Provided by: screen_4.3.1-2build1_i386 bug


       screen - screen manager with VT100/ANSI terminal emulation


       screen [ -options ] [ cmd [ args ] ]
       screen -r [[pid.]tty[.host]]
       screen -r sessionowner/[[pid.]tty[.host]]


       Screen  is  a  full-screen  window  manager that multiplexes a physical
       terminal between  several  processes  (typically  interactive  shells).
       Each  virtual  terminal  provides the functions of a DEC VT100 terminal
       and, in addition, several control functions from the ISO 6429 (ECMA 48,
       ANSI X3.64) and ISO 2022 standards (e.g. insert/delete line and support
       for multiple character sets).  There is a scrollback history buffer for
       each virtual terminal and a copy-and-paste mechanism that allows moving
       text regions between windows.

       When screen is called, it creates a single window with a  shell  in  it
       (or  the  specified  command) and then gets out of your way so that you
       can use the program as you normally would.  Then, at any time, you  can
       create new (full-screen) windows with other programs in them (including
       more shells), kill existing windows,  view  a  list  of  windows,  turn
       output  logging  on  and off, copy-and-paste text between windows, view
       the scrollback history, switch between windows in whatever  manner  you
       wish,  etc.  All  windows  run their programs completely independent of
       each other. Programs continue to run when their window is currently not
       visible  and  even  when  the whole screen session is detached from the
       user's terminal.  When a program terminates, screen (per default) kills
       the  window  that  contained it.  If this window was in the foreground,
       the display switches to the previous window; if none are  left,  screen
       exits.  Shells  usually  distinguish  between running as login-shell or
       sub-shell.  Screen runs them as sub-shells, unless told otherwise  (See
       "shell" .screenrc command).

       Everything  you  type  is  sent  to  the program running in the current
       window.  The only exception to this is the one keystroke that  is  used
       to  initiate a command to the window manager.  By default, each command
       begins with a control-a (abbreviated C-a from now on), and is  followed
       by one other keystroke.  The command character and all the key bindings
       can be fully customized to be anything you like, though they are always
       two characters in length.

       Screen  does  not  understand the prefix "C-" to mean control, although
       this notation is used in this manual for readability.  Please  use  the
       caret  notation ("^A" instead of "C-a") as arguments to e.g. the escape
       command  or  the  -e  option.   Screen  will  also  print  out  control
       characters in caret notation.

       The  standard  way  to  create  a  new window is to type "C-a c".  This
       creates a new window running  a  shell  and  switches  to  that  window
       immediately,  regardless  of  the  state  of the process running in the
       current window.  Similarly, you can create a new window with  a  custom
       command  in  it  by  first  binding the command to a keystroke (in your
       .screenrc file or at the "C-a :" command line) and then using  it  just
       like  the  "C-a c" command.  In addition, new windows can be created by
       running a command like:

              screen emacs prog.c

       from a shell prompt within a previously created window.  This will  not
       run  another  copy  of screen, but will instead supply the command name
       and its  arguments  to  the  window  manager  (specified  in  the  $STY
       environment  variable)  who  will use it to create the new window.  The
       above example would start the emacs editor (editing prog.c) and  switch
       to  its  window. - Note that you cannot transport environment variables
       from the invoking shell  to  the  application  (emacs  in  this  case),
       because  it  is  forked  from  the  parent screen process, not from the
       invoking shell.

       If "/var/run/utmp" is writable by screen, an appropriate record will be
       written  to  this  file for each window, and removed when the window is
       terminated.   This  is  useful  for  working  with  "talk",   "script",
       "shutdown",  "rsend",  "sccs"  and  other similar programs that use the
       utmp file to determine who you are. As long as screen is active on your
       terminal,  the terminal's own record is removed from the utmp file. See
       also "C-a L".


       Before you begin to use screen  you'll  need  to  make  sure  you  have
       correctly  selected your terminal type, just as you would for any other
       termcap/terminfo program.  (You can do this by using tset for example.)

       If you're impatient and want to get started without doing  a  lot  more
       reading,  you should remember this one command:  "C-a ?".  Typing these
       two characters will display a list of the available screen commands and
       their bindings. Each keystroke is discussed in the section "DEFAULT KEY
       BINDINGS". The manual section "CUSTOMIZATION" deals with  the  contents
       of your .screenrc.

       If your terminal is a "true" auto-margin terminal (it doesn't allow the
       last position on the screen to be updated without scrolling the screen)
       consider  using a version of your terminal's termcap that has automatic
       margins turned off. This will ensure an accurate and optimal update  of
       the  screen  in all circumstances. Most terminals nowadays have "magic"
       margins (automatic margins plus usable last column). This is the  VT100
       style  type  and  perfectly  suited for screen.  If all you've got is a
       "true" auto-margin terminal screen will  be  content  to  use  it,  but
       updating  a  character put into the last position on the screen may not
       be possible until the screen scrolls or the character is moved  into  a
       safe position in some other way. This delay can be shortened by using a
       terminal with insert-character capability.


       Screen has the following command-line options:

       -a   include all capabilities (with  some  minor  exceptions)  in  each
            window's  termcap, even if screen must redraw parts of the display
            in order to implement a function.

       -A   Adapt the sizes  of  all  windows  to  the  size  of  the  current
            terminal.   By  default,  screen  tries  to restore its old window
            sizes when attaching to resizable terminals (those  with  "WS"  in
            its description, e.g. suncmd or some xterm).

       -c file
            override  the default configuration file from "$HOME/.screenrc" to

       -d|-D []
            does not start screen, but detaches the elsewhere  running  screen
            session.  It  has  the same effect as typing "C-a d" from screen's
            controlling terminal. -D is the equivalent  to  the  power  detach
            key.   If  no  session can be detached, this option is ignored. In
            combination with the -r/-R option more  powerful  effects  can  be

       -d -r   Reattach a session and if necessary detach it first.

       -d -R   Reattach  a  session  and if necessary detach or even create it

       -d -RR  Reattach a session and if necessary detach or  create  it.  Use
               the first session if more than one session is available.

       -D -r   Reattach  a  session.  If  necessary detach and logout remotely

       -D -R   Attach here and now. In detail this  means:  If  a  session  is
               running, then reattach. If necessary detach and logout remotely
               first.  If it was not running create it and  notify  the  user.
               This is the author's favorite.

       -D -RR  Attach here and now. Whatever that means, just do it.

            Note:  It  is  always  a  good  idea  to  check the status of your
            sessions by means of "screen -list".

       -e xy
            specifies  the  command  character  to  be  x  and  the  character
            generating  a literal command character to y (when typed after the
            command character).  The default is "C-a" and `a',  which  can  be
            specified as "-e^Aa".  When creating a screen session, this option
            sets the default command character. In  a  multiuser  session  all
            users  added  will start off with this command character. But when
            attaching to an already running session, this option changes  only
            the  command  character  of  the  attaching  user.  This option is
            equivalent  to  either  the  commands  "defescape"   or   "escape"

       -f, -fn, and -fa
            turns  flow-control  on, off, or "automatic switching mode".  This
            can also be defined through the "defflow" .screenrc command.

       -h num
            Specifies the history scrollback buffer to be num lines high.

       -i   will cause the  interrupt  key  (usually  C-c)  to  interrupt  the
            display  immediately  when  flow-control is on.  See the "defflow"
            .screenrc  command  for  details.   The  use  of  this  option  is

       -l and -ln
            turns login mode on or off (for /var/run/utmp updating).  This can
            also be defined through the "deflogin" .screenrc command.

       -ls [match]
       -list [match]
            does not start screen, but prints a list of  strings
            and   creation   timestamps   identifying  your  screen  sessions.
            Sessions marked `detached' can be resumed with "screen -r".  Those
            marked  `attached' are running and have a controlling terminal. If
            the session runs in multiuser mode, it is marked `multi'. Sessions
            marked  as  `unreachable'  either  live on a different host or are
            `dead'.  An unreachable session is considered dead, when its  name
            matches  either  the  name  of  the  local  host, or the specified
            parameter, if any.  See the -r  flag  for  a  description  how  to
            construct matches.  Sessions marked as `dead' should be thoroughly
            checked and removed.  Ask your system administrator if you are not
            sure. Remove sessions with the -wipe option.

       -L   tells screen to turn on automatic output logging for the windows.

       -m   causes  screen  to  ignore  the  $STY  environment  variable. With
            "screen -m" creation of a  new  session  is  enforced,  regardless
            whether  screen  is  called  from within another screen session or
            not. This flag has a special meaning in connection with  the  `-d'

       -d -m   Start screen in "detached" mode. This creates a new session but
               doesn't attach  to  it.  This  is  useful  for  system  startup

       -D -m   This  also starts screen in "detached" mode, but doesn't fork a
               new process. The command exits if the session terminates.

       -O   selects a more optimal output mode for your terminal  rather  than
            true  VT100  emulation (only affects auto-margin terminals without
            `LP').  This can also be set in your .screenrc by specifying  `OP'
            in a "termcap" command.

       -p number_or_name|-|=|+
            Preselect  a window. This is useful when you want to reattach to a
            specific window or you want to send a command via the "-X"  option
            to a specific window. As with screen's select command, "-" selects
            the blank window. As a special case for reattach,  "="  brings  up
            the  windowlist on the blank window, while a "+" will create a new
            window. The command will not be executed if the  specified  window
            could not be found.

       -q   Suppress printing of error messages. In combination with "-ls" the
            exit  value  is  as  follows:  9  indicates  a  directory  without
            sessions. 10 indicates a directory with running but not attachable
            sessions. 11 (or more) indicates 1 (or more) usable sessions.   In
            combination  with  "-r" the exit value is as follows: 10 indicates
            that there is no session to resume. 12 (or  more)  indicates  that
            there  are  2  (or more) sessions to resume and you should specify
            which one to choose.  In all other cases "-q" has no effect.

       -Q   Some commands now can be queried from a remote session using  this
            flag,  e.g.  "screen  -Q  windows".  The  commands  will  send the
            response to the stdout of the querying process. If  there  was  an
            error  in  the command, then the querying process will exit with a
            non-zero status.

            The commands that can be queried now are:

       -r []
       -r sessionowner/[]
            resumes a detached  screen  session.   No  other  options  (except
            combinations  with  -d/-D)  may  be  specified, though an optional
            prefix of [pid.] may  be  needed  to  distinguish  between
            multiple  detached  screen  sessions.   The second form is used to
            connect to another user's screen session which runs  in  multiuser
            mode.  This  indicates  that  screen  should  look for sessions in
            another user's directory. This requires setuid-root.

       -R   resumes screen only when it's unambiguous  which  one  to  attach,
            usually   when  only  one  screen  is  detached.  Otherwise  lists
            available sessions.  -RR attempts to resume the youngest (in terms
            of   creation   time)   detached  screen  session  it  finds.   If
            successful, all other command-line options  are  ignored.   If  no
            detached  session exists, starts a new session using the specified
            options, just as if -R had not been specified. The option  is  set
            by default if screen is run as a login-shell (actually screen uses
            "-xRR" in that case).  For combinations with the -d/-D option  see
            there.  Note: Time-based session selection is a Debian addition.

       -s program
            sets  the  default  shell to the program specified, instead of the
            value in the environment variable  $SHELL  (or  "/bin/sh"  if  not
            defined).   This can also be defined through the "shell" .screenrc
            command.  See also there.

       -S sessionname
            When creating a new session, this option can be used to specify  a
            meaningful  name for the session. This name identifies the session
            for "screen -list" and "screen -r"  actions.  It  substitutes  the
            default [] suffix.

       -t name
            sets  the  title  (a.k.a.)  for  the  default  shell  or specified
            program.  See also the "shelltitle" .screenrc command.

       -T term
            Set the $TERM environment  varible  using  the  spcified  term  as
            opposed to the defualt setting of screen.

       -U   Run  screen  in  UTF-8  mode.  This  option tells screen that your
            terminal sends and understands UTF-8 encoded characters.  It  also
            sets the default encoding for new windows to `utf8'.

       -v   Print version number.

       -wipe [match]
            does  the  same  as  "screen  -ls", but removes destroyed sessions
            instead of marking them as  `dead'.   An  unreachable  session  is
            considered  dead,  when  its  name  matches either the name of the
            local host, or the explicitly given parameter, if any.  See the -r
            flag for a description how to construct matches.

       -x   Attach  to  a  not  detached screen session. (Multi display mode).
            Screen refuses to attach from within itself.  But  when  cascading
            multiple screens, loops are not detected; take care.

       -X   Send  the  specified  command to a running screen session. You may
            use the -S option to  specify  the  screen  session  if  you  have
            several  screen  sessions running. You can use the -d or -r option
            to tell screen to  look  only  for  attached  or  detached  screen
            sessions.  Note  that  this command doesn't work if the session is
            password protected.

       -4   Resolve hostnames only to IPv4 addresses.

       -6   Resolve hostnames only to IPv6 addresses.


       As mentioned, each screen command consists of a "C-a" followed  by  one
       other  character.  For your convenience, all commands that are bound to
       lower-case  letters  are  also  bound  to   their   control   character
       counterparts  (with the exception of "C-a a"; see below), thus, "C-a c"
       as well as "C-a C-c" can be  used  to  create  a  window.  See  section
       "CUSTOMIZATION" for a description of the command.

       The following table shows the default key bindings:

       C-a '       (select)      Prompt  for a window name or number to switch

       C-a "       (windowlist -b)
                                 Present a list of all windows for selection.

       C-a 0       (select 0)
        …             …
       C-a 9       (select 9)
       C-a -       (select -)    Switch to window number 0  -  9,  or  to  the
                                 blank window.

       C-a tab     (focus)       Switch  the  input  focus to the next region.
                                 See also split, remove, only.

       C-a C-a     (other)       Toggle to the  window  displayed  previously.
                                 Note   that  this  binding  defaults  to  the
                                 command   character   typed   twice,   unless
                                 overridden.   For  instance,  if  you use the
                                 option "-e]x", this command becomes "]]".

       C-a a       (meta)        Send the command character (C-a)  to  window.
                                 See escape command.

       C-a A       (title)       Allow  the  user  to  enter  a  name  for the
                                 current window.

       C-a b
       C-a C-b     (break)       Send a break to window.

       C-a B       (pow_break)   Reopen the terminal line and send a break.

       C-a c
       C-a C-c     (screen)      Create a new window with a shell  and  switch
                                 to that window.

       C-a C       (clear)       Clear the screen.

       C-a d
       C-a C-d     (detach)      Detach screen from this terminal.

       C-a D D     (pow_detach)  Detach and logout.

       C-a f
       C-a C-f     (flow)        Toggle flow on, off or auto.

       C-a F       (fit)         Resize the window to the current region size.

       C-a C-g     (vbell)       Toggles screen's visual bell mode.

       C-a h       (hardcopy)    Write a hardcopy of the current window to the
                                 file "hardcopy.n".

       C-a H       (log)         Begins/ends logging of the current window  to
                                 the file "screenlog.n".

       C-a i
       C-a C-i     (info)        Show info about this window.

       C-a k
       C-a C-k     (kill)        Destroy current window.

       C-a l
       C-a C-l     (redisplay)   Fully refresh current window.

       C-a L       (login)       Toggle  this  windows  login  slot. Available
                                 only if screen is configured  to  update  the
                                 utmp database.

       C-a m
       C-a C-m     (lastmsg)     Repeat  the  last  message  displayed  in the
                                 message line.

       C-a M       (monitor)     Toggles monitoring of the current window.

       C-a space
       C-a n
       C-a C-n     (next)        Switch to the next window.

       C-a N       (number)      Show the number (and title)  of  the  current

       C-a backspace
       C-a C-h
       C-a p
       C-a C-p     (prev)        Switch to the previous window (opposite of C-
                                 a n).

       C-a q
       C-a C-q     (xon)         Send a control-q to the current window.

       C-a Q       (only)        Delete all regions but the current one.   See
                                 also split, remove, focus.

       C-a r
       C-a C-r     (wrap)        Toggle the current window's line-wrap setting
                                 (turn the current window's automatic  margins
                                 on and off).

       C-a s
       C-a C-s     (xoff)        Send a control-s to the current window.

       C-a S       (split)       Split  the  current  region horizontally into
                                 two new ones.  See also only, remove, focus.

       C-a t
       C-a C-t     (time)        Show system information.

       C-a v       (version)     Display the version and compilation date.

       C-a C-v     (digraph)     Enter digraph.

       C-a w
       C-a C-w     (windows)     Show a list of window.

       C-a W       (width)       Toggle 80/132 columns.

       C-a x
       C-a C-x     (lockscreen)  Lock this terminal.

       C-a X       (remove)      Kill the current  region.   See  also  split,
                                 only, focus.

       C-a z
       C-a C-z     (suspend)     Suspend  screen.   Your  system  must support
                                 BSD-style job-control.

       C-a Z       (reset)       Reset the virtual terminal to its  "power-on"

       C-a .       (dumptermcap) Write out a ".termcap" file.

       C-a ?       (help)        Show key bindings.

       C-a \       (quit)        Kill all windows and terminate screen.

       C-a :       (colon)       Enter command line mode.

       C-a [
       C-a C-[
       C-a esc     (copy)        Enter copy/scrollback mode.

