Provided by: firewalld_0.4.0-1_all bug


       firewalld.richlanguage - Rich Language Documentation


       With the rich language more complex firewall rules can be created in an easy to understand
       way. The language uses keywords with values and is an abstract representation of ip*tables

       The rich language extends the current zone elements (service, port, icmp-block, masquerade
       and forward-port) with additional source and destination addresses, logging, actions and
       limits for logs and actions.

       This page describes the rich language used in the command line client and D-Bus interface.
       For information about the rich language representation used in the zone configuration
       files, please have a look at

       A rule is part of a zone. One zone can contain several rules. If some rules
       interact/contradict, the first rule that matches "wins".

       General rule structure


       The complete rule is provided as a single line string. A destination is allowed here as
       long as it does not conflict with the destination of a service.

       Rule structure for source black or white listing


       This is used to grant or limit access from a source to this machine or machines that are
       reachable by this machine. A destination is not allowed here.

       Important information about element options: Options for elements in a rule need to be
       added exactly after the element. If the option is placed somewhere else it might be used
       for another element as far as it matches the options of the other element or will result
       in a rule error.

           rule [family="ipv4|ipv6"]

       If the rule family is provided, it can be either "ipv4" or "ipv6", which limits the rule
       to IPv4 or IPv6. If the rule family is not provided, the rule will be added for IPv4 and
       IPv6. If source or destination addresses are used in a rule, then the rule family need to
       be provided. This is also the case for port/packet forwarding.

           source [not] address="address[/mask]"|mac="mac-address"|ipset="ipset"

       With the source address the origin of a connection attempt can be limited to the source
       address. An address is either a single IP address, or a network IP address, a MAC address
       or an IPSet. The address has to match the rule family (IPv4/IPv6). Subnet mask is
       expressed in either dot-decimal (/x.x.x.x) or prefix (/x) notations for IPv4, and in
       prefix notation (/x) for IPv6 network addresses. It is possible to invert the sense of an
       address by adding not before address. All but the specified address will match then.

           destination [not] address="address[/mask]"

       With the destination address the target can be limited to the destination address. The
       destination address is using the same syntax as the source address.

       The use of source and destination addresses is optional and the use of a destination
       addresses is not possible with all elements. This depends on the use of destination
       addresses for example in service entries.

           service name="service name"

       The service service name will be added to the rule. The service name is one of the
       firewalld provided services. To get a list of the supported services, use firewall-cmd

       If a service provides a destination address, it will conflict with a destination address
       in the rule and will result in an error. The services using destination addresses
       internally are mostly services using multicast.

           port port="port value" protocol="tcp|udp"

       The port port value can either be a single port number portid or a port range
       portid-portid. The protocol can either be tcp or udp.

           protocol value="protocol value"

       The protocol value can be either a protocol id number or a protocol name. For allowed
       protocol entries, please have a look at /etc/protocols.

           icmp-block name="icmptype name"

       The icmptype is the one of the icmp types firewalld supports. To get a listing of
       supported icmp types: firewall-cmd --get-icmptypes

       It is not allowed to specify an action here. icmp-block uses the action reject internally.


       Turn on masquerading in the rule. A source and also a destination address can be provided
       to limit masquerading to this area.

       It is not allowed to specify an action here.

           forward-port port="port value" protocol="tcp|udp" to-port="port value" to-addr="address"

       Forward port/packets from local port value with protocol "tcp" or "udp" to either another
       port locally or to another machine or to another port on another machine.

       The port value can either be a single port number or a port range portid-portid. The
       to-addr is an IP address.

       It is not allowed to specify an action here. forward-port uses the action accept

           log [prefix="prefix text"] [level="log level"] [limit value="rate/duration"]

       Log new connection attempts to the rule with kernel logging for example in syslog. You can
       define a prefix text that will be added to the log message as a prefix. Log level can be
       one of "emerg", "alert", "crit", "error", "warning", "notice", "info" or "debug", where
       default (i.e. if there's no one specified) is "warning". See syslog(3) for description of
       levels. See Limit section for description of limit tag.

           audit [limit value="rate/duration"]

       Audit provides an alternative way for logging using audit records sent to the service
       auditd. Audit type will be discovered from the rule action automatically. Use of audit is
       optional. See Limit section for description of limit tag.

