Provided by: pari-gp_2.5.5-1_amd64 bug


       gp - PARI calculator


       gp   [--stacksize|-s   stacksize]   [--primelimit|-p   primelimit]  [--emacs]  [-f|--fast]
       [-q|--quiet] [--help] [--test] [--texmacs] [--version]  [--version-short]  [  file1  file2


       Invokes the PARI-GP calculator, loading the file1, file2, ... (written in the GP language)
       on startup. gp is an advanced programmable calculator, which computes symbolically as long
       as possible, numerically where needed, and contains a wealth of number-theoretic functions
       (elliptic curves, class field theory...). It can  be  programmed  with  the  GP  scripting
       language. Its basic data types are

              integers,  real numbers, exact rational numbers, algebraic numbers, p-adic numbers,
              modular integers (integers modulo n), complex numbers,

       polynomials, rational functions,
              and power series,

       integral binary quadratic forms,

       matrices, vectors,
              and lists,

       character strings,

       and recursive combinations of these.


       Command line options are availaible in both  short  form  (-f)  and  POSIX-like  (--fast).
       Numeric  arguments  can be followed by a modifier k , M or G at the user's convenience; in
       that case the argument is multiplied by 10^3, 10^6, or 10^9 respectively.

       -f, --fast
              Fast start (or factory settings). Do not read .gprc (see below) upon startup.

       -p, --primelimit limit
              Upon startup, gp  computes  a  table  of  small  primes  used  in  number-theoretic
              applications.  If  primelimit  is  set,  the  table include primes up to that bound
              instead of the  default.   Unreasonably  high  values  will  considerably  increase
              startup  time.  Exceedingly small values will cause some number-theoretic functions
              to fail with the message "not enough precomputed primes".

       -q, --quiet
              Quiet mode. Don't print headers or history numbers, don't say goodbye.

       -s, --stacksize limit
              Size of gp internal stack allocated on startup. When  gp  runs  out  of  space,  it
              interrupts  the  current computation and raises a stack overflow exception. If this
              occurs frequently, start with a bigger stack. The stack size can also be  increased
              from  within gp, using default(parisize,...); it may be convenient to set stacksize
              from your .gprc.  Note that computations with a smaller stack may be more efficient
              due to better data locality. Most computations should need less than 20MB.

              gp  can  be  run in an Emacs shell (see GP User's manual for details). This flag is
              then required for smooth interaction with the relevant Emacs package (pari.el).  It
              is set automatically by the pari.el package, and will produce nice display oddities
              if you set it outside of an Emacs session.

       --help print a summary of available command-line options.

       --test run gp in test mode: suppress printing of history  numbers  and  wrap  long  output
              lines (to get readable diff output). For benches only.

              gp  can  be  run  from  a  TeXmacs frontend. This flag is set by TeXmacs, to enable
              special purpose communication channels. Do not set it yourself.

              output version info (banner) then exit.

              output version number then exit.


       ?      to get online help.

       ??     to get extended online help (more precisely, to call  the  external  help  program,
              gphelp by default)

       quit   (or \q), or EOF (Ctrl-D) to quit gp.

       The following works only when gp was linked with GNU readline library:

       arrow keys
              for editing and viewing the input history.

               for automatic completion


       The  following  material  is  included  in  the  standard  distribution (originally in TeX

       The User's Guide to PARI/GP

       The User's Guide to the PARI library

       PARI/GP, a tutorial

       PARI/GP reference card
              ( 4 pages, based on an earlier version by Joseph H. Silverman.

              explains the use of the pari.el package, and how to customize it (prompt, colors).


       gp     main executable

              (or $GPRC if set) read at beginning of execution by each gp shell. A  default  gprc
              gprc.dft is provided with the distribution. If this file cannot be found, /etc/gprc
              is checked instead.

              default logfile (can be changed in .gprc or interactively using default() )
              default psfile used for postscript output (as above)

       gphelp default external help program (as above)

              elisp package to run pari in an Emacs shell. Must be loaded from your .emacs file.

       *.gp   GP programs


       $GPRC  place to look for the user's gprc file (before $HOME/.gprc, ./gprc,  and  /etc/gprc
              in this order).

              directory  containing  data  installed by optional PARI packages.  For example, the
              Galois resolvents files in directory galdata/ needed by the polgalois function,  in
              degrees  8 to 11; or the modular polynomials in seadata/ used by the ellap function
              for large base fields.

              name of the external help program invoked by ?? and ??? shortcuts.

              name of the directory where temporary files will be generated.


       PARI's home page resides at


       There are three mailing lists  devoted  to  the  PARI/GP  package  (run  courtesy  of  Dan
       Bernstein), and most feedback should be directed to those. They are:

       - pari-announce (moderated): for us to announce major version changes.

       -  pari-dev:  for  everything  related  to the development of PARI, including suggestions,
       technical questions, bug reports or patch submissions.

       - pari-users: for everything else.

       To subscribe, send empty messages respectively to


       Bugs should be submitted online to our Bug Tracking System,  available  from  PARI's  home
       page, or directly from the URL
       Further instructions can be found on that page.


       Despite  the  leading  G,  GP has nothing to do with GNU. The first version was originally
       called GPC, for Great Programmable  Calculator.  For  some  reason,  the  trailing  C  was
       eventually dropped.

       PARI  has  nothing  to  do  with the French capital. The name is a pun about the project's
       early stages when the authors started to implement a library for  "Pascal  ARIthmetic"  in
       the PASCAL programming language (they quickly switched to C).

       For  the  benefit  of  non-native French speakers, here's a slightly expanded explanation:
       Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) was a famous French mathematician and philosopher who was one of
       the  founders  of  probability and devised one of the first "arithmetic machines". He once
       proposed the following "proof" of the existence of God for  the  unbelievers:  whether  He
       exists  or  not  I lose nothing by believing in Him, whereas if He does and I misbehave...
       This is the so-called "pari de Pascal" (Pascal's Wager).

       Note that PARI also means "fairy" in Persian.


       PARI was originally written by Christian  Batut,  Dominique  Bernardi,  Henri  Cohen,  and
       Michel  Olivier  in Laboratoire A2X (Universite Bordeaux I, France), and was maintained by
       Henri Cohen up to version 1.39.15 (1995), and by Karim Belabas since then.

       A great number of people have contributed to the successive improvements which  eventually
       resulted in the present version. See the AUTHORS file in the distribution.


       dvips(1),  emacs(1),  gap(1),  ghostview(1),  gphelp(1),  maple(1),  perl(1), readline(3),
       tex(1), texmacs(1), xdvi(1)


       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of
       the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation.

       This  program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY;
       without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR  PURPOSE.
       See the GNU General Public License for more details.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program;
       if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave,  Cambridge,  MA  02139,

                                          10 August 2004                                    GP(1)