       C-a C-]
       C-a ]       (paste .)     Write the contents of the paste buffer to the
                                 stdin queue of the current window.

       C-a {
       C-a }       (history)     Copy and paste a previous (command) line.

       C-a >       (writebuf)    Write paste buffer to a file.

       C-a <       (readbuf)     Reads the screen-exchange file into the paste

       C-a =       (removebuf)   Removes the file used by C-a < and C-a >.

       C-a ,       (license)     Shows  where screen comes from, where it went
                                 to and why you can use it.

       C-a _       (silence)     Start/stop monitoring the current window  for

       C-a |       (split -v)    Split  the current region vertically into two
                                 new ones.

       C-a *       (displays)    Show a  listing  of  all  currently  attached


       The  "socket  directory"  defaults either to $HOME/.screen or simply to
       /tmp/screens or preferably to /var/run/screen chosen  at  compile-time.
       If  screen  is  installed  setuid-root,  then  the administrator should
       compile screen with an adequate (not NFS mounted) socket directory.  If
       screen  is  not  running setuid-root, the user can specify any mode 700
       directory in the environment variable $SCREENDIR.

       When screen is invoked, it executes initialization  commands  from  the
       files  "/etc/screenrc"  and  ".screenrc"  in the user's home directory.
       These are the "programmer's defaults" that can  be  overridden  in  the
       following  ways:  for  the global screenrc file screen searches for the
       environment  variable  $SYSSCREENRC  (this  override  feature  may   be
       disabled  at compile-time). The user specific screenrc file is searched
       in $SCREENRC, then $HOME/.screenrc.  The command line option  -c  takes
       precedence over the above user screenrc files.

       Commands  in  these  files  are  used to set options, bind functions to
       keys, and to  automatically  establish  one  or  more  windows  at  the
       beginning  of  your  screen session.  Commands are listed one per line,
       with empty lines being ignored.  A command's arguments are separated by
       tabs  or  spaces,  and may be surrounded by single or double quotes.  A
       `#' turns the rest of the  line  into  a  comment,  except  in  quotes.
       Unintelligible  lines  are  warned  about  and  ignored.   Commands may
       contain references to environment variables. The syntax is  the  shell-
       like  "$VAR  "  or "${VAR}". Note that this causes incompatibility with
       previous screen versions, as now the '$'-character has to be  protected
       with  '\'  if  no variable substitution shall be performed. A string in
       single-quotes is also protected from variable substitution.

       Two configuration files  are  shipped  as  examples  with  your  screen
       distribution:  "etc/screenrc"  and  "etc/etcscreenrc".  They  contain a
       number of useful examples for various commands.

       Customization can also be done 'on-line'. To  enter  the  command  mode
       type  `C-a  :'.  Note  that commands starting with "def" change default
       values, while others change current settings.

       The following commands are available:

       acladd usernames [crypted-pw]
       addacl usernames

       Enable users to fully access this screen session. Usernames can be  one
       user or a comma separated list of users. This command enables to attach
       to the screen session and performs the equivalent of `aclchg  usernames
       +rwx  "#?"'.   executed.  To add a user with restricted access, use the
       `aclchg' command below.  If an optional second parameter  is  supplied,
       it  should  be  a crypted password for the named user(s). `Addacl' is a
       synonym to `acladd'.  Multi user mode only.

       aclchg usernames permbits list
       chacl usernames permbits list

       Change permissions for a comma separated list of users. Permission bits
       are  represented  as  `r',  `w'  and  `x'.  Prefixing  `+'  grants  the
       permission, `-' removes it. The third parameter is  a  comma  separated
       list  of commands and/or windows (specified either by number or title).
       The special list `#' refers to all windows, `?'  to  all  commands.  if
       usernames  consists  of  a single `*', all known users are affected.  A
       command can be executed when the user has the `x' bit for it.  The user
       can  type  input  to  a window when he has its `w' bit set and no other
       user obtains a writelock for this window.   Other  bits  are  currently
       ignored.   To  withdraw  the  writelock  from another user in window 2:
       `aclchg username -w+w 2'.  To allow read-only access  to  the  session:
       `aclchg  username  -w "#"'. As soon as a user's name is known to screen
       he can attach to the session and (per default) has full permissions for
       all  command  and  windows.  Execution permission for the acl commands,
       `at' and others should also be removed or  the  user  may  be  able  to
       regain  write permission.  Rights of the special username nobody cannot
       be changed (see the "su" command).  `Chacl' is a synonym  to  `aclchg'.
       Multi user mode only.

       acldel username

       Remove a user from screen's access control list. If currently attached,
       all the user's displays are detached from the session. He cannot attach
       again.  Multi user mode only.

       aclgrp username [groupname]

       Creates  groups  of  users that share common access rights. The name of
       the group is the username of the group leader. Each member of the group
       inherits  the  permissions  that  are granted to the group leader. That
       means, if a user fails an access check, another check is made  for  the
       group  leader.   A  user  is  removed from all groups the special value
       "none" is used for groupname.  If the second parameter is  omitted  all
       groups the user is in are listed.

       aclumask [[users]+bits |[users]-bits …. ]
       umask [[users]+bits |[users]-bits …. ]

       This  specifies  the  access  other  users have to windows that will be
       created by the caller of the command.  Users may be no, one or a  comma
       separated list of known usernames. If no users are specified, a list of
       all currently known users is  assumed.   Bits  is  any  combination  of
       access  control  bits  allowed  defined  with the "aclchg" command. The
       special username "?" predefines the access that  not  yet  known  users
       will  be  granted  to  any window initially.  The special username "??"
       predefines the access that not yet  known  users  are  granted  to  any
       command.   Rights of the special username nobody cannot be changed (see
       the "su" command).  `Umask' is a synonym to `aclumask'.

       activity message

       When  any  activity  occurs  in  a  background  window  that  is  being
       monitored,  screen  displays  a  notification in the message line.  The
       notification message can be  re-defined  by  means  of  the  "activity"
       command.   Each  occurrence of `%' in message is replaced by the number
       of the window in which activity has occurred, and  each  occurrence  of
       `^G' is replaced by the definition for bell in your termcap (usually an
       audible bell).  The default message is

                   'Activity in window %n'

       Note that monitoring is off for all windows  by  default,  but  can  be
       altered by use of the "monitor" command (C-a M).

       allpartial on|off

       If  set  to  on,  only  the  current cursor line is refreshed on window
       change.  This affects all windows  and  is  useful  for  slow  terminal
       lines.  The previous setting of full/partial refresh for each window is
       restored with "allpartial off".  This is a global flag that immediately
       takes  effect on all windows overriding the "partial" settings. It does
       not change the default redraw behavior of newly created windows.

       altscreen on|off

       If set  to  on,  "alternate  screen"  support  is  enabled  in  virtual
       terminals, just like in xterm.  Initial setting is `off'.

       at [identifier][#|*|%] command [args … ]

       Execute  a  command  at  other  displays  or  windows as if it had been
       entered there.  "At" changes  the  context  (the  `current  window'  or
       `current  display'  setting)  of  the  command.  If the first parameter
       describes a non-unique context, the command will be  executed  multiple
       times.  If  the  first  parameter  is  of  the  form `identifier*' then
       identifier is matched against user names.  The command is executed once
       for  each display of the selected user(s). If the first parameter is of
       the form `identifier%' identifier is matched against displays. Displays
       are  named after the ttys they attach. The prefix `/dev/' or `/dev/tty'
       may be omitted from the identifier.  If identifier has a `#' or nothing
       appended  it  is matched against window numbers and titles. Omitting an
       identifier in front of the `#', `*' or `%'-character selects all users,
       displays  or  windows because a prefix-match is performed. Note that on
       the affected display(s) a short message will  describe  what  happened.
       Permission  is  checked  for initiator of the "at" command, not for the
       owners of the affected display(s).  Note that the '#'  character  works
       as  a comment introducer when it is preceded by whitespace. This can be
       escaped by prefixing a '\'.  Permission is checked for the initiator of
       the "at" command, not for the owners of the affected display(s).
       Caveat: When matching against windows, the command is executed at least
       once per window. Commands  that  change  the  internal  arrangement  of
       windows  (like  "other")  may  be  called  again. In shared windows the
       command will be  repeated  for  each  attached  display.  Beware,  when
       issuing  toggle  commands like "login"!  Some commands (e.g. "process")
       require that a display is associated with the  target  windows.   These
       commands may not work correctly under "at" looping over windows.

       attrcolor attrib [attribute/color-modifier]

       This  command can be used to highlight attributes by changing the color
       of the  text.  If  the  attribute  attrib  is  in  use,  the  specified
       attribute/color  modifier is also applied. If no modifier is given, the
       current one is deleted. See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter for the syntax
       of  the  modifier. Screen understands two pseudo-attributes, "i" stands
       for  high-intensity  foreground  color  and  "I"   for   high-intensity
       background color.


              attrcolor b "R"

       Change the color to bright red if bold text is to be printed.

              attrcolor u "-u b"

       Use blue text instead of underline.

              attrcolor b ".I"

       Use  bright  colors  for  bold  text.  Most  terminal emulators do this

              attrcolor i "+b"

       Make bright colored text also bold.

       autodetach on|off

       Sets whether screen will automatically detach upon hangup, which  saves
       all  your  running  programs  until  they  are resumed with a screen -r
       command.  When turned off, a hangup signal will  terminate  screen  and
       all the processes it contains. Autodetach is on by default.

       autonuke on|off

       Sets  whether  a  clear screen sequence should nuke all the output that
       has not been written to the terminal. See also "obuflimit".

       backtick id lifespan autorefresh cmd args
       backtick id

       Program the backtick command with the numerical id id.  The  output  of
       such  a command is used for substitution of the "%`" string escape. The
       specified lifespan is the number of seconds the  output  is  considered
       valid.  After  this  time,  the command is run again if a corresponding
       string escape is encountered.  The autorefresh  parameter  triggers  an
       automatic   refresh  for  caption  and  hardstatus  strings  after  the
       specified number of seconds. Only the last line of output is  used  for
       If  both  the  lifespan  and  the  autorefresh parameters are zero, the
       backtick program is expected to stay in  the  background  and  generate
       output  once  in  a while.  In this case, the command is executed right
       away and screen stores the last line of output.  If  a  new  line  gets
       printed  screen  will  automatically  refresh  the  hardstatus  or  the
       The second form of the command deletes the backtick  command  with  the
       numerical id id.

       bce [on|off]

       Change  background-color-erase  setting.  If  "bce"  is  set to on, all
       characters cleared by an erase/insert/scroll/clear  operation  will  be
       displayed  in  the  current  background  color.  Otherwise  the default
       background color is used.

       bell_msg [message]

       When a bell character is sent to a background window, screen displays a
       notification  in the message line.  The notification message can be re-
       defined by this command.  Each occurrence of `%' in message is replaced
       by  the  number  of  the window to which a bell has been sent, and each
       occurrence of `^G' is replaced by  the  definition  for  bell  in  your
       termcap (usually an audible bell).  The default message is

                   'Bell in window %n'

       An  empty message can be supplied to the "bell_msg" command to suppress
       output of a message line (bell_msg "").  Without parameter, the current
       message is shown.

       bind [-c class] key [command [args]]

       Bind  a command to a key.  By default, most of the commands provided by
       screen are bound to one or more keys as indicated in the  "DEFAULT  KEY
       BINDINGS"  section, e.g. the command to create a new window is bound to
       "C-c" and "c".  The "bind" command can be  used  to  redefine  the  key
       bindings  and  to  define  new  bindings.  The key argument is either a
       single character, a two-character sequence of the  form  "^x"  (meaning
       "C-x"),  a  backslash followed by an octal number (specifying the ASCII
       code of the character), or a backslash followed by a second  character,
       such  as  "\^"  or "\\".  The argument can also be quoted, if you like.
       If no further argument is given, any previously established binding for
       this key is removed.  The command argument can be any command listed in
       this section.

       If a command class is specified via the "-c" option, the key  is  bound
       for the specified class. Use the "command" command to activate a class.
       Command classes can be used to create multiple command keys  or  multi-
       character bindings.

       Some examples:

                   bind ' ' windows
                   bind ^k
                   bind k
                   bind K kill
                   bind ^f screen telnet foobar
                   bind \033 screen -ln -t root -h 1000 9 su

       would bind the space key to the command that displays a list of windows
       (so that the command  usually  invoked  by  "C-a  C-w"  would  also  be
       available as "C-a space"). The next three lines remove the default kill
       binding from "C-a C-k" and "C-a k".  "C-a K" is then bound to the  kill
       command.  Then  it  binds  "C-f" to the command "create a window with a
       TELNET connection to foobar", and bind "escape"  to  the  command  that
       creates  an  non-login  window  with  a.k.a.  "root" in slot #9, with a
       superuser shell and a scrollback buffer of 1000 lines.

                   bind -c demo1 0 select 10
                   bind -c demo1 1 select 11
                   bind -c demo1 2 select 12
                   bindkey "^B" command -c demo1

       makes "C-b 0" select window 10, "C-b 1" window 11, etc.

                   bind -c demo2 0 select 10
                   bind -c demo2 1 select 11
                   bind -c demo2 2 select 12
                   bind - command -c demo2

       makes "C-a - 0" select window 10, "C-a - 1" window 11, etc.

       bindkey [-d] [-m] [-a] [[-k|-t] string [cmd args]]

       This command manages screen's input translation tables. Every entry  in
       one  of  the  tables tells screen how to react if a certain sequence of
       characters is encountered. There are  three  tables:  one  that  should
       contain  actions  programmed  by  the user, one for the default actions
       used for terminal emulation and one for screen's copy mode to do cursor
       movement.  See  section  "INPUT  TRANSLATION" for a list of default key
       If the -d option is given,  bindkey  modifies  the  default  table,  -m
       changes  the  copy mode table and with neither option the user table is
       selected.  The argument string is the sequence of characters  to  which
       an  action  is  bound.  This  can either be a fixed string or a termcap
       keyboard capability name (selectable with the -k option).
       Some  keys  on  a  VT100  terminal  can  send  a  different  string  if
       application  mode  is  turned on (e.g the cursor keys).  Such keys have
       two entries in the translation table. You can  select  the  application
       mode entry by specifying the -a option.
       The -t option tells screen not to do inter-character timing. One cannot
       turn off the timing if a termcap capability is used.
       Cmd can be any of screen's commands with an arbitrary number  of  args.
       If cmd is omitted the key-binding is removed from the table.
       Here are some examples of keyboard bindings:

               bindkey -d
       Show  all of the default key bindings. The application mode entries are
       marked with [A].

               bindkey -k k1 select 1
       Make the "F1" key switch to window one.

               bindkey -t foo stuff barfoo
       Make "foo" an abbreviation of the word "barfoo". Timeout is disabled so
       that users can type slowly.

               bindkey "\024" mapdefault
       This  key-binding  makes  "^T" an escape character for key-bindings. If
       you did the above "stuff barfoo" binding, you can enter the word  "foo"
       by  typing  "^Tfoo". If you want to insert a "^T" you have to press the
       key twice (i.e., escape the escape binding).

               bindkey -k F1 command
       Make the F11 (not F1!) key an alternative screen escape (besides ^A).

       break [duration]

       Send a break signal for duration*0.25 seconds to this window.  For non-
       Posix  systems  the  time  interval  may be rounded up to full seconds.
       Most useful if a character device is attached to the window rather than
       a shell process (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES"). The maximum duration
       of a break signal is limited to 15 seconds.


       Activate the screen blanker. First the screen is cleared. If no blanker
       program is defined, the cursor is turned off, otherwise, the program is
       started and it's output is written to the screen.  The  screen  blanker
       is killed with the first keypress, the read key is discarded.
       This command is normally used together with the "idle" command.

       blankerprg [program args]

       Defines  a  blanker  program.  Disables the blanker program if an empty
       argument is given. Shows  the  currently  set  blanker  program  if  no
       arguments are given.

       breaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK |TCSBRK]

       Choose  one  of  the available methods of generating a break signal for
       terminal devices. This command should affect the current  window  only.
       But  it still behaves identical to "defbreaktype". This will be changed
       in the future.  Calling "breaktype"  with  no  parameter  displays  the
       break method for the current window.

       bufferfile [exchange-file]

       Change the filename used for reading and writing with the paste buffer.
       If the optional argument to the "bufferfile" command  is  omitted,  the
       default setting ("/tmp/screen-exchange") is reactivated.  The following
       example will paste the system's password file into  the  screen  window
       (using the paste buffer, where a copy remains):

                   C-a : bufferfile /etc/passwd
                   C-a < C-a ]
                   C-a : bufferfile


       Swaps window with previous one on window list.


       Swaps window with next one on window list.

       c1 [on|off]

       Change  c1  code  processing.  "C1  on" tells screen to treat the input
       characters between 128 and 159 as control  functions.   Such  an  8-bit
       code  is  normally  the same as ESC followed by the corresponding 7-bit
       code. The default setting is to process c1 codes  and  can  be  changed
       with the "defc1" command.  Users with fonts that have usable characters
       in the c1 positions may want to turn this off.

       caption always|splitonly [string]
       caption string [string]

       This command controls the display of the window  captions.  Normally  a
       caption  is  only  used if more than one window is shown on the display
       (split screen mode). But if the type is set to always  screen  shows  a
       caption even if only one window is displayed. The default is splitonly.

