp3 encoding.

       *      (optional) normalize-audio, a WAV file volume normalizer.

       *      (optional)  a  replaygain  file  volume  modifier  (vorbisgain,  metaflac, mp3gain,

       *      (optional) mkcue, a CD cuesheet extractor.


       cdparanoia(1),   icedax(1),   cdda2wav(1),   dagrab(1),   normalize-audio(1),   oggenc(1),
       vorbize(1),  flac(1),  toolame(1),  speexenc(1),  mppenc(1),  faac(1),  id3(1),  id3v2(1),
       wget(1),  fetch(1),   cd-discid(1),   distmp3(1),   distmp3host(1),   curl(1),   mkcue(1),
       vorbisgain(1), mp3gain(1)


       Robert  Woodcock  <>,  Jesus  Climent  <>,  Colin
       Tuckley <>, Steve McIntyre <> and contributions from many