Provided by: pari-gp_2.5.5-1_amd64

#### NAME

```       gp - PARI calculator

```

#### SYNOPSIS

```       gp   [--stacksize|-s   stacksize]   [--primelimit|-p   primelimit]  [--emacs]  [-f|--fast]
[-q|--quiet] [--help] [--test] [--texmacs] [--version]  [--version-short]  [  file1  file2
...]

```

#### DESCRIPTION

```       Invokes the PARI-GP calculator, loading the file1, file2, ... (written in the GP language)
on startup. gp is an advanced programmable calculator, which computes symbolically as long
as possible, numerically where needed, and contains a wealth of number-theoretic functions
(elliptic curves, class field theory...). It can  be  programmed  with  the  GP  scripting
language. Its basic data types are

numbers
integers,  real numbers, exact rational numbers, algebraic numbers, p-adic numbers,
modular integers (integers modulo n), complex numbers,

polynomials, rational functions,
and power series,

integral binary quadratic forms,

matrices, vectors,
and lists,

character strings,

and recursive combinations of these.

```

#### OPTIONS

```       Command line options are availaible in both  short  form  (-f)  and  POSIX-like  (--fast).
Numeric  arguments  can be followed by a modifier k , M or G at the user's convenience; in
that case the argument is multiplied by 10^3, 10^6, or 10^9 respectively.

-f, --fast
Fast start (or factory settings). Do not read .gprc (see below) upon startup.

-p, --primelimit limit
Upon startup, gp  computes  a  table  of  small  primes  used  in  number-theoretic
applications.  If  primelimit  is  set,  the  table include primes up to that bound
instead of the  default.   Unreasonably  high  values  will  considerably  increase
startup  time.  Exceedingly small values will cause some number-theoretic functions
to fail with the message "not enough precomputed primes".

-q, --quiet
Quiet mode. Don't print headers or history numbers, don't say goodbye.

-s, --stacksize limit
Size of gp internal stack allocated on startup. When  gp  runs  out  of  space,  it
interrupts  the  current computation and raises a stack overflow exception. If this
occurs frequently, start with a bigger stack. The stack size can also be  increased
from  within gp, using default(parisize,...); it may be convenient to set stacksize
from your .gprc.  Note that computations with a smaller stack may be more efficient
due to better data locality. Most computations should need less than 20MB.

--emacs
gp  can  be  run in an Emacs shell (see GP User's manual for details). This flag is
then required for smooth interaction with the relevant Emacs package (pari.el).  It
is set automatically by the pari.el package, and will produce nice display oddities
if you set it outside of an Emacs session.

--help print a summary of available command-line options.

--test run gp in test mode: suppress printing of history  numbers  and  wrap  long  output
lines (to get readable diff output). For benches only.

--texmacs
gp  can  be  run  from  a  TeXmacs frontend. This flag is set by TeXmacs, to enable
special purpose communication channels. Do not set it yourself.

--version
output version info (banner) then exit.

--version-short
output version number then exit.

```

#### USE

```       ?      to get online help.

??     to get extended online help (more precisely, to call  the  external  help  program,
gphelp by default)

quit   (or \q), or EOF (Ctrl-D) to quit gp.

The following works only when gp was linked with GNU readline library:

arrow keys
for editing and viewing the input history.

TAB
for automatic completion

```

#### MANUALS

```       The  following  material  is  included  in  the  standard  distribution (originally in TeX
format):

The User's Guide to PARI/GP
(users.dvi)

The User's Guide to the PARI library
(library.dvi)

PARI/GP, a tutorial
(tutorial.dvi)

PARI/GP reference card
(refcard.ps): 4 pages, based on an earlier version by Joseph H. Silverman.

pariemacs.txt
explains the use of the pari.el package, and how to customize it (prompt, colors).

```

#### FILES

```       gp     main executable

\$HOME/.gprc
(or \$GPRC if set) read at beginning of execution by each gp shell. A  default  gprc
gprc.dft is provided with the distribution. If this file cannot be found, /etc/gprc

pari.log
default logfile (can be changed in .gprc or interactively using default() )

pari.ps
default psfile used for postscript output (as above)

gphelp default external help program (as above)

pari.el
elisp package to run pari in an Emacs shell. Must be loaded from your .emacs file.

*.gp   GP programs

```

#### ENVIRONMENT

```       \$GPRC  place to look for the user's gprc file (before \$HOME/.gprc, ./gprc,  and  /etc/gprc
in this order).

\$GP_DATA_DIR
directory  containing  data  installed by optional PARI packages.  For example, the
Galois resolvents files in directory galdata/ needed by the polgalois function,  in
degrees  8 to 11; or the modular polynomials in seadata/ used by the ellap function
for large base fields.

\$GPHELP
name of the external help program invoked by ?? and ??? shortcuts.

\$GPTMPDIR
name of the directory where temporary files will be generated.

```

#### HOMEPAGE

```       PARI's home page resides at
http://pari.math.u-bordeaux.fr/

```

#### MAILINGLISTS

```       There are three mailing lists  devoted  to  the  PARI/GP  package  (run  courtesy  of  Dan
Bernstein), and most feedback should be directed to those. They are:

- pari-announce (moderated): for us to announce major version changes.

-  pari-dev:  for  everything  related  to the development of PARI, including suggestions,
technical questions, bug reports or patch submissions.

- pari-users: for everything else.

To subscribe, send empty messages respectively to

pari-announce-subscribe@list.cr.yp.to

pari-users-subscribe@list.cr.yp.to

pari-dev-subscribe@list.cr.yp.to

```

#### BUGREPORTS

```       Bugs should be submitted online to our Bug Tracking System,  available  from  PARI's  home
page, or directly from the URL
http://pari.math.u-bordeaux.fr/Bugs/
Further instructions can be found on that page.

```

#### TRIVIA

```       Despite  the  leading  G,  GP has nothing to do with GNU. The first version was originally
called GPC, for Great Programmable  Calculator.  For  some  reason,  the  trailing  C  was
eventually dropped.

PARI  has  nothing  to  do  with the French capital. The name is a pun about the project's
early stages when the authors started to implement a library for  "Pascal  ARIthmetic"  in
the PASCAL programming language (they quickly switched to C).

For  the  benefit  of  non-native French speakers, here's a slightly expanded explanation:
Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) was a famous French mathematician and philosopher who was one of
the  founders  of  probability and devised one of the first "arithmetic machines". He once
proposed the following "proof" of the existence of God for  the  unbelievers:  whether  He
exists  or  not  I lose nothing by believing in Him, whereas if He does and I misbehave...
This is the so-called "pari de Pascal" (Pascal's Wager).

Note that PARI also means "fairy" in Persian.

```

#### AUTHORS

```       PARI was originally written by Christian  Batut,  Dominique  Bernardi,  Henri  Cohen,  and
Michel  Olivier  in Laboratoire A2X (Universite Bordeaux I, France), and was maintained by
Henri Cohen up to version 1.39.15 (1995), and by Karim Belabas since then.

A great number of people have contributed to the successive improvements which  eventually
resulted in the present version. See the AUTHORS file in the distribution.

```

#### SEEALSO

```       dvips(1),  emacs(1),  gap(1),  ghostview(1),  gphelp(1),  maple(1),  perl(1), readline(3),
tex(1), texmacs(1), xdvi(1)

```

#### COPYING

```       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of
the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation.

This  program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY;
without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR  PURPOSE.
See the GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program;
if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave,  Cambridge,  MA  02139,
USA.

10 August 2004                                    GP(1)
```