       The  second form changes the text used for the caption. You can use all
       escapes from the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. Screen  uses  a  default  of
       `%3n %t'.

       You can mix both forms by providing a string as an additional argument.

       charset set

       Change  the current character set slot designation and charset mapping.
       The first four character of set  are  treated  as  charset  designators
       while the fifth and sixth character must be in range '0' to '3' and set
       the GL/GR charset mapping. On every position  a  '.'  may  be  used  to
       indicate  that  the corresponding charset/mapping should not be changed
       (set is padded to six characters internally by appending  '.'   chars).
       New  windows  have  "BBBB02"  as  default  charset, unless a "encoding"
       command is active.
       The current setting can be viewed with the "info" command.

       chdir [directory]

       Change the current directory of screen to the specified  directory  or,
       if called without an argument, to your home directory (the value of the
       environment variable $HOME).  All windows that are created by means  of
       the  "screen"  command  from  within  ".screenrc" or by means of "C-a :
       screen …" or "C-a c" use this as their default  directory.   Without  a
       chdir  command,  this  would  be  the  directory  from which screen was
       invoked.  Hardcopy and log files are always  written  to  the  window's
       default  directory, not the current directory of the process running in
       the window.  You can use this command multiple times in your  .screenrc
       to start various windows in different default directories, but the last
       chdir value will affect all the windows you create interactively.

       cjkwidth [ on | off ]

       Treat ambiguous width characters as full/half width.


       Clears the current window and saves its image to the scrollback buffer.


       Reorders window on window list, removing number gaps between them.

       colon [prefix]

       Allows you to enter ".screenrc" command lines.  Useful  for  on-the-fly
       modification  of  key  bindings,  specific window creation and changing
       settings. Note  that  the  "set"  keyword  no  longer  exists!  Usually
       commands  affect  the  current  window rather than default settings for
       future windows. Change defaults with commands starting with 'def…'.

       If you consider this as the `Ex command mode' of screen, you may regard
       "C-a esc" (copy mode) as its `Vi command mode'.

       command [-c class]

       This  command has the same effect as typing the screen escape character
       (^A). It is probably only useful for key bindings.  If the "-c"  option
       is  given,  select  the  specified  command class.  See also "bind" and

       compacthist [on|off]

       This tells  screen  whether  to  suppress  trailing  blank  lines  when
       scrolling up text into the history buffer.

       console [on|off]

       Grabs  or un-grabs the machines console output to a window.  Note: Only
       the owner of /dev/console can grab the console output.  This command is
       only available if the machine supports the ioctl TIOCCONS.


       Enter  copy/scrollback  mode.  This  allows  you  to copy text from the
       current window and its history into the paste buffer. In  this  mode  a
       vi-like `full screen editor' is active:
       Movement keys:
         h, C-h, or left arrow move the cursor left.
         j, C-n, or down arrow move the cursor down.
         k, C-p, or up arrow move the cursor up.
         l ('el') or right arrow move the cursor right.
         0 (zero) or C-a move to the leftmost column.
         + and - positions one line up and down.
         H,  M and L move the cursor to the leftmost column of the top, center
           or bottom line of the window.
         | moves to the specified absolute column.
         g or home moves to the beginning of the buffer.
         G or end moves to  the  specified  absolute  line  (default:  end  of
         % jumps to the specified percentage of the buffer.
         ^  or  $  move  to  the  leftmost  column,  to the first or last non-
           whitespace character on the line.
         w, b, and e move the cursor word by word.
         B, E move the cursor WORD by WORD (as in vi).
         f/F, t/T move the cursor forward/backward to the  next  occurence  of
           the  target.  (eg, '3fy' will move the cursor to the 3rd 'y' to the
         ; and  ,  Repeat  the  last  f/F/t/T  command  in  the  same/opposite
         C-e  and  C-y scroll the display up/down by one line while preserving
           the cursor position.
         C-u and C-d scroll the display up/down by  the  specified  amount  of
           lines  while preserving the cursor position. (Default: half screen-
         C-b and C-f scroll the display up/down a full screen.

           Emacs style movement keys can be customized by a .screenrc command.
           (E.g.  markkeys  "h=^B:l=^F:$=^E")  There is no simple method for a
           full emacs-style keymap, as this involves multi-character codes.

           The copy range is specified by setting two marks. The text  between
           these marks will be highlighted. Press:
         space  or  enter  to  set  the  first or second mark respectively. If
           mousetrack is set to `on', marks can also be set using  left  mouse
         Y and y used to mark one whole line or to mark from start of line.
         W marks exactly one word.
       Repeat count:
           Any of these commands can be prefixed with a repeat count number by
           pressing digits
         0..9 which is taken as a repeat count.
           Example: "C-a C-[ H 10 j 5 Y" will copy lines 11  to  15  into  the
           paste buffer.
         / Vi-like search forward.
         ? Vi-like search backward.
         C-a s Emacs style incremental search forward.
         C-r Emacs style reverse i-search.
         n Find next search pattern.
         N Find previous search pattern.
           There  are  however  some keys that act differently than in vi.  Vi
           does not allow one to yank rectangular blocks of text,  but  screen
           does. Press:
         c  or  C  to  set the left or right margin respectively. If no repeat
           count is given, both default to the current cursor position.
           Example: Try this on a rather full text screen: "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE
           c 10 l 5 j C SPACE".

           This  moves  one  to  the  middle  line  of the screen, moves in 20
           columns left, marks the beginning of the  paste  buffer,  sets  the
           left  column, moves 5 columns down, sets the right column, and then
           marks the end of the paste buffer. Now try:
           "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE 10 l 5 j SPACE"

           and notice the difference in the amount of text copied.
         J joins lines. It toggles between  4  modes:  lines  separated  by  a
           newline character (012), lines glued seamless, lines separated by a
           single whitespace and comma separated  lines.  Note  that  you  can
           prepend  the newline character with a carriage return character, by
           issuing a "crlf on".
         v or V is for all the vi users with ":set numbers" - it  toggles  the
           left margin between column 9 and 1. Press
         a  before  the  final  space  key  to toggle in append mode. Thus the
           contents of the paste  buffer  will  not  be  overwritten,  but  is
           appended to.
         A toggles in append mode and sets a (second) mark.
         >  sets the (second) mark and writes the contents of the paste buffer
           to the screen-exchange file (/tmp/screen-exchange per default) once
           copy-mode is finished.
           This  example  demonstrates how to dump the whole scrollback buffer
           to that file: "C-A [ g SPACE G $ >".
         C-g gives information about the current line and column.
         x or o exchanges the first mark and the current cursor position.  You
           can use this to adjust an already placed mark.
         C-l ('el') will redraw the screen.
         @ does nothing. Does not even exit copy mode.
         All keys not described here exit copy mode.

       copy_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "readreg" instead.

       crlf [on|off]

       This  affects  the copying of text regions with the `C-a [' command. If
       it is set to `on',  lines  will  be  separated  by  the  two  character
       sequence  `CR' - `LF'.  Otherwise (default) only `LF' is used.  When no
       parameter is given, the state is toggled.

       debug on|off

       Turns runtime debugging on or off. If screen  has  been  compiled  with
       option  -DDEBUG  debugging available and is turned on per default. Note
       that this command only affects debugging output from the main  "SCREEN"
       process  correctly.  Debug  output  from attacher processes can only be
       turned off once and forever.

       defc1 on|off

       Same as the c1 command except that the default setting for new  windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `on'.

       defautonuke on|off

       Same  as  the  autonuke command except that the default setting for new
       displays is changed. Initial setting is `off'.  Note that you  can  use
       the  special  `AN' terminal capability if you want to have a dependency
       on the terminal type.

       defbce on|off

       Same as the bce command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defbreaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK |TCSBRK]

       Choose  one  of  the available methods of generating a break signal for
       terminal devices. The preferred methods are tcsendbreak  and  TIOCSBRK.
       The  third, TCSBRK, blocks the complete screen session for the duration
       of the break, but it may be the  only  way  to  generate  long  breaks.
       Tcsendbreak and TIOCSBRK may or may not produce long breaks with spikes
       (e.g. 4 per second). This  is  not  only  system-dependent,  this  also
       differs  between  serial board drivers.  Calling "defbreaktype" with no
       parameter displays the current setting.

       defcharset [set]

       Like the charset command  except  that  the  default  setting  for  new
       windows is changed. Shows current default if called without argument.

       defescape xy

       Set  the default command characters. This is equivalent to the "escape"
       except that it is  useful  multiuser  sessions  only.  In  a  multiuser
       session  "escape"  changes  the  command character of the calling user,
       where "defescape" changes the default command characters for users that
       will be added later.

       defflow on|off|auto [interrupt]

       Same  as  the  flow  command  except  that  the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting  is  `auto'.   Specifying  "defflow
       auto interrupt" is the same as the command-line options -fa and -i.

       defgr on|off

       Same  as the gr command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defhstatus [status]

       The hardstatus line that all new windows will get  is  set  to  status.
       This  command  is useful to make the hardstatus of every window display
       the window number or title or the like.  Status may  contain  the  same
       directives  as  in  the  window  messages,  but  the  directive  escape
       character is '^E' (octal 005) instead of '%'.  This was done to make  a
       misinterpretation of program generated hardstatus lines impossible.  If
       the  parameter  status  is  omitted,  the  current  default  string  is
       displayed.  Per default the hardstatus line of new windows is empty.

       defencoding enc

       Same  as  the  encoding command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is  the  encoding  taken  from  the

       deflog on|off

       Same as the log command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       deflogin on|off

       Same as the login command except  that  the  default  setting  for  new
       windows  is  changed. This is initialized with `on' as distributed (see

       defmode mode

       The mode of each newly allocated pseudo-tty is set to mode.  Mode is an
       octal number.  When no "defmode" command is given, mode 0622 is used.

       defmonitor on|off

       Same  as  the  monitor  command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defmousetrack on|off

       Same as the mousetrack command except that the default setting for  new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defnonblock on|off|numsecs

       Same  as  the  nonblock  command  except  that  the default setting for
       displays is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defobuflimit limit

       Same as the obuflimit command except that the default setting  for  new
       displays  is  changed. Initial setting is 256 bytes.  Note that you can
       use the special  'OL'  terminal  capability  if  you  want  to  have  a
       dependency on the terminal type.

       defscrollback num

       Same  as the scrollback command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is 100.

       defshell command

       Synonym to the shell .screenrc command. See there.

       defsilence on|off

       Same as the silence command except that the  default  setting  for  new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defslowpaste msec"

       Same  as  the slowpaste command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is 0 milliseconds, meaning `off'.

       defutf8 on|off

       Same as the utf8 command  except  that  the  default  setting  for  new
       windows  is changed. Initial setting is `on' if screen was started with
       "-U", otherwise `off'.

       defwrap on|off

       Same as the wrap command  except  that  the  default  setting  for  new
       windows  is  changed. Initially line-wrap is on and can be toggled with
       the "wrap" command ("C-a r") or by means of "C-a : wrap on|off".

       defwritelock on|off|auto

       Same as the writelock command except that the default setting  for  new
       windows is changed. Initially writelocks will off.

       defzombie [keys]

       Synonym  to the zombie command. Both currently change the default.  See

       detach [-h]

       Detach the screen session (disconnect it from the terminal and  put  it
       into  the background).  This returns you to the shell where you invoked
       screen.  A detached screen can be resumed by invoking screen  with  the
       -r  option  (see  also  section  "COMMAND-LINE OPTIONS"). The -h option
       tells screen to  immediately  close  the  connection  to  the  terminal


       Show what screen thinks about your terminal. Useful if you want to know
       why features like color or the alternate charset don't work.


       Shows a tabular listing of  all  currently  connected  user  front-ends
       (displays).  This is most useful for multiuser sessions.  The following
       keys can be used in displays list:
         k, C-p, or up Move up one line.
         j, C-n, or down Move down one line.
         C-a or home Move to the first line.
         C-e or end Move to the last line.
         C-u or C-d Move one half page up or down.
         C-b or C-f Move one full page up or down.
         mouseclick Move to the selected line. Available when "mousetrack"  is
           set to on.
         space Refresh the list
         d Detach that display
         D Power detach that display
         C-g, enter, or escape Exit the list

       The following is an example of what "displays" could look like:

              xterm 80x42 jnweiger@/dev/ttyp4     0(m11)   &rWx
              facit 80x24 mlschroe@/dev/ttyhf nb 11(tcsh)   rwx
              xterm 80x42 jnhollma@/dev/ttyp5     0(m11)   &R.x
               (A)   (B)     (C)     (D)     (E) (F)(G)   (H)(I)

       The legend is as follows:
       (A) The terminal type known by screen for this display.
       (B) Displays geometry as width x height.
       (C) Username who is logged in at the display.
       (D) Device name of the display or the attached device
       (E) Display is in blocking or nonblocking mode. The available modes are
       "nb", "NB", "Z<", "Z>", and "BL".
       (F) Number of the window
       (G) Name/title of window
       (H) Whether the window is shared
       (I) Window permissions. Made up of three characters:
             (1st character)
                ‘-’ : no read
                ‘r’ : read
                ‘R’ : read only due to foreign wlock
             (2nd character)
                ‘-’ : no write
                ‘.’ : write suppressed by foreign wlock
                ‘w’ : write
                ‘W’ : own wlock
             (3rd character)
                ‘-’ : no execute
                ‘x’ : execute

       "Displays" needs a region size of at least 10  characters  wide  and  5
       characters high in order to display.

       digraph [preset[unicode-value]]

       This  command  prompts  the  user  for a digraph sequence. The next two
       characters typed are looked up in a builtin  table  and  the  resulting
       character  is  inserted  in  the input stream. For example, if the user
       enters 'a"', an a-umlaut will  be  inserted.  If  the  first  character
       entered  is  a 0 (zero), screen will treat the following characters (up
       to three) as an octal number instead.  The optional argument preset  is
       treated  as  user  input,  thus  one  can  create an "umlaut" key.  For
       example the command "bindkey  ^K  digraph  '"'"  enables  the  user  to
       generate an a-umlaut by typing CTRL-K a.  When a non-zero unicode-value
       is specified, a new digraph is created with the specified  preset.  The
       digraph is unset if a zero value is provided for the unicode-value.


       Write  the  termcap  entry  for  the virtual terminal optimized for the
       currently  active  window  to  the  file  ".termcap"  in   the   user's
       "$HOME/.screen"  directory  (or wherever screen stores its sockets. See
       the "FILES" section below).  This termcap entry  is  identical  to  the
       value of the environment variable $TERMCAP that is set up by screen for
       each window. For  terminfo  based  systems  you  will  need  to  run  a
       converter like captoinfo and then compile the entry with tic.

       echo [-n] message

       The  echo  command may be used to annoy screen users with a 'message of
       the day'. Typically installed in a global  /etc/screenrc.   The  option
       "-n" may be used to suppress the line feed.  See also "sleep".  Echo is
       also useful for online checking of environment variables.

       encoding enc [enc]

       Tell screen how to interpret the input/output. The first argument  sets
       the encoding of the current window. Each window can emulate a different
       encoding. The optional second parameter overwrites the encoding of  the
       connected terminal. It should never be needed as screen uses the locale
       setting to detect the encoding.  There  is  also  a  way  to  select  a
       terminal  encoding  depending  on  the  terminal type by using the "KJ"
       termcap entry.

       Supported encodings are eucJP, SJIS, eucKR, eucCN, Big5,  GBK,  KOI8-R,
       CP1251,  UTF-8,  ISO8859-2, ISO8859-3, ISO8859-4, ISO8859-5, ISO8859-6,
       ISO8859-7, ISO8859-8, ISO8859-9, ISO8859-10, ISO8859-15, jis.

       See also "defencoding", which changes the  default  setting  of  a  new

       escape xy

       Set  the  command character to x and the character generating a literal
       command character (by triggering the "meta" command) to y  (similar  to
       the  -e  option).   Each  argument is either a single character, a two-
       character sequence of  the  form  "^x"  (meaning  "C-x"),  a  backslash
       followed  by  an  octal  number  (specifying  the  ASCII  code  of  the
       character), or a backslash followed by a second character, such as "\^"
       or "\\".  The default is "^Aa".

       eval command1 [command2 ]

       Parses and executes each argument as separate command.

       exec [[fdpat] newcommand [args ]]

       Run  a  unix subprocess (specified by an executable path newcommand and
       its optional arguments) in the current window. The flow of data between
       newcommands  stdin/stdout/stderr, the process originally started in the
       window  (let  us  call  it  "application-process")  and  screen  itself
       (window)  is  controlled  by  the  file descriptor pattern fdpat.  This
       pattern is basically a three  character  sequence  representing  stdin,
       stdout and stderr of newcommand. A dot (.) connects the file descriptor
       to screen.  An exclamation mark (!) causes the file  descriptor  to  be
       connected  to the application-process. A colon (:) combines both.  User
       input will go to newcommand unless newcommand receives the application-
       process' output (fdpats first character is `!' or `:') or a pipe symbol
       (|) is added (as a fourth character) to the end of fdpat.
       Invoking `exec' without arguments  shows  name  and  arguments  of  the
       currently running subprocess in this window. Only one subprocess a time
       can be running in each window.
       When a subprocess is running the `kill' command will affect it  instead
       of the windows process.
       Refer   to   the   postscript   file  `doc/'  for  a  confusing
       illustration of all 21 possible combinations. Each  drawing  shows  the
       digits 2,1,0 representing the three file descriptors of newcommand. The
       box marked `W' is the usual pty that has the application-process on its
       slave  side.   The  box  marked  `P'  is the secondary pty that now has
       screen at its master side.

       Whitespace between the word `exec' and fdpat and  the  command  can  be
       omitted.  Trailing  dots  and  a  fdpat  consisting only of dots can be
       omitted. A simple `|' is synonymous for the pattern  `!..|';  the  word
       exec can be omitted here and can always be replaced by `!'.


              exec … /bin/sh
              exec /bin/sh

       Creates  another  shell in the same window, while the original shell is
       still running. Output of both shells is displayed  and  user  input  is
       sent to the new /bin/sh.

              exec !.. stty 19200
              exec ! stty 19200
              !!stty 19200

       Set  the  speed  of  the window's tty. If your stty command operates on
       stdout, then add another `!'.

              exec !..| less

       This adds a pager to the window output. The special  character  `|'  is
       needed  to  give  the  user control over the pager although it gets its
       input from the window's process. This works, because  less  listens  on
       stderr  (a  behavior that screen would not expect without the `|') when
       its stdin is not a tty.  Less versions newer than  177  fail  miserably
       here; good old pg still works.

              !:sed -n s/.*Error.*/\007/p

       Sends  window  output  to  both,  the user and the sed command. The sed
       inserts an additional bell character (oct. 007) to  the  window  output
       seen  by screen.  This will cause "Bell in window x" messages, whenever
       the string "Error" appears in the window.


       Change the window size to the size of the current region. This  command
       is needed because screen doesn't adapt the window size automatically if
       the window is displayed more than once.

       flow [on|off|auto]

       Sets the flow-control mode for  this  window.   Without  parameters  it
       cycles  the  current  window's flow-control setting from "automatic" to
       "on" to "off".  See the discussion on "FLOW-CONTROL" later on  in  this
       document  for  full details and note, that this is subject to change in
       future releases.  Default is set by `defflow'.

       focus [up|down|top|bottom]

       Move the input focus to the next region. This is done in a  cyclic  way
       so  that  the  top  region  is  selected  after  the  bottom one. If no
       subcommand is given it defaults to `down'. `up' cycles in the  opposite
       order, `top' and `bottom' go to the top and bottom region respectively.
       Useful bindings are (j and k as in vi)
           bind j focus down
           bind k focus up
           bind t focus top
           bind b focus bottom
       Note that k is traditionally bound to the kill command.

       focusminsize [ ( width|max|_ ) ( height|max|_ ) ]

       This forces any currently selected region to be  automatically  resized
       at least a certain width and height. All other surrounding regions will
       be resized in order to accommodate.  This constraint follows  everytime
       the  "focus"  command  is  used.  The  "resize"  command can be used to
       increase either dimension of a region, but never below what is set with
       "focusminsize".  The  underscore  `_'  is  a synonym for max. Setting a
       width and height of `0 0' (zero zero) will  undo  any  constraints  and
       allow  for  manual resizing.  Without any parameters, the minimum width
       and height is shown.

       gr [on|off]

       Turn GR  charset  switching  on/off.  Whenever  screen  sees  an  input
       character  with  the 8th bit set, it will use the charset stored in the
       GR slot and print the character with the 8th bit stripped. The  default
       (see also "defgr") is not to process GR switching because otherwise the
       ISO88591 charset would not work.

       group [grouptitle]

       Change or show the group the current window belongs to. Windows can  be
       moved  around  between  different  groups by specifying the name of the
       destination group. Without specifying a group, the title of the current
       group is displayed.

       hardcopy [-h] [file]

       Writes  out  the  currently displayed image to the file file, or, if no
       filename is specified, to hardcopy.n in the default directory, where  n
       is the number of the current window.  This either appends or overwrites
       the file if it exists. See below.  If the option -h is specified,  dump
       also the contents of the scrollback buffer.

       hardcopy_append on|off

       If set to "on", screen will append to the "hardcopy.n" files created by
       the command "C-a h", otherwise these files are overwritten  each  time.
       Default is `off'.

       hardcopydir directory

       Defines  a  directory  where  hardcopy  files will be placed. If unset,
       hardcopys are dumped in screen's current working directory.

       hardstatus [on|off]
       hardstatus [always]firstline|lastline|message|ignore [string]
       hardstatus string [string]

       This command  configures  the  use  and  emulation  of  the  terminal's
       hardstatus  line.  The  first  form toggles whether screen will use the
       hardware status line to display messages. If the flag is set to  `off',
       these  messages are overlaid in reverse video mode at the display line.
       The default setting is `on'.

       The second form tells screen what to do if the terminal doesn't have  a
       hardstatus  line  (i.e.  the  termcap/terminfo capabilities "hs", "ts",
       "fs" and "ds" are not set).  When "firstline/lastline" is used,  screen
       will  reserve  the  first/last  line of the display for the hardstatus.
       "message" uses screen's message mechanism  and  "ignore"  tells  screen
       never  to  display the hardstatus.  If you prepend the word "always" to
       the type (e.g., "alwayslastline"), screen will use the type even if the
       terminal supports a hardstatus.

       The  third form specifies the contents of the hardstatus line.  '%h' is
       used as default string, i.e., the  stored  hardstatus  of  the  current
       window  (settable  via  "ESC]0;<string>^G"  or  "ESC_<string>ESC\")  is
       displayed.  You can customize this to any string you like including the
       escapes  from  the  "STRING  ESCAPES"  chapter.  If  you  leave out the
       argument string, the current string is displayed.

       You can mix the second and  third  form  by  providing  the  string  as
       additional argument.

       height [-w|-d] [lines [cols]]

       Set the display height to a specified number of lines. When no argument
       is given it toggles between 24 and  42  lines  display.  You  can  also
       specify a width if you want to change both values.  The -w option tells
       screen to leave the display size unchanged  and  just  set  the  window
       size, -d vice versa.

       help [-c class]

       Not  really  a  online help, but displays a help screen showing you all
       the key bindings.  The first  pages  list  all  the  internal  commands
       followed  by their current bindings.  Subsequent pages will display the
       custom commands, one command per key.  Press  space  when  you're  done
       reading  each  page, or return to exit early.  All other characters are
       ignored. If the "-c" option is given, display all  bound  commands  for
       the specified command class.  See also "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS" section.


       Usually  users  work  with  a shell that allows easy access to previous
       commands.  For example csh has the command  "!!"  to  repeat  the  last
       command  executed.   Screen  allows  you to have a primitive way of re-
       calling "the command that started …": You just type the first letter of
       that command, then hit `C-a {' and screen tries to find a previous line
       that matches with the `prompt character' to the  left  of  the  cursor.
       This  line  is  pasted into this window's input queue.  Thus you have a
       crude command history (made up by the visible window and its scrollback

       hstatus status

       Change the window's hardstatus line to the string status.

       idle [timeout [cmd args]]

       Sets  a  command  that  is  run  after  the specified number of seconds
       inactivity is reached. This command  will  normally  be  the  "blanker"
       command  to  create a screen blanker, but it can be any screen command.
       If no command is specified, only the timeout is set. A timeout of  zero
       (or  the  special timeout off) disables the timer.  If no arguments are
       given, the current settings are displayed.

       ignorecase [on|off]

       Tell screen to ignore the case of characters in  searches.  Default  is
       `off'. Without any options, the state of ignorecase is toggled.


       Uses  the  message  line  to display some information about the current
       window: the cursor position in the form  "(column,row)"  starting  with
       "(1,1)",  the terminal width and height plus the size of the scrollback
       buffer in lines, like in "(80,24)+50",  the  current  state  of  window
       XON/XOFF  flow  control  is  shown  like  this  (See  also section FLOW

         +flow     automatic flow control, currently on.
         -flow     automatic flow control, currently off.
         +(+)flow  flow control enabled. Agrees with automatic control.
         -(+)flow  flow control disabled. Disagrees with automatic control.
         +(-)flow  flow control enabled. Disagrees with automatic control.
         -(-)flow  flow control disabled. Agrees with automatic control.

       The current line wrap setting (`+wrap' indicates enabled, `-wrap'  not)
       is  also  shown. The flags `ins', `org', `app', `log', `mon' or `nored'
       are  displayed  when  the  window  is  in  insert  mode,  origin  mode,
       application-keypad  mode,  has  output  logging, activity monitoring or
       partial redraw enabled.

       The currently active character set (G0, G1, G2, or G3)  and  in  square
       brackets  the  terminal character sets that are currently designated as
       G0 through G3 is shown. If the window is  in  UTF-8  mode,  the  string
       "UTF-8" is shown instead.

       Additional  modes  depending on the type of the window are displayed at
       the end of the status line (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES").
       If the state machine of the  terminal  emulator  is  in  a  non-default
       state,  the  info line is started with a string identifying the current
       For system information use the "time" command.

       ins_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "paste" instead.


       Kill current window.
       If there is an `exec' command running then it is killed. Otherwise  the
       process  (shell) running in the window receives a HANGUP condition, the
       window structure is removed  and  screen  (your  display)  switches  to
       another  window.   When  the  last  window  is destroyed, screen exits.
       After a kill screen switches to the previously displayed window.
       Note: Emacs users should keep this command  in  mind,  when  killing  a
       line.   It  is recommended not to use "C-a" as the screen escape key or
       to rebind kill to "C-a K".


       Redisplay the last contents of  the  message/status  line.   Useful  if
       you're  typing  when  a message appears, because  the message goes away
       when you press a key (unless your terminal has a hardware status line).
       Refer to the commands "msgwait" and "msgminwait" for fine tuning.

       layout new [title]

       Create  a new layout. The screen will change to one whole region and be
       switched to the blank window. From here, you build the regions and  the
       windows  they  show as you desire. The new layout will be numbered with
       the smallest available integer, starting with zero. You can  optionally
       give  a  title  to  your new layout.  Otherwise, it will have a default
       title of "layout". You can always change the title later by  using  the
       command layout title.

       layout remove [n|title]

       Remove,  or  in  other  words,  delete the specified layout. Either the
       number or the title can be  specified.  Without  either  specification,
       screen will remove the current layout.

       Removing a layout does not affect your set windows or regions.

       layout next

       Switch to the next layout available

       layout prev

       Switch to the previous layout available

       layout select [n|title]

       Select  the  desired  layout.  Either  the  number  or the title can be
       specified. Without either specification, screen  will  prompt  and  ask
       which  screen  is  desired. To see which layouts are available, use the
       layout show command.

       layout show

       List on the message line the number(s) and title(s)  of  the  available
       layout(s). The current layout is flagged.

       layout title [title]

       Change  or display the title of the current layout. A string given will
       be used to name the layout. Without any options, the current title  and
       number is displayed on the message line.

       layout number [n]

       Change  or  display  the number of the current layout. An integer given
       will be used to number the layout. Without  any  options,  the  current
       number and title is displayed on the message line.

       layout attach [title|:last]

       Change  or  display  which  layout  to reattach back to. The default is
       :last, which tells screen to reattach back to the last used layout just
       before  detachment.  By  supplying  a title, You can instruct screen to
       reattach to a particular layout regardless which one was  used  at  the
       time of detachment. Without any options, the layout to reattach to will
       be shown in the message line.

       layout save [n|title]

       Remember the current arrangement of regions.  When  used,  screen  will
       remember  the arrangement of vertically and horizontally split regions.
       This arrangement is restored when a screen  session  is  reattached  or
       switched  back  from  a  different  layout.  If the session ends or the
       screen process dies, the layout arrangements are lost. The layout  dump
       command  should  help  in  this  siutation.  If  a  number  or title is
       supplied, screen will  remember  the  arrangement  of  that  particular
       layout. Without any options, screen will remember the current layout.

       Saving  your  regions  can  be  done  automatically by using the layout
       autosave command.

       layout autosave [on|off]

       Change or display  the  status  of  automatcally  saving  layouts.  The
       default  is  on,  meaning  when  screen  is  detached  or  changed to a
       different layout, the  arrangement  of  regions  and  windows  will  be
       remembered at the time of change and restored upon return.  If autosave
       is set to off, that arrangement will only be restored to either to  the
       last  manual  save,  using layout save, or to when the layout was first
       created, to a single region with a single window. Without either an  on
       or off, the current status is displayed on the message line.

       layout dump [filename]

       Write to a file the order of splits made in the current layout. This is
       useful to recreate the order of  your  regions  used  in  your  current
       layout.  Only  the  current  layout is recorded. While the order of the
       regions are recorded, the sizes of  those  regions  and  which  windows
       correspond  to  which regions are not. If no filename is specified, the
       default is layout-dump, saved in the directory that the screen  process
       was  started in. If the file already exists, layout dump will append to
       that file. As an example:

                   C-a : layout dump /home/user/.screenrc

       will save or append the layout to the user's .screenrc file.


       Display the disclaimer page. This is done whenever  screen  is  started
       without   options,   which   should  be  often  enough.  See  also  the
       "startup_message" command.


       Lock this  display.   Call  a  screenlock  program  (/local/bin/lck  or
       /usr/bin/lock  or  a builtin if no other is available). Screen does not
       accept any  command  keys  until  this  program  terminates.  Meanwhile
       processes  in  the  windows  may  continue,  as  the windows are in the
       `detached' state. The screenlock program may  be  changed  through  the
       environment  variable  $LOCKPRG  (which  must  be set in the shell from
       which screen is started) and is executed with the user's uid and gid.
       Warning: When you leave other shells unlocked and you have no  password
       set  on  screen,  the  lock is void: One could easily re-attach from an
       unlocked shell. This feature should rather be called `lockterminal'.

       log [on|off]

       Start/stop writing output of the current window to a file "screenlog.n"
       in the window's default directory, where n is the number of the current
       window. This filename can be changed with the `logfile' command. If  no
       parameter is given, the state of logging is toggled. The session log is
       appended to the previous contents of the file if it already exists. The
       current  contents  and  the  contents of the scrollback history are not
       included in the session log.  Default is `off'.

       logfile filename
       logfile flush secs

       Defines the name the log files will get. The default is "screenlog.%n".
       The  second  form changes the number of seconds screen will wait before
       flushing the logfile buffer to the file-system. The default value is 10

       login [on|off]

       Adds  or  removes  the  entry in the utmp database file for the current
       window.  This controls if the window is `logged in'.  When no parameter
       is  given,  the  login state of the window is toggled.  Additionally to
       that toggle, it is convenient having a `log in' and a  `log  out'  key.
       E.g. `bind I login on' and `bind O login off' will map these keys to be
       C-a I and C-a O.  The default setting (in should  be  "on"
       for  a screen that runs under suid-root.  Use the "deflogin" command to
       change the default login state for new windows. Both commands are  only
       present when screen has been compiled with utmp support.

       logtstamp [on|off]
       logtstamp after [secs]
       logtstamp string [string]

       This command controls logfile time-stamp mechanism of screen.  If time-
       stamps are turned "on", screen adds a  string  containing  the  current
       time  to  the  logfile  after  two  minutes of inactivity.  When output
       continues and more than another two minutes have passed, a second time-
       stamp  is  added  to document the restart of the output. You can change
       this timeout with the second form of the command.  The  third  form  is
       used  for customizing the time-stamp string (`-- %n:%t -- time-stamp --
       %M/%d/%y %c:%s --\n' by default).


       Tell screen that the next input character should only be looked  up  in
       the default bindkey table. See also "bindkey".


       Like mapdefault, but don't even look in the default bindkey table.

       maptimeout [timeout]

       Set the inter-character timer for input sequence detection to a timeout
       of timeout ms.  The  default  timeout  is  300ms.  Maptimeout  with  no
       arguments shows the current setting.  See also "bindkey".

       markkeys string

       This  is  a  method  of changing the keymap used for copy/history mode.
       The string is made up of oldchar=newchar pairs which are  separated  by
       `:'. Example: The string "B=^B:F=^F" will change the keys `C-b' and `C-
       f' to the vi style binding (scroll up/down fill page).  This happens to
       be  the  default  binding  for  `B'  and  `F'.   The  command "markkeys
       h=^B:l=^F:$=^E" would set the mode for an emacs-style binding.  If your
       terminal sends characters, that cause you to abort copy mode, then this
       command may help by binding these characters to do nothing.  The  no-op
       character  is `@' and is used like this: "markkeys @=L=H" if you do not
       want to use the `H' or `L' commands  any  longer.   As  shown  in  this
       example,  multiple  keys  can  be  assigned to one function in a single

       maxwin num

       Set the maximum  window  number  screen  will  create.  Doesn't  affect
       already  existing  windows. The number can be increased only when there
       are no existing windows.


       Insert the command  character  (C-a)  in  the  current  window's  input

       monitor [on|off]

       Toggles  activity  monitoring of windows.  When monitoring is turned on
       and an affected window  is  switched  into  the  background,  you  will
       receive  the  activity  notification  message in the status line at the
       first sign of output and the window will also be marked with an `@'  in
       the  window-status  display.   Monitoring  is  initially  off  for  all

       mousetrack [on|off]

       This command determines whether screen will  watch  for  mouse  clicks.
       When  this  command is enabled, regions that have been split in various
       ways can be selected by pointing to them with a mouse and left-clicking
       them. Without specifying on or off, the current state is displayed. The
       default state is determined by the "defmousetrack" command.

       msgminwait sec

       Defines the time screen delays  a  new  message  when  one  message  is
       currently displayed.  The default is 1 second.

       msgwait sec

       Defines  the  time a message is displayed if screen is not disturbed by
       other activity. The default is 5 seconds.

       multiuser on|off

       Switch between singleuser and multiuser mode. Standard screen operation
       is  singleuser.  In  multiuser  mode  the  commands `acladd', `aclchg',
       `aclgrp' and `acldel' can be used to enable (and disable)  other  users
       accessing this screen session.

       nethack on|off

       Changes  the  kind  of  error  messages  used  by screen.  When you are
       familiar with the game  "nethack",  you  may  enjoy  the  nethack-style
       messages which will often blur the facts a little, but are much funnier
       to read. Anyway, standard messages often tend to be unclear as well.
       This option is only available if screen was compiled with  the  NETHACK
       flag defined. The default setting is then determined by the presence of
       the environment variable $NETHACKOPTIONS and the file ~/.nethackrc - if
       either one is present, the default is on.


       Switch  to  the  next  window.   This command can be used repeatedly to
       cycle through the list of windows.

       nonblock [on|off|numsecs]

       Tell screen how to deal with user interfaces (displays) that  cease  to
       accept  output.  This  can  happen  if a user presses ^S or a TCP/modem
       connection gets cut but no hangup is received. If nonblock is off (this
       is  the  default) screen waits until the display restarts to accept the
       output. If nonblock is on, screen waits until the  timeout  is  reached
       (on is treated as 1s). If the display still doesn't receive characters,
       screen will consider it "blocked" and stop sending characters to it. If
       at  some time it restarts to accept characters, screen will unblock the
       display and redisplay the updated window contents.

       number [[+|-]n]

       Change the current window's number. If the given number  n  is  already
       used  by  another  window,  both  windows exchange their numbers. If no
       argument is specified, the current window number (and title) is  shown.
       Using `+' or `-' will change the window's number by the relative amount

       obuflimit [limit]

       If the output buffer contains more bytes than the specified  limit,  no
       more  data  will be read from the windows. The default value is 256. If
       you have a fast display (like xterm), you can set  it  to  some  higher
       value. If no argument is specified, the current setting is displayed.


       Kill all regions but the current one.


       Switch  to  the  window  displayed  previously.  If this window does no
       longer exist, other has the same effect as next.

       partial on|off

       Defines whether the display should be  refreshed  (as  with  redisplay)
       after  switching  to  the current window. This command only affects the
       current window.  To immediately affect all windows use  the  allpartial
       command.  Default is `off', of course.  This default is fixed, as there
       is currently no defpartial command.

       password [crypted_pw]

       Present a crypted password in your ".screenrc" file and screen will ask
       for  it, whenever someone attempts to resume a detached. This is useful
       if you have privileged programs running under screen and  you  want  to
       protect   your   session   from   reattach  attempts  by  another  user
       masquerading as your uid (i.e. any superuser.)  If no crypted  password
       is specified, screen prompts twice for typing a password and places its
       encryption in the paste  buffer.   Default  is  `none',  this  disables
       password checking.

       paste [registers [dest_reg]]

       Write  the  (concatenated)  contents  of the specified registers to the
       stdin queue of the current window. The register '.' is treated  as  the
       paste  buffer.  If  no  parameter  is  given the user is prompted for a
       single register to paste.  The paste buffer  can  be  filled  with  the
       copy, history and readbuf commands.  Other registers can be filled with
       the register, readreg and paste commands.  If paste is  called  with  a
       second argument, the contents of the specified registers is pasted into
       the named destination register rather than the window. If '.'  is  used
       as  the  second argument, the displays paste buffer is the destination.
       Note, that "paste" uses a wide variety of resources: Whenever a  second
       argument  is  specified  no  current  window is needed. When the source
       specification only contains registers (not the paste buffer) then there
       need not be a current display (terminal attached), as the registers are
       a global resource. The paste buffer exists once for every user.

       pastefont [on|off]

       Tell screen to include  font  information  in  the  paste  buffer.  The
       default  is  not  to do so. This command is especially useful for multi
       character fonts like kanji.


       Reopen the window's terminal line  and  send  a  break  condition.  See


       Power  detach.   Mainly  the  same  as  detach, but also sends a HANGUP
       signal to the parent process of screen.  CAUTION: This will result in a
       logout, when screen was started from your login-shell.

       pow_detach_msg [message]

       The  message  specified  here  is  output whenever a `Power detach' was
       performed. It may be used as a replacement for a logout message  or  to
       reset baud rate, etc.  Without parameter, the current message is shown.


       Switch  to  the window with the next lower number.  This command can be
       used repeatedly to cycle through the list of windows.

       printcmd [cmd]

       If cmd is not an  empty  string,  screen  will  not  use  the  terminal
       capabilities  "po/pf"  if  it detects an ansi print sequence ESC [ 5 i,
       but pipe the output into cmd.  This should normally be a  command  like
       "lpr"  or "'cat > /tmp/scrprint'".  printcmd without a command displays
       the current setting.  The ansi sequence ESC \ ends printing and  closes
       the pipe.
       Warning:  Be careful with this command! If other user have write access
       to your terminal, they will be able to fire off print commands.

       process [key]

       Stuff the contents of the specified register into screen's input queue.
       If  no argument is given you are prompted for a register name. The text
       is parsed as if it had been typed in from  the  user's  keyboard.  This
       command can be used to bind multiple actions to a single key.


       Kill  all  windows  and  terminate  screen.   Note  that on VT100-style
       terminals the keys C-4 and C-\ are identical.  This makes  the  default
       bindings  dangerous:  Be  careful  not  to  type C-a C-4 when selecting
       window no. 4.  Use the empty bind command (as in "bind '^\'") to remove
       a key binding.

       readbuf [-e encoding] [filename]

       Reads  the  contents  of the specified file into the paste buffer.  You
       can tell screen the encoding of the file via the -e option.  If no file
       is   specified,   the  screen-exchange  filename  is  used.   See  also
       "bufferfile" command.

       readreg [-e encoding] [register [filename]]

       Does one of two things, dependent on number of arguments: with zero  or
       one  arguments  it  it  duplicates  the  paste buffer contents into the
       register specified or entered at the  prompt.  With  two  arguments  it
       reads the contents of the named file into the register, just as readbuf
       reads the screen-exchange file into the paste  buffer.   You  can  tell
       screen  the  encoding  of  the  file  via the -e option.  The following
       example will paste the system's password file into  the  screen  window
       (using register p, where a copy remains):

                   C-a : readreg p /etc/passwd
                   C-a : paste p


       Redisplay  the  current  window. Needed to get a full redisplay when in
       partial redraw mode.

       register [-e encoding] key string

       Save the specified string to the register key.   The  encoding  of  the
       string  can  be  specified  via  the  -e  option.  See also the "paste"


       Kill the current region. This is a no-op if there is only one region.


       Unlinks the screen-exchange file used by the  commands  "writebuf"  and

       rendition bell | monitor | silence | so attr [color]

       Change  the  way screen renders the titles of windows that have monitor
       or bell flags set in caption  or  hardstatus  or  windowlist.  See  the
       "STRING  ESCAPES" chapter for the syntax of the modifiers.  The default
       for monitor is currently "=b " (bold, active colors), for bell  "=ub  "
       (underline, bold and active colors), and "=u " for silence.


       Reset  the  virtual  terminal  to  its  "power-on"  values. Useful when
       strange settings (like scroll regions or graphics  character  set)  are
       left over from an application.


       Resize  the  current region. The space will be removed from or added to
       the region below or if there's not enough space from the region above.

              resize +N   increase current region height by N

              resize -N   decrease current region height by N

              resize  N   set current region height to N

              resize  =   make all windows equally high

              resize  max maximize current region height

              resize  min minimize current region height

       screen [-opts] [n] [cmd [args]|//group]

       Establish a new window.  The flow-control options (-f,  -fn  and  -fa),
       title  (a.k.a.) option (-t), login options (-l and -ln) , terminal type
       option (-T <term>), the all-capability-flag (-a) and scrollback  option
       (-h  <num>)  may be specified with each command.  The option (-M) turns
       monitoring on for this window.  The option (-L) turns output logging on
       for  this  window.  If an optional number n in the range 0..MAXWIN-1 is
       given, the window number n is assigned to the newly created window (or,
       if  this  number  is  already in-use, the next available number).  If a
       command is specified after  "screen",  this  command  (with  the  given
       arguments) is started in the window; otherwise, a shell is created.  If
       //group is supplied, a container-type window is created in which  other
       windows may be created inside it.

       Thus, if your ".screenrc" contains the lines

                   # example for .screenrc:
                   screen 1
                   screen -fn -t foobar -L 2 telnet foobar

       screen creates a shell window (in window #1) and a window with a TELNET
       connection to the machine foobar (with no flow-control using the  title
       "foobar"  in window #2) and will write a logfile ("screenlog.2") of the
       telnet session.  Note, that  unlike  previous  versions  of  screen  no
       additional  default  window  is  created  when  "screen"  commands  are
       included  in  your  ".screenrc"  file.  When  the   initialization   is
       completed,  screen  switches  to  the  last  window  specified  in your
       .screenrc file or, if none, opens a default window #0.
       Screen has built in some functionality of "cu" and "telnet".  See  also
       chapter "WINDOW TYPES".

       scrollback num

       Set  the  size  of the scrollback buffer for the current windows to num
       lines.  The  default  scrollback  is   100   lines.    See   also   the
       "defscrollback"  command and use "info" to view the current setting. To
       access and use the contents in the scrollback buffer,  use  the  "copy"

       select [WindowID]

       Switch to the window identified by WindowID.  This can be a prefix of a
       window title (alphanumeric  window  name)  or  a  window  number.   The
       parameter  is  optional  and  if  omitted,  you  get  prompted  for  an
       identifier.  When a new window  is  established,  the  first  available
       number  is  assigned  to  this  window.   Thus, the first window can be
       activated by "select 0".  The number of windows is limited at  compile-
       time  by  the  MAXWIN  configuration  parameter (which defaults to 40).
       There are two special WindowIDs, "-" selects the internal blank  window
       and  "."  selects the current window. The latter is useful if used with
       screen's "-X" option.

       sessionname [name]

       Rename the current session. Note, that  for  "screen  -list"  the  name
       shows  up  with  the  process-id  prepended.  If the argument "name" is
       omitted, the name of this  session  is  displayed.  Caution:  The  $STY
       environment  variables  will still reflect the old name in pre-existing
       shells. This may result in confusion. Use of this command is  generally
       discouraged. Use the "-S" command-line option if you want to name a new
       session.  The default is constructed from the tty and host names.

       setenv [var [string]]

       Set the environment variable var to  value  string.   If  only  var  is
       specified,  the  user  will  be  prompted  to  enter  a  value.   If no
       parameters are specified, the user will be prompted for  both  variable
       and  value.  The  environment  is  inherited by all subsequently forked

       setsid [on|off]

       Normally screen uses different sessions  and  process  groups  for  the
       windows.  If  setsid  is  turned  off, this is not done anymore and all
       windows will be in  the  same  process  group  as  the  screen  backend
       process.  This  also breaks job-control, so be careful.  The default is
       on,  of  course.  This  command  is  probably  useful  only   in   rare

       shell command

       Set  the  command to be used to create a new shell.  This overrides the
       value of the environment variable $SHELL.  This is useful if you'd like
       to  run  a  tty-enhancer  which  is  expecting  to  execute the program
       specified in $SHELL.  If the command begins with a '-'  character,  the
       shell  will be started as a login-shell. Typical shells do only minimal
       initialization when not started as a login-shell.  E.g. Bash  will  not
       read your "~/.bashrc" unless it is a login-shell.

       shelltitle title

       Set  the  title for all shells created during startup or by the C-A C-c
       command.  For details  about  what  a  title  is,  see  the  discussion
       entitled "TITLES (naming windows)".

       silence [on|off|sec]

       Toggles  silence  monitoring of windows.  When silence is turned on and
       an affected window is switched into the background,  you  will  receive
       the  silence  notification message in the status line after a specified
       period of inactivity (silence). The default timeout can be changed with
       the  `silencewait' command or by specifying a number of seconds instead
       of `on' or `off'.  Silence is initially off for all windows.

       silencewait sec

       Define the time that all windows  monitored  for  silence  should  wait
       before displaying a message. Default 30 seconds.

       sleep num

       This  command  will  pause  the  execution  of a .screenrc file for num
       seconds.  Keyboard activity will end the sleep.  It may be used to give
       users a chance to read the messages output by "echo".

       slowpaste msec

       Define  the  speed at which text is inserted into the current window by
       the paste ("C-a ]") command.  If the slowpaste value is nonzero text is
       written  character  by  character.   screen  will  make a pause of msec
       milliseconds after each single character write to allow the application
       to  process  its  input.  Only  use slowpaste if your underlying system
       exposes flow control problems while pasting large amounts of text.


       Sort the windows in alphabetical order of the window tiles.

       source file

       Read and execute commands from file file. Source commands may be nested
       to  a  maximum  recursion level of ten. If file is not an absolute path
       and screen is already processing a source command, the parent directory
       of  the  running  source  command  file  is  used to search for the new
       command file before screen's current directory.

       Note that termcap/terminfo/termcapinfo commands only  work  at  startup
       and  reattach  time,  so  they must be reached via the default screenrc
       files to have an effect.

       sorendition [attr [color]]

       This command is deprecated. See "rendition so" instead.

       split [-v]

       Split the current region into two new ones. All regions on the  display
       are  resized  to  make  room  for  the  new region. The blank window is
       displayed on the new region. Splits are made horizontally unless -v  is
       used.  Use  the  "remove"  or the "only" command to delete regions. Use
       "focus" to toggle between regions.

       startup_message on|off

       Select whether you want to see the  copyright  notice  during  startup.
       Default is `on', as you probably noticed.

       stuff [string]

       Stuff  the  string  string  in  the input buffer of the current window.
       This is like the "paste" command but with much less overhead.   Without
       a  parameter,  screen  will  prompt  for a string to stuff.  You cannot
       paste large buffers with the "stuff" command. It is most useful for key
       bindings. See also "bindkey".

       su [username [password [password2]]]

       Substitute  the  user  of  a  display.  The  command  prompts  for  all
       parameters that are omitted. If passwords are specified as  parameters,
       they  have  to  be  specified un-crypted. The first password is matched
       against the systems passwd database, the  second  password  is  matched
       against  the  screen  password  as  set  with  the commands "acladd" or
       "password".  "Su" may be useful for the screen  administrator  to  test
       multiuser  setups.   When the identification fails, the user has access
       to the  commands  available  for  user  nobody.   These  are  "detach",
       "license", "version", "help" and "displays".


       Suspend  screen.  The windows are in the `detached' state, while screen
       is suspended. This feature relies on the shell being  able  to  do  job

       term term

       In each window's environment screen opens, the $TERM variable is set to
       "screen" by default.  But when no description for "screen" is installed
       in  the  local  termcap or terminfo data base, you set $TERM to - say -
       "vt100". This won't do much harm, as screen is  VT100/ANSI  compatible.
       The  use  of the "term" command is discouraged for non-default purpose.
       That is, one may want to specify special $TERM  settings  (e.g.  vt100)
       for  the  next  "screen  rlogin  othermachine" command. Use the command
       "screen -T vt100 rlogin othermachine" rather than setting and resetting
       the default.

       termcap term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]
       terminfo term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]
       termcapinfo term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]

       Use  this command to modify your terminal's termcap entry without going
       through all the hassles involved in creating a  custom  termcap  entry.
       Plus,  you  can  optionally  customize  the  termcap  generated for the
       windows.  You have to place these  commands  in  one  of  the  screenrc
       startup  files,  as  they are meaningless once the terminal emulator is
       If your system works uses the terminfo database  rather  than  termcap,
       screen  will  understand  the  `terminfo'  command,  which has the same
       effects as the `termcap' command.  Two separate commands are  provided,
       as   there  are  subtle  syntactic  differences,  e.g.  when  parameter
       interpolation (using `%') is required. Note that termcap names  of  the
       capabilities have to be used with the `terminfo' command.
       In  many  cases,  where  the  arguments  are valid in both terminfo and
       termcap syntax, you can use the command `termcapinfo', which is just  a
       shorthand  for  a  pair  of  `termcap'  and  `terminfo'  commands  with
       identical arguments.

       The first argument specifies which terminal(s) should  be  affected  by
       this definition.  You can specify multiple terminal names by separating
       them with `|'s.  Use `*' to match all terminals and `vt*' to match  all
       terminals that begin with "vt".

       Each  tweak argument contains one or more termcap defines (separated by
       `:'s) to be inserted at the start of  the  appropriate  termcap  entry,
       enhancing  it  or overriding existing values.  The first tweak modifies
       your terminal's termcap, and contains definitions  that  your  terminal
       uses to perform certain functions.  Specify a null string to leave this
       unchanged (e.g. '').  The second  (optional)  tweak  modifies  all  the
       window termcaps, and should contain definitions that screen understands
       (see the "VIRTUAL TERMINAL" section).

       Some examples:

              termcap xterm*  LP:hs@

       Informs screen that all terminals that begin  with  `xterm'  have  firm
       auto-margins  that  allow the last position on the screen to be updated
       (LP), but they don't really have a status line (no 'hs' - append `@' to
       turn  entries  off).   Note  that we assume `LP' for all terminal names
       that start with "vt", but only if you don't specify a  termcap  command
       for that terminal.

              termcap vt*  LP
              termcap vt102|vt220  Z0=\E[?3h:Z1=\E[?3l

       Specifies  the  firm-margined  `LP'  capability  for all terminals that
       begin with `vt', and the second line will also add the escape-sequences
       to switch into (Z0) and back out of (Z1) 132-character-per-line mode if
       this is a VT102 or VT220.  (You must specify Z0 and Z1 in your  termcap
       to use the width-changing commands.)

              termcap vt100  ""  l0=PF1:l1=PF2:l2=PF3:l3=PF4

       This  leaves  your vt100 termcap alone and adds the function key labels
       to each window's termcap entry.

              termcap h19|z19  am@:im=\E@:ei=\EO  dc=\E[P

       Takes a h19 or z19 termcap and turns off auto-margins (am@) and enables
       the  insert  mode (im) and end-insert (ei) capabilities (the `@' in the
       `im' string is after the `=', so it is part of the string).  Having the
       `im'  and  `ei' definitions put into your terminal's termcap will cause
       screen to automatically advertise the  character-insert  capability  in
       each  window's termcap.  Each window will also get the delete-character
       capability (dc) added to its termcap, which screen will translate  into
       a  line-update  for  the  terminal (we're pretending it doesn't support
       character deletion).

       If you would like to fully specify each  window's  termcap  entry,  you
       should  instead  set  the  $SCREENCAP variable prior to running screen.
       See the discussion on the "VIRTUAL TERMINAL" in this  manual,  and  the
       termcap(5) man page for more information on termcap definitions.

       time [string]

       Uses  the  message  line to display the time of day, the host name, and
       the load averages over 1, 5, and 15 minutes (if this  is  available  on
       your system).  For window specific information, use "info".

       If a string is specified, it changes the format of the time report like
       it is described in the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. Screen uses a  default
       of "%c:%s %M %d %H%? %l%?".

       title [windowtitle]

       Set  the  name  of  the  current  window  to windowtitle. If no name is
       specified, screen prompts for one. This command was known as  `aka'  in
       previous releases.


       Unbind  all the bindings. This can be useful when screen is used solely
       for its detaching abilities, such as when letting a console application
       run  as a daemon. If, for some reason, it is necessary to bind commands
       after this, use 'screen -X'.

       unsetenv var

       Unset an environment variable.

       utf8 [on|off [on|off]]

       Change the encoding used in the current window. If utf8 is enabled, the
       strings  sent  to  the  window  will  be  UTF-8 encoded and vice versa.
       Omitting the parameter toggles the setting. If a  second  parameter  is
       given,  the  display's  encoding is also changed (this should rather be
       done with screen's "-U" option).  See also "defutf8", which changes the
       default setting of a new window.

       vbell [on|off]

       Sets  the  visual  bell setting for this window. Omitting the parameter
       toggles the setting. If vbell is switched on, but  your  terminal  does
       not support a visual bell, a `vbell-message' is displayed in the status
       line when the bell character (^G) is received.  Visual bell support  of
       a terminal is defined by the termcap variable `vb' (terminfo: 'flash').
       Per  default,  vbell  is  off, thus the audible bell is used.  See also

       vbell_msg [message]

       Sets the visual bell message. message is printed to the status line  if
       the  window  receives  a bell character (^G), vbell is set to "on", but
       the terminal does not support a visual bell.  The  default  message  is
       "Wuff, Wuff!!".  Without a parameter, the current message is shown.

       vbellwait sec

       Define  a  delay  in seconds after each display of screen's visual bell
       message. The default is 1 second.

       verbose [on|off]

       If verbose is switched on, the  command  name  is  echoed,  whenever  a
       window  is  created (or resurrected from zombie state). Default is off.
       Without a parameter, the current setting is shown.


       Print the current version and the compile date in the status line.

       wall message

       Write a message to  all  displays.  The  message  will  appear  in  the
       terminal's status line.

       width [-w|-d] [cols [lines]]

       Toggle  the  window  width between 80 and 132 columns or set it to cols
       columns if an argument is specified.  This requires a capable  terminal
       and  the  termcap entries "Z0" and "Z1".  See the "termcap" command for
       more information. You can also specify a new  height  if  you  want  to
       change  both  values.   The -w option tells screen to leave the display
       size unchanged and just set the window size, -d vice versa.

       windowlist [-b] [-m] [-g]
       windowlist string [string]
       windowlist title [title]

       Display all windows in a table for visual window selection.  If  screen
       was  in  a  window  group,  screen  will back out of the group and then
       display the windows in that group.  If the -b option is  given,  screen
       will switch to the blank window before presenting the list, so that the
       current window is also selectable.  The -m option changes the order  of
       the  windows,  instead  of  sorting  by  window numbers screen uses its
       internal most-recently-used list.  The -g option will show the  windows
       inside any groups in that level and downwards.

       The following keys are used to navigate in "windowlist":
         k, C-p, or up Move up one line.
         j, C-n, or down Move down one line.
         C-g or escape Exit windowlist.
         C-a or home Move to the first line.
         C-e or end Move to the last line.
         C-u or C-d Move one half page up or down.
         C-b or C-f Move one full page up or down.
         0..9 Using the number keys, move to the selected line.
         mouseclick  Move to the selected line. Available when "mousetrack" is
           set to "on"
         / Search.
         n Repeat search in the forward direction.
         N Repeat search in the backward direction.
         m Toggle MRU.
         g Toggle group nesting.
         a All window view.
         C-h or backspace Back out the group.
         , Switch numbers with the previous window.
         . Switch numbers with the next window.
         K Kill that window.
         space or enter Select that window.

       The table format can be changed with the string and title  option,  the
       title  is displayed as table heading, while the lines are made by using
       the string setting. The default setting is "Num  Name%=Flags"  for  the
       title and "%3n %t%=%f" for the lines.  See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter
       for more codes (e.g. color settings).

       "Windowlist" needs a region size of at least 10 characters wide  and  6
       characters high in order to display.

       windows [ string ]

       Uses  the  message  line  to  display  a list of all the windows.  Each
       window is listed by number with the  name  of  process  that  has  been
       started in the window (or its title); the current window is marked with
       a `*'; the previous window is marked with a `-'; all the  windows  that
       are  "logged  in"  are  marked with a `$'; a background window that has
       received a bell is marked with a `!'; a background window that is being
       monitored  and  has  had activity occur is marked with an `@'; a window
       which has output logging  turned  on  is  marked  with  `(L)';  windows
       occupied  by  other  users  are  marked with `&'; windows in the zombie
       state are marked with `Z'.  If this list is too  long  to  fit  on  the
       terminal's  status  line  only the portion around the current window is
       displayed.  The optional string parameter follows the "STRING  ESCAPES"
       format.   If  string parameter is passed, the output size is unlimited.
       The default command without any parameter is limited to a size of  1024

       wrap [on|off]

       Sets  the  line-wrap setting for the current window.  When line-wrap is
       on, the second consecutive  printable  character  output  at  the  last
       column  of  a line will wrap to the start of the following line.  As an
       added feature, backspace (^H) will also wrap through the left margin to
       the  previous line.  Default is `on'. Without any options, the state of
       wrap is toggled.

       writebuf [-e encoding] [filename]

       Writes the contents of the paste buffer to the specified file,  or  the
       public accessible screen-exchange file if no filename is given. This is
       thought of as a primitive means of communication between  screen  users
       on  the  same  host.  If  an  encoding is specified the paste buffer is
       recoded on the fly to match the encoding.  The filename can be set with
       the bufferfile command and defaults to "/tmp/screen-exchange".

       writelock [on|off|auto]

       In addition to access control lists, not all users may be able to write
       to the same window at once. Per default, writelock is  in  `auto'  mode
       and  grants  exclusive input permission to the user who is the first to
       switch to the particular window. When he leaves the window, other users
       may  obtain the writelock (automatically). The writelock of the current
       window is disabled by the command "writelock off". If the  user  issues
       the  command  "writelock  on"  he  keeps the exclusive write permission
       while switching to other windows.


       Insert a CTRL-s / CTRL-q character to the stdin queue  of  the  current

       zmodem [off|auto|catch|pass]
       zmodem sendcmd [string]
       zmodem recvcmd [string]

       Define  zmodem  support  for  screen.  Screen understands two different
       modes when it detects a zmodem request: "pass"  and  "catch".   If  the
       mode is set to "pass", screen will relay all data to the attacher until
       the end of the transmission is reached.  In "catch" mode screen acts as
       a  zmodem  endpoint and starts the corresponding rz/sz commands. If the
       mode is set to "auto", screen will use "catch" if the window is  a  tty
       (e.g. a serial line), otherwise it will use "pass".
       You can define the templates screen uses in "catch" mode via the second
       and the third form.
       Note also that this is an experimental feature.

       zombie [keys[onerror]]
       defzombie [keys]

       Per default screen windows are removed from the window list as soon  as
       the  windows  process  (e.g. shell) exits. When a string of two keys is
       specified to the zombie command, `dead'  windows  will  remain  in  the
       list.   The  kill command may be used to remove such a window. Pressing
       the first key in the dead window has the same effect. When pressing the
       second  key,  screen  will attempt to resurrect the window. The process
       that was initially running  in  the  window  will  be  launched  again.
       Calling  zombie  without parameters will clear the zombie setting, thus
       making windows disappear when their process exits.

       As the zombie-setting is manipulated globally  for  all  windows,  this
       command  should  only  be called defzombie. Until we need this as a per
       window setting, the commands zombie and defzombie are synonymous.

       Optionally you can put the word "onerror" after  the  keys.  This  will
       cause  screen  to  monitor  exit  status  of the process running in the
       window. If it exits normally ('0'), the window  disappears.  Any  other
       exit value causes the window to become a zombie.


       Per  default screen windows are removed from the window list as soon as
       the windows process (e.g. shell) exits.  If  zombie  keys  are  defined
       (compare  with  above  zombie  command),  it  is possible to also set a
       timeout when screen tries to  automatically  reconnect  a  dead  screen


       Screen  displays  informational  messages  and  other  diagnostics in a
       message line.  While this line is distributed to appear at  the  bottom
       of  the  screen,  it  can be defined to appear at the top of the screen
       during compilation.  If your terminal has a status line defined in  its
       termcap,  screen will use this for displaying its messages, otherwise a
       line of the current screen will be temporarily overwritten  and  output
       will  be  momentarily  interrupted.  The  message line is automatically
       removed after a few seconds delay, but it can also be removed early (on
       terminals without a status line) by beginning to type.

       The  message line facility can be used by an application running in the
       current window by means of the ANSI Privacy message  control  sequence.
       For instance, from within the shell, try something like:

              echo '<esc>^Hello world from window '$WINDOW'<esc>\\'

       where  '<esc>'  is an escape, '^' is a literal up-arrow, and '\\' turns
       into a single backslash.


       Screen provides three different window types. New windows  are  created
       with   screen's   screen   command  (see  also  the  entry  in  chapter
       "CUSTOMIZATION"). The first parameter to  the  screen  command  defines
       which  type  of  window  is created. The different window types are all
       special cases of the normal type. They have  been  added  in  order  to
       allow  screen  to be used efficiently as a console multiplexer with 100
       or more windows.

       ·  The normal window contains a shell  (default,  if  no  parameter  is
          given)  or  any  other  system command that could be executed from a
          shell (e.g.  slogin, etc…)

       ·  If a tty (character  special  device)  name  (e.g.  "/dev/ttya")  is
          specified  as  the  first  parameter,  then  the  window is directly
          connected to this device.  This window type is similar to "screen cu
          -l  /dev/ttya".   Read  and  write  access is required on the device
          node, an exclusive open  is  attempted  on  the  node  to  mark  the
          connection   line   as  busy.   An  optional  parameter  is  allowed
          consisting of a comma separated list of flags in the  notation  used
          by stty(1):

                 Usually  300,  1200, 9600 or 19200. This affects transmission
                 as well as receive speed.

          cs8 or cs7
                 Specify the transmission of eight (or seven) bits per byte.

          ixon or -ixon
                 Enables (or disables) software  flow-control  (CTRL-S/CTRL-Q)
                 for sending data.

          ixoff or -ixoff
                 Enables  (or  disables)  software  flow-control for receiving

          istrip or -istrip
                 Clear (or keep) the eight bit in each received byte.

          You may want to specify as many  of  these  options  as  applicable.
          Unspecified  options  cause  the  terminal  driver  to  make  up the
          parameter  values  of  the  connection.   These  values  are  system
          dependent  and  may  be  in defaults or values saved from a previous

          For tty windows, the info command shows some of  the  modem  control
          lines  in  the  status  line. These may include `RTS', `CTS', 'DTR',
          `DSR', `CD' and more.  This depends on the available  ioctl()'s  and
          system  header  files as well as the on the physical capabilities of
          the serial board.  Signals that  are  logical  low  (inactive)  have
          their name preceded by an exclamation mark (!), otherwise the signal
          is logical high (active).  Signals not supported by the hardware but
          available to the ioctl() interface are usually shown low.

          When  the  CLOCAL status bit is true, the whole set of modem signals
          is placed inside curly braces  ({  and  }).   When  the  CRTSCTS  or
          TIOCSOFTCAR  bit  is  set,  the  signals  `CTS' or `CD' are shown in
          parenthesis, respectively.

          For tty windows, the command break causes the Data transmission line
          (TxD)  to go low for a specified period of time. This is expected to
          be interpreted as break signal on the other side.  No data  is  sent
          and no modem control line is changed when a break is issued.

       ·  If  the  first  parameter  is  "//telnet",  the  second parameter is
          expected to be a host name, and  an  optional  third  parameter  may
          specify a TCP port number (default decimal 23).  Screen will connect
          to a server listening on the remote host and use the telnet protocol
          to communicate with that server.
          For  telnet  windows,  the  command  info  shows  details  about the
          connection in square brackets ([ and ]) at the  end  of  the  status

          b      BINARY. The connection is in binary mode.

          e      ECHO. Local echo is disabled.

          c      SGA.  The  connection  is in `character mode' (default: `line

          t      TTYPE. The terminal type has been  requested  by  the  remote
                 host.   Screen  sends  the  name  "screen"  unless instructed
                 otherwise (see also the command `term').

          w      NAWS. The remote site is notified about window size changes.

          f      LFLOW. The remote host will send  flow  control  information.
                 (Ignored at the moment.)

          Additional  flags for debugging are x, t and n (XDISPLOC, TSPEED and

          For telnet windows, the command break  sends  the  telnet  code  IAC
          BREAK (decimal 243) to the remote host.

          This  window  type is only available if screen was compiled with the
          BUILTIN_TELNET option defined.


       Screen provides an escape mechanism  to  insert  information  like  the
       current  time  into messages or file names. The escape character is '%'
       with one exception: inside of a window's hardstatus '^%' ('^E') is used

       Here is the full list of supported escapes:

       %      the escape character itself

       a      either 'am' or 'pm'

       A      either 'AM' or 'PM'

       c      current time HH:MM in 24h format

       C      current time HH:MM in 12h format

       d      day number

       D      weekday name

       E      sets %? to true if the escape character has been pressed.

       f      flags  of  the window, see "windows" for meanings of the various

       F      sets %? to true if the window has the focus

       h      hardstatus of the window

       H      hostname of the system

       l      current load of the system

       m      month number

       M      month name

       n      window number

       P      sets %? to true if the current region is in copy/paste mode

       S      session name

       s      seconds

       t      window title

       u      all other users on this window

       w      all window numbers and names. With  '-'  qualifier:  up  to  the
              current  window;  with  '+'  qualifier: starting with the window
              after the current one.

       W      all window numbers and names except the current one

       x      the executed command including arguments running in this windows

       X      the executed command without arguments running in this windows

       y      last two digits of the year number

       Y      full year number

       ?      the part to the next '%?' is displayed  only  if  a  '%'  escape
              inside the part expands to a non-empty string

       :      else part of '%?'

       =      pad  the  string to the display's width (like TeX's hfill). If a
              number is specified, pad  to  the  percentage  of  the  window's
              width.   A  '0'  qualifier  tells  screen to treat the number as
              absolute position.  You can specify to pad relative to the  last
              absolute  pad  position  by  adding  a  '+'  qualifier or to pad
              relative to the right margin by using '-'. The padding truncates
              the  string  if  the  specified position lies before the current
              position. Add the 'L' qualifier to change this.

       <      same as '%=' but just do truncation, do not fill with spaces

       >      mark the current text position for  the  next  truncation.  When
              screen  needs  to do truncation, it tries to do it in a way that
              the marked position gets moved to the  specified  percentage  of
              the  output  area.  (The  area starts from the last absolute pad
              position and ends with the position specified by the  truncation
              operator.)  The 'L' qualifier tells screen to mark the truncated
              parts with '…'.

       {      attribute/color modifier string terminated by the next "}"

       `      Substitute with the output of a 'backtick' command.  The  length
              qualifier is misused to identify one of the commands.

       The  'c'  and 'C' escape may be qualified with a '0' to make screen use
       zero instead of space as fill character. The '0' qualifier  also  makes
       the  '='  escape  use  absolute  positions.  The  'n'  and  '=' escapes
       understand a length qualifier (e.g. '%3n'), 'D' and 'M' can be prefixed
       with 'L' to generate long names, 'w' and 'W' also show the window flags
       if 'L' is given.

       An attribute/color modifier is is used to change the attributes or  the
       color   settings.   Its   format   is   "[attribute   modifier]  [color
       description]". The attribute modifier must be prefixed by a change type
       indicator if it can be confused with a color description. The following
       change types are known:

       +      add the specified set to the current attributes

       -      remove the set from the current attributes

       !      invert the set in the current attributes

       =      change the current attributes to the specified set

       The attribute set can either be specified as a hexadecimal number or  a
       combination of the following letters:

       d      dim
       u      underline
       b      bold
       r      reverse
       s      standout
       B      blinking

       Colors  are  coded  either  as  a  hexadecimal  number  or  two letters
       specifying the desired background and foreground color (in that order).
       The following colors are known:

       k      black
       r      red
       g      green
       y      yellow
       b      blue
       m      magenta
       c      cyan
       w      white
       d      default color
       .      leave color unchanged

       The  capitalized  versions of the letter specify bright colors. You can
       also use the pseudo-color 'i' to set just the brightness and leave  the
       color unchanged.
       A  one  digit/letter  color  description  is  treated  as foreground or
       background color dependent on the current attributes: if  reverse  mode
       is  set,  the  background  color  is  changed instead of the foreground
       color.  If you don't like this, prefix the color with  a  ".".  If  you
       want  the  same behavior for two-letter color descriptions, also prefix
       them with a ".".
       As a special case, "%{-}" restores the attributes and colors that  were
       set before the last change was made (i.e., pops one level of the color-
       change stack).


       "G"    set color to bright green

       "+b r" use bold red

       "= yd" clear  all  attributes,  write  in  default  color   on   yellow

       %-Lw%{= BW}%50>%n%f* %t%{-}%+Lw%<
              The  available  windows  centered  at  the  current  window  and
              truncated  to  the  available  width.  The  current  window   is
              displayed  white  on  blue.   This  can be used with "hardstatus

       %?%F%{.R.}%?%3n %t%? [%h]%?
              The window number and title and the window's hardstatus, if  one
              is  set.  Also use a red background if this is the active focus.
              Useful for "caption string".


       Each window has a flow-control setting that determines how screen deals
       with the XON and XOFF characters (and perhaps the interrupt character).
       When flow-control is turned  off,  screen  ignores  the  XON  and  XOFF
       characters,  which  allows the user to send them to the current program
       by simply typing them (useful for the emacs editor, for instance).  The
       trade-off  is  that  it  will  take  longer  for output from a "normal"
       program to pause in response to an XOFF.  With flow-control turned  on,
       XON and XOFF characters are used to immediately pause the output of the
       current window.  You can still send these  characters  to  the  current
       program, but you must use the appropriate two-character screen commands
       (typically "C-a q" (xon) and "C-a s" (xoff)).   The  xon/xoff  commands
       are  also useful for typing C-s and C-q past a terminal that intercepts
       these characters.

       Each window has an initial flow-control value set with  either  the  -f
       option  or the "defflow" .screenrc command. Per default the windows are
       set to automatic flow-switching.  It can then be  toggled  between  the
       three states 'fixed on', 'fixed off' and 'automatic' interactively with
       the "flow" command bound to "C-a f".

       The automatic flow-switching mode deals with  flow  control  using  the
       TIOCPKT  mode  (like "rlogin" does). If the tty driver does not support
       TIOCPKT, screen tries to find out the right mode based on  the  current
       setting of the application keypad - when it is enabled, flow-control is
       turned off and visa versa.  Of course, you can still  manipulate  flow-
       control manually when needed.

       If  you're running with flow-control enabled and find that pressing the
       interrupt key (usually  C-c)  does  not  interrupt  the  display  until
       another  6-8  lines  have  scrolled  by,  try  running  screen with the
       "interrupt" option (add the "interrupt" flag to the "flow"  command  in
       your  .screenrc,  or  use the -i command-line option).  This causes the
       output that screen has accumulated from the interrupted program  to  be
       flushed.   One  disadvantage  is  that  the  virtual  terminal's memory
       contains the non-flushed version of the output, which in rare cases can
       cause  minor  inaccuracies  in  the output.  For example, if you switch
       screens and return, or update the screen with "C-a l" you would see the
       version  of  the output you would have gotten without "interrupt" being
       on.  Also, you might need to turn off flow-control  (or  use  auto-flow
       mode  to turn it off automatically) when running a program that expects
       you to type the interrupt character as input,  as  it  is  possible  to
       interrupt  the output of the virtual terminal to your physical terminal
       when flow-control is enabled.  If this happens, a simple refresh of the
       screen  with  "C-a  l"  will restore it.  Give each mode a try, and use
       whichever mode you find more comfortable.

TITLES (naming windows)

       You can customize each window's name in the window display (viewed with
       the  "windows"  command  (C-a  w))  by setting it with one of the title
       commands.  Normally the name displayed is the actual  command  name  of
       the  program created in the window.  However, it is sometimes useful to
       distinguish various programs of the same name or to change the name on-
       the-fly to reflect the current state of the window.

       The default name for all shell windows can be set with the "shelltitle"
       command in the .screenrc file, while all other windows are created with
       a "screen" command and thus can have their name set with the -t option.
       Interactively,    there    is    the    title-string    escape-sequence
       (<esc>kname<esc>\)  and the "title" command (C-a A).  The former can be
       output from an application to control the window's name under  software
       control,  and  the  latter  will prompt for a name when typed.  You can
       also bind pre-defined names to keys with the  "title"  command  to  set
       things quickly without prompting.

       Finally,  screen  has  a  shell-specific  heuristic  that is enabled by
       setting the window's name to "search|name" and arranging to have a null
       title  escape-sequence  output  as  a  part of your prompt.  The search
       portion specifies  an  end-of-prompt  search  string,  while  the  name
       portion  specifies  the default shell name for the window.  If the name
       ends in a `:' screen will add  what  it  believes  to  be  the  current
       command  running  in  the  window to the end of the window's shell name
       (e.g. "name:cmd").  Otherwise the current command name  supersedes  the
       shell name while it is running.

       Here's  how  it  works:   you must modify your shell prompt to output a
       null title-escape-sequence (<esc>k<esc>\) as a  part  of  your  prompt.
       The  last  part  of  your  prompt  must  be  the same as the string you
       specified for the search portion of the title.  Once this  is  set  up,
       screen will use the title-escape-sequence to clear the previous command
       name and get ready for the next  command.   Then,  when  a  newline  is
       received  from  the  shell, a search is made for the end of the prompt.
       If found, it will grab the first word after the matched string and  use
       it  as  the  command name.  If the command name begins with either '!',
       '%', or '^' screen will use the first word on the  following  line  (if
       found)  in preference to the just-found name.  This helps csh users get
       better command names when using job control or history recall commands.

       Here's some .screenrc examples:

              screen -t top 2 nice top

       Adding this line to your .screenrc would start a nice-d version of  the
       "top" command in window 2 named "top" rather than "nice".

                   shelltitle '> |csh'
                   screen 1

       These  commands  would  start  a  shell with the given shelltitle.  The
       title specified is an auto-title that would expect the prompt  and  the
       typed command to look something like the following:

              /usr/joe/src/dir> trn

       (it  looks  after  the  '>  ' for the command name).  The window status
       would show the name "trn" while the command was running, and revert  to
       "csh" upon completion.

              bind R screen -t '% |root:' su

       Having  this command in your .screenrc would bind the key sequence "C-a
       R" to the "su" command and give it an auto-title name of "root:".   For
       this auto-title to work, the screen could look something like this:

                   % !em
                   emacs file.c

       Here  the  user  typed  the  csh  history  command  "!em" which ran the
       previously entered "emacs"  command.   The  window  status  would  show
       "root:emacs"  during the execution of the command, and revert to simply
       "root:" at its completion.

                   bind o title
                   bind E title ""
                   bind u title (unknown)

       The first binding doesn't have any arguments, so it  would  prompt  you
       for  a title. when you type "C-a o".  The second binding would clear an
       auto-title's current setting (C-a E).  The third binding would set  the
       current window's title to "(unknown)" (C-a u).

       One  thing  to keep in mind when adding a null title-escape-sequence to
       your prompt is that some shells (like  the  csh)  count  all  the  non-
       control  characters as part of the prompt's length.  If these invisible
       characters aren't a multiple of 8 then  backspacing  over  a  tab  will
       result in an incorrect display.  One way to get around this is to use a
       prompt like this:

              set prompt='^[[0000m^[k^[\% '

       The escape-sequence "<esc>[0000m" not  only  normalizes  the  character
       attributes,  but  all  the  zeros  round  the  length  of the invisible
       characters up to 8.  Bash users will probably want to echo  the  escape
       sequence in the PROMPT_COMMAND:

              PROMPT_COMMAND='printf "\033k\033\134"'

       (I used "134" to output a `\' because of a bug in bash v1.04).


       Each  window  in  a screen session emulates a VT100 terminal, with some
       extra functions added. The  VT100  emulator  is  hard-coded,  no  other
       terminal types can be emulated.
       Usually  screen  tries to emulate as much of the VT100/ANSI standard as
       possible.  But  if  your  terminal  lacks  certain  capabilities,   the
       emulation  may  not  be complete. In these cases screen has to tell the
       applications that some of the features are missing. This is no  problem
       on machines using termcap, because screen can use the $TERMCAP variable
       to customize the standard screen termcap.

       But if you do a rlogin on another machine or your machine supports only
       terminfo  this  method  fails.  Because of this, screen offers a way to
       deal with these cases.  Here is how it works:

       When screen tries to figure out a terminal name for  itself,  it  first
       looks  for an entry named "screen.<term>", where <term> is the contents
       of your $TERM variable.  If no such entry exists, screen tries "screen"
       (or  "screen-w"  if  the terminal is wide (132 cols or more)).  If even
       this entry cannot be found, "vt100" is used as a substitute.

       The idea is that if you  have  a  terminal  which  doesn't  support  an
       important  feature  (e.g.  delete char or clear to EOS) you can build a
       new termcap/terminfo entry for screen  (named  "screen.<dumbterm>")  in
       which  this capability has been disabled. If this entry is installed on
       your machines you are able to do a rlogin and still  keep  the  correct
       termcap/terminfo entry.  The terminal name is put in the $TERM variable
       of all new windows.  Screen also sets the $TERMCAP variable  reflecting
       the  capabilities  of  the  virtual  terminal  emulated.  Notice  that,
       however, on machines using the terminfo database this variable  has  no
       effect.   Furthermore, the variable $WINDOW is set to the window number
       of each window.

       The actual set  of  capabilities  supported  by  the  virtual  terminal
       depends  on  the  capabilities supported by the physical terminal.  If,
       for instance, the physical terminal does not support  underscore  mode,
       screen  does  not  put the `us' and `ue' capabilities into the window's
       $TERMCAP  variable,  accordingly.   However,  a   minimum   number   of
       capabilities  must  be  supported by a terminal in order to run screen;
       namely scrolling,  clear  screen,  and  direct  cursor  addressing  (in
       addition,  screen  does  not  run on hardcopy terminals or on terminals
       that over-strike).

       Also, you can customize the $TERMCAP value used by screen by using  the
       "termcap"  .screenrc  command,  or  by defining the variable $SCREENCAP
       prior to startup.  When the is latter defined, its value will be copied
       verbatim  into each window's $TERMCAP variable.  This can either be the
       full terminal definition, or a filename  where  the  terminal  "screen"
       (and/or "screen-w") is defined.

       Note  that screen honors the "terminfo" .screenrc command if the system
       uses the terminfo database rather than termcap.

       When the boolean `G0' capability is present in the  termcap  entry  for
       the terminal on which screen has been called, the terminal emulation of
       screen supports multiple character sets.  This allows an application to
       make use of, for instance, the VT100 graphics character set or national
       character sets.  The following control  functions  from  ISO  2022  are
       supported:  lock shift G0 (SI), lock shift G1 (SO), lock shift G2, lock
       shift G3, single shift  G2,  and  single  shift  G3.   When  a  virtual
       terminal  is created or reset, the ASCII character set is designated as
       G0 through G3.  When the `G0' capability is present,  screen  evaluates
       the  capabilities `S0', `E0', and `C0' if present. `S0' is the sequence
       the terminal uses to enable and start the graphics character set rather
       than  SI.   `E0'  is the corresponding replacement for SO. `C0' gives a
       character by character translation string that  is  used  during  semi-
       graphics   mode.   This  string  is  built  like  the  `acsc'  terminfo

       When the `po' and `pf'  capabilities  are  present  in  the  terminal's
       termcap  entry, applications running in a screen window can send output
       to the printer port of the terminal.  This allows a  user  to  have  an
       application  in one window sending output to a printer connected to the
       terminal, while all other windows are still active (the printer port is
       enabled  and  disabled  again  for  each  chunk of output).  As a side-
       effect, programs running in different windows can send  output  to  the
       printer  simultaneously.   Data sent to the printer is not displayed in
       the window.  The info command displays a line starting `PRIN' while the
       printer is active.

       Screen  maintains  a hardstatus line for every window. If a window gets
       selected, the  display's  hardstatus  will  be  updated  to  match  the
       window's  hardstatus  line.  If  the display has no hardstatus the line
       will be displayed as a standard screen message.   The  hardstatus  line
       can  be  changed  with  the  ANSI  Application  Program  Command (APC):
       "ESC_<string>ESC\". As a  convenience  for  xterm  users  the  sequence
       "ESC]0..2;<string>^G" is also accepted.

       Some  capabilities  are  only  put  into  the  $TERMCAP variable of the
       virtual terminal if they can be efficiently implemented by the physical
       terminal.   For  instance,  `dl'  (delete  line)  is  only put into the
       $TERMCAP variable if the terminal supports either delete line itself or
       scrolling  regions.  Note  that  this  may  provoke confusion, when the
       session is reattached on a different terminal, as the value of $TERMCAP
       cannot be modified by parent processes.

       The  "alternate  screen" capability is not enabled by default.  Set the
       altscreen .screenrc command to enable it.

       The following is a list of  control  sequences  recognized  by  screen.
       "(V)"  and  "(A)"  indicate  VT100-specific  and  ANSI- or ISO-specific
       functions, respectively.

       ESC E                      Next Line

       ESC D                      Index

       ESC M                      Reverse Index

       ESC H                      Horizontal Tab Set

       ESC Z                      Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC 7                 (V)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC 8                 (V)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [s                (A)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [u                (A)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC c                      Reset to Initial State

       ESC g                      Visual Bell

       ESC Pn p                   Cursor Visibility (97801)

           Pn = 6                 Invisible

                7                 Visible

       ESC =                 (V)  Application Keypad Mode

       ESC >                 (V)  Numeric Keypad Mode

       ESC # 8               (V)  Fill Screen with E's

       ESC \                 (A)  String Terminator

       ESC ^                 (A)  Privacy Message String (Message Line)

       ESC !                      Global Message String (Message Line)

       ESC k                      A.k.a. Definition String

       ESC P                 (A)  Device Control  String.   Outputs  a  string
                                  directly   to   the  host  terminal  without

       ESC _                 (A)  Application Program Command (Hardstatus)

       ESC ] 0 ; string ^G   (A)  Operating System Command (Hardstatus,  xterm
                                  title hack)

       ESC ] 83 ; cmd ^G     (A)  Execute  screen  command. This only works if
                                  multi-user support is compiled into  screen.
                                  The  pseudo-user ":window:" is used to check
                                  the  access  control   list.   Use   "addacl
                                  :window:  -rwx  #?" to create a user with no
                                  rights and allow only the needed commands.

       Control-N             (A)  Lock Shift G1 (SO)

       Control-O             (A)  Lock Shift G0 (SI)

       ESC n                 (A)  Lock Shift G2

       ESC o                 (A)  Lock Shift G3

       ESC N                 (A)  Single Shift G2

       ESC O                 (A)  Single Shift G3

       ESC ( Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G0

       ESC ) Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G1

       ESC * Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G2

       ESC + Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G3

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn H            Direct Cursor Addressing

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn f            same as above

       ESC [ Pn J                 Erase in Display

             Pn = None or 0       From Cursor to End of Screen

                  1               From Beginning of Screen to Cursor

                  2               Entire Screen

       ESC [ Pn K                 Erase in Line

             Pn = None or 0       From Cursor to End of Line

                  1               From Beginning of Line to Cursor

                  2               Entire Line

       ESC [ Pn X                 Erase character

       ESC [ Pn A                 Cursor Up

       ESC [ Pn B                 Cursor Down

       ESC [ Pn C                 Cursor Right

       ESC [ Pn D                 Cursor Left

       ESC [ Pn E                 Cursor next line

       ESC [ Pn F                 Cursor previous line

       ESC [ Pn G                 Cursor horizontal position

       ESC [ Pn `                 same as above

       ESC [ Pn d                 Cursor vertical position

       ESC [ Ps ;; Ps m          Select Graphic Rendition

             Ps = None or 0       Default Rendition

                  1               Bold

                  2          (A)  Faint

                  3          (A)  Standout Mode (ANSI: Italicized)

                  4               Underlined

                  5               Blinking

                  7               Negative Image

                  22         (A)  Normal Intensity

                  23         (A)  Standout Mode off (ANSI: Italicized off)

                  24         (A)  Not Underlined

                  25         (A)  Not Blinking

                  27         (A)  Positive Image

                  30         (A)  Foreground Black

                  31         (A)  Foreground Red

                  32         (A)  Foreground Green

                  33         (A)  Foreground Yellow

                  34         (A)  Foreground Blue

                  35         (A)  Foreground Magenta

                  36         (A)  Foreground Cyan

                  37         (A)  Foreground White

                  39         (A)  Foreground Default

                  40         (A)  Background Black

                  …               …

                  49         (A)  Background Default

       ESC [ Pn g                 Tab Clear

             Pn = None or 0       Clear Tab at Current Position

                  3               Clear All Tabs

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn r       (V)  Set Scrolling Region

       ESC [ Pn I            (A)  Horizontal Tab

       ESC [ Pn Z            (A)  Backward Tab

       ESC [ Pn L            (A)  Insert Line

       ESC [ Pn M            (A)  Delete Line

       ESC [ Pn @            (A)  Insert Character

       ESC [ Pn P            (A)  Delete Character

       ESC [ Pn S                 Scroll Scrolling Region Up

       ESC [ Pn T                 Scroll Scrolling Region Down

       ESC [ Pn ^                 same as above

       ESC [ Ps ;; Ps h          Set Mode

       ESC [ Ps ;; Ps l          Reset Mode

             Ps = 4          (A)  Insert Mode

                  20         (A)  Automatic Linefeed Mode

                  34              Normal Cursor Visibility

                  ?1         (V)  Application Cursor Keys

                  ?3         (V)  Change Terminal Width to 132 columns

                  ?5         (V)  Reverse Video

                  ?6         (V)  Origin Mode

                  ?7         (V)  Wrap Mode

                  ?9              X10 mouse tracking

                  ?25        (V)  Visible Cursor

                  ?47             Alternate Screen (old xterm code)

                  ?1000      (V)  VT200 mouse tracking

                  ?1047           Alternate Screen (new xterm code)

                  ?1049           Alternate Screen (new xterm code)

       ESC [ 5 i             (A)  Start relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 4 i             (A)  Stop relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 8 ; Ph ; Pw t        Resize the window to  `Ph'  lines  and  `Pw'
                                  columns (SunView special)

       ESC [ c                    Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC [ x                    Send Terminal Parameter Report

       ESC [ > c                  Send   VT220   Secondary  Device  Attributes

       ESC [ 6 n                  Send Cursor Position Report


       In order to do a full VT100 emulation  screen  has  to  detect  that  a
       sequence  of characters in the input stream was generated by a keypress
       on the user's keyboard and insert  the  VT100  style  escape  sequence.
       Screen  has  a very flexible way of doing this by making it possible to
       map arbitrary  commands  on  arbitrary  sequences  of  characters.  For
       standard VT100 emulation the command will always insert a string in the
       input buffer of the window (see  also  command  stuff  in  the  command
       table).  Because the sequences generated by a keypress can change after
       a reattach from a different terminal  type,  it  is  possible  to  bind
       commands  to  the  termcap  name  of  the keys.  Screen will insert the
       correct binding after  each  reattach.  See  the  bindkey  command  for
       further details on the syntax and examples.

       Here  is  the  table  of  the  default key bindings. (A) means that the
       command is executed if the keyboard is switched into application mode.

       Key name          Termcap name    Command
       Cursor up             ku          stuff \033[A
                                         stuff \033OA    (A)
       Cursor down           kd          stuff \033[B
                                         stuff \033OB    (A)
       Cursor right          kr          stuff \033[C
                                         stuff \033OC    (A)
       Cursor left           kl          stuff \033[D
                                         stuff \033OD    (A)
       Function key 0        k0          stuff \033[10~
       Function key 1        k1          stuff \033OP
       Function key 2        k2          stuff \033OQ
       Function key 3        k3          stuff \033OR
       Function key 4        k4          stuff \033OS
       Function key 5        k5          stuff \033[15~
       Function key 6        k6          stuff \033[17~
       Function key 7        k7          stuff \033[18~
       Function key 8        k8          stuff \033[19~
       Function key 9        k9          stuff \033[20~
       Function key 10       k;          stuff \033[21~
       Function key 11       F1          stuff \033[23~
       Function key 12       F2          stuff \033[24~
       Home                  kh          stuff \033[1~
       End                   kH          stuff \033[4~
       Insert                kI          stuff \033[2~
       Delete                kD          stuff \033[3~
       Page up               kP          stuff \033[5~
       Page down             kN          stuff \033[6~
       Keypad 0              f0          stuff 0
                                         stuff \033Op    (A)
       Keypad 1              f1          stuff 1
                                         stuff \033Oq    (A)
       Keypad 2              f2          stuff 2
                                         stuff \033Or    (A)
       Keypad 3              f3          stuff 3
                                         stuff \033Os    (A)
       Keypad 4              f4          stuff 4
                                         stuff \033Ot    (A)
       Keypad 5              f5          stuff 5
                                         stuff \033Ou    (A)
       Keypad 6              f6          stuff 6
                                         stuff \033Ov    (A)
       Keypad 7              f7          stuff 7
                                         stuff \033Ow    (A)
       Keypad 8              f8          stuff 8
                                         stuff \033Ox    (A)
       Keypad 9              f9          stuff 9
                                         stuff \033Oy    (A)
       Keypad +              f+          stuff +
                                         stuff \033Ok    (A)
       Keypad -              f-          stuff -
                                         stuff \033Om    (A)
       Keypad *              f*          stuff *
                                         stuff \033Oj    (A)
       Keypad /              f/          stuff /
                                         stuff \033Oo    (A)
       Keypad =              fq          stuff =
                                         stuff \033OX    (A)
       Keypad .              f.          stuff .
                                         stuff \033On    (A)
       Keypad ,              f,          stuff ,
                                         stuff \033Ol    (A)
       Keypad enter          fe          stuff \015
                                         stuff \033OM    (A)


       The following  table  describes  all  terminal  capabilities  that  are
       recognized  by  screen  and  are not in the termcap(5) manual.  You can
       place these capabilities in your termcap entries (in `/etc/termcap') or
       use  them  with the commands `termcap', `terminfo' and `termcapinfo' in
       your  screenrc  files.  It  is  often  not  possible  to  place   these
       capabilities in the terminfo database.

       LP   (bool)  Terminal  has  VT100 style margins (`magic margins'). Note
                    that this capability is obsolete because screen  uses  the
                    standard 'xn' instead.

       Z0   (str)   Change width to 132 columns.

       Z1   (str)   Change width to 80 columns.

       WS   (str)   Resize  display. This capability has the desired width and
                    height as arguments. SunView(tm) example: '\E[8;%d;%dt'.

       NF   (bool)  Terminal doesn't need flow control. Send ^S and ^Q  direct
                    to  the  application.  Same as 'flow off'. The opposite of
                    this capability is 'nx'.

       G0   (bool)  Terminal can deal with ISO 2022 font selection sequences.

       S0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0' to the specified charset.  Default  is

       E0   (str)   Switch  charset  'G0' back to standard charset. Default is

       C0   (str)   Use the string as a conversion table for font '0'. See the
                    'ac' capability for more details.

       CS   (str)   Switch cursor-keys to application mode.

       CE   (str)   Switch cursor-keys back to normal mode.

       AN   (bool)  Turn  on  autonuke.  See  the  'autonuke' command for more

       OL   (num)   Set the output buffer limit. See the  'obuflimit'  command
                    for more details.

       KJ   (str)   Set  the  encoding  of  the  terminal.  See the 'encoding'
                    command for valid encodings.

       AF   (str)   Change character foreground color in an ANSI conform  way.
                    This  capability  will  almost  always be set to '\E[3%dm'
                    ('\E[3%p1%dm' on terminfo machines).

       AB   (str)   Same as 'AF', but change background color.

       AX   (bool)  Does understand ANSI set default  fg/bg  color  (\E[39m  /

       XC   (str)   Describe  a translation of characters to strings depending
                    on the current font.  More  details  follow  in  the  next

       XT   (bool)  Terminal  understands  special xterm sequences (OSC, mouse

       C8   (bool)  Terminal needs bold to display high-intensity colors (e.g.

       TF   (bool)  Add  missing  capabilities to the termcap/info entry. (Set
                    by default).


       Screen has a powerful mechanism to translate  characters  to  arbitrary
       strings  depending  on  the  current  font and terminal type.  Use this
       feature if you want to work with a common standard character  set  (say
       ISO8851-latin1)  even  on  terminals  that  scatter  the  more  unusual
       characters over several national language font pages.

           <charset-mapping> := <designator><template>{,<mapping>}
           <mapping> := <char-to-be-mapped><template-arg>

       The things in braces may be repeated any number of times.

       A  <charset-mapping>  tells  screen  how  to  map  characters  in  font
       <designator>  ('B':  Ascii,  'A':  UK,  'K': German, etc.)  to strings.
       Every <mapping> describes to what string a  single  character  will  be
       translated. A template mechanism is used, as most of the time the codes
       have a lot in common (for example strings to switch to and from another
       charset).  Each  occurrence  of '%' in <template> gets substituted with
       the <template-arg> specified  together  with  the  character.  If  your
       strings  are  not  similar at all, then use '%' as a template and place
       the full string in <template-arg>. A quoting  mechanism  was  added  to
       make  it  possible  to  use  a  real  '%'. The '\' character quotes the
       special characters '\', '%', and ','.

       Here is an example:

           termcap hp700 'XC=B\E(K%\E(B,\304[,\326\\\\,\334]'

       This tells screen how to translate ISOlatin1 (charset 'B')  upper  case
       umlaut characters on a hp700 terminal that has a German charset. '\304'
       gets translated to '\E(K[\E(B' and so on.  Note  that  this  line  gets
       parsed  *three*  times  before  the  internal  lookup  table  is built,
       therefore a lot of quoting is needed to create a single '\'.

       Another extension was added to  allow  more  emulation:  If  a  mapping
       translates  the  unquoted  '%'  char,  it  will be sent to the terminal
       whenever screen switches to the  corresponding  <designator>.  In  this
       special case the template is assumed to be just '%' because the charset
       switch sequence and the character mappings  normally  haven't  much  in

       This example shows one use of the extension:

           termcap xterm 'XC=K%,%\E(B,[\304,\\\\\326,]\334'

       Here,  a  part of the German ('K') charset is emulated on an xterm.  If
       screen has to change to the 'K' charset, '\E(B' will  be  sent  to  the
       terminal,  i.e. the ASCII charset is used instead. The template is just
       '%', so the mapping is straightforward: '[' to '\304', '\'  to  '\326',
       and ']' to '\334'.


       COLUMNS        Number  of  columns  on  the terminal (overrides termcap
       HOME           Directory in which to look for .screenrc.
       LINES          Number of  lines  on  the  terminal  (overrides  termcap
       LOCKPRG        Screen lock program.
       NETHACKOPTIONS Turns on nethack option.
       PATH           Used for locating programs to run.
       SCREENCAP      For customizing a terminal's TERMCAP value.
       SCREENDIR      Alternate socket directory.
       SCREENRC       Alternate user screenrc file.
       SHELL          Default  shell  program  for  opening  windows  (default
                      "/bin/sh").  See also "shell" .screenrc command.
       STY            Alternate socket name.
       SYSSCREENRC    Alternate system screenrc file.
       TERM           Terminal name.
       TERMCAP        Terminal description.
       WINDOW         Window number of a window (at creation time).


       …/screen-4.?.??/etc/etcscreenrc   Examples in the  screen  distribution
                                         package   for   private   and  global
                                         initialization files.
       /etc/screenrc                     screen initialization commands
       $HOME/.screenrc                   Read in after /etc/screenrc
       /var/run/screen/S-<login>         Socket directories (default)
       /usr/tmp/screens/S-<login>        Alternate socket directories.
       <socket directory>/.termcap       Written  by  the   "termcap"   output
       /usr/tmp/screens/screen-exchange  or
       /tmp/screen-exchange              screen   `interprocess  communication
       hardcopy.[0-9]                    Screen images created by the hardcopy
       screenlog.[0-9]                   Output  log  files created by the log
       /usr/lib/terminfo/?/*             or
       /etc/termcap                      Terminal capability databases
       /var/run/utmp                     Login records
       $LOCKPRG                          Program that locks a terminal.


       termcap(5), utmp(5), vi(1), captoinfo(1), tic(1)


       Originally created by Oliver Laumann. For a long  time  maintained  and
       developed by Juergen Weigert, Michael Schroeder, Micah Cowan and Sadrul
       Habib Chowdhury. This latest version was produced by Amadeusz Sławiński
       <>            and            Alexander           Naumov


       Copyright (c) 2010-2015
            Juergen Weigert (
            Sadrul Habib Chowdhury (
       Copyright (c) 2008, 2009
            Juergen Weigert (
            Michael Schroeder (
            Micah Cowan (
            Sadrul Habib Chowdhury (
       Copyright (C) 1993-2003
            Juergen Weigert (
            Michael Schroeder (
       Copyright (C) 1987 Oliver Laumann
       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under  the  terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the
       Free Software Foundation; either version 3, or  (at  your  option)  any
       later version.
       This  program  is  distributed  in the hope that it will be useful, but
       WITHOUT  ANY  WARRANTY;  without   even   the   implied   warranty   of
       General Public License for more details.
       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with  this  program  (see  the file COPYING); if not, write to the Free
       Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place  -  Suite  330,  Boston,  MA
       02111-1307, USA


       Ken Beal (,
       Rudolf Koenig (,
       Toerless Eckert (,
       Wayne Davison (,
       Patrick Wolfe (, kailand!pat),
       Bart Schaefer (,
       Nathan Glasser (,
       Larry W. Virden (,
       Howard Chu (,
       Tim MacKenzie (,
       Markku Jarvinen (mta@{cc,cs,ee},
       Marc Boucher (marc@CAM.ORG),
       Doug Siebert (,
       Ken Stillson (,
       Ian Frechett (frechett@spot.Colorado.EDU),
       Brian Koehmstedt (,
       Don Smith (,
       Frank van der Linden (,
       Martin Schweikert (,
       David Vrona (,
       E. Tye McQueen (,
       Matthew Green (,
       Christopher Williams (,
       Matt Mosley (,
       Gregory Neil Shapiro (gshapiro@wpi.WPI.EDU),
       Johannes Zellner (,
       Pablo Averbuj (


       This is version 4.3.1. Its roots are a merge of a custom version 2.3PR7
       by Wayne Davison and several enhancements to Oliver  Laumann's  version
       2.0.  Note  that  all  versions  numbered  2.x  are copyright by Oliver


       The latest official release of screen available via anonymous ftp  from  or  any  other GNU distribution site. The home
       site of screen is  If  you  want  to
       help, send a note to


       ·  `dm'  (delete  mode)  and  `xs'  are not handled correctly (they are
          ignored). `xn' is treated as a magic-margin indicator.

       ·  Screen has no clue about double-high or double-wide characters.  But
          this is the only area where vttest is allowed to fail.

       ·  It  is not possible to change the environment variable $TERMCAP when
          reattaching under a different terminal type.

       ·  The support of terminfo based systems is very limited. Adding  extra
          capabilities to $TERMCAP may not have any effects.

       ·  Screen does not make use of hardware tabs.

       ·  Screen  must be installed as set-uid with owner root on most systems
          in order to be able to correctly change the owner of the tty  device
          file  for  each  window.  Special permission may also be required to
          write the file "/var/run/utmp".

       ·  Entries in "/var/run/utmp" are not removed  when  screen  is  killed
          with SIGKILL.  This will cause some programs (like "w" or "rwho") to
          advertise that a user is logged on who really isn't.

       ·  Screen may give a strange warning when your tty has no utmp entry.

       ·  When the modem line was hung up, screen may not automatically detach
          (or  quit)  unless  the device driver is configured to send a HANGUP
          signal.  To detach a screen session use the -D or  -d  command  line

       ·  If  a  password  is  set,  the  command line options -d and -D still
          detach a session without asking.

       ·  Both "breaktype" and  "defbreaktype"  change  the  break  generating
          method  used  by  all  terminal  devices.  The first should change a
          window specific setting, where the latter  should  change  only  the
          default for new windows.

       ·  When  attaching to a multiuser session, the user's .screenrc file is
          not sourced. Each user's personal settings have to  be  included  in
          the  .screenrc  file from which the session is booted, or have to be
          changed manually.

       ·  A weird imagination is most useful to gain full advantage of all the

       ·  Send bug-reports, fixes, enhancements, t-shirts, money, beer & pizza