       An action can be one of accept, reject, drop or mark.

       The rule can either contain an element or also a source only. If the rule contains an
       element, then new connection matching the element will be handled with the action. If the
       rule does not contain an element, then everything from the source address will be handled
       with the action.

           accept [limit value="rate/duration"]

           reject [type="reject type"] [limit value="rate/duration"]

           drop [limit value="rate/duration"]

           mark set="mark[/mask]" [limit value="rate/duration"]

       With accept all new connection attempts will be granted. With reject they will not be
       accepted and their source will get a reject ICMP(v6) message. The reject type can be set
       to specify appropriate ICMP(v6) error message. For valid reject types see --reject-with
       type in iptables-extensions(8) man page. Because reject types are different for IPv4 and
       IPv6 you have to specify rule family when using reject type. With drop all packets will be
       dropped immediately, there is no information sent to the source. With mark all packets
       will be marked in the PREROUTING chain in the mange table with the mark and mask
       combination. See Limit section for description of limit tag.

           limit value="rate/duration"

       It is possible to limit Log, Audit and Action. A rule using this tag will match until this
       limit is reached. The rate is a natural positive number [1, ..] The duration is of "s",
       "m", "h", "d". "s" means seconds, "m" minutes, "h" hours and "d" days. Maximum limit value
       is "2/d", which means at maximum two matches per day.

   Information about logging and actions
       Logging can be done with the log and also with audit. A new chain is added to all zones:
       zone_log. This will be jumped into before the deny chain to be able to have a proper

       The rules or parts of them are placed in separate chains according to the action of the


       Then all logging rules will be placed in the zone_log chain, which will be walked first.
       All reject and drop rules will be placed in the zone_deny chain, which will be walked
       after the log chain. All accept rules will be placed in the zone_allow chain, which will
       be walked after the deny chain. If a rule contains log and also deny or allow actions, the
       parts are placed in the matching chains.


       These are examples of how to specify rich language rules. This format (i.e. one string
       that specifies whole rule) uses for example firewall-cmd --add-rich-rule (see firewall-
       cmd(1)) as well as D-Bus interface.

   Example 1
       Enable new IPv4 and IPv6 connections for protocol 'ah'

           rule protocol value="ah" accept

   Example 2
       Allow new IPv4 and IPv6 connections for service ftp and log 1 per minute using audit

           rule service name="ftp" log limit value="1/m" audit accept

   Example 3
       Allow new IPv4 connections from address for service tftp and log 1 per
       minutes using syslog

           rule family="ipv4" source address="" service name="tftp" log prefix="tftp" level="info" limit value="1/m" accept

   Example 4
       New IPv6 connections from 1:2:3:4:6:: to service radius are all rejected and logged at a
       rate of 3 per minute. New IPv6 connections from other sources are accepted.

           rule family="ipv6" source address="1:2:3:4:6::" service name="radius" log prefix="dns" level="info" limit value="3/m" reject
           rule family="ipv6" service name="radius" accept

   Example 5
       Forward IPv6 port/packets receiving from 1:2:3:4:6:: on port 4011 with protocol tcp to
       1::2:3:4:7 on port 4012

           rule family="ipv6" source address="1:2:3:4:6::" forward-port to-addr="1::2:3:4:7" to-port="4012" protocol="tcp" port="4011"

   Example 6
       White-list source address to allow all connections from

           rule family="ipv4" source address="" accept

   Example 7
       Black-list source address to reject all connections from

           rule family="ipv4" source address="" reject type="icmp-admin-prohibited"

   Example 8
       Black-list source address to drop all connections from

           rule family="ipv4" source address="" drop


       firewall-applet(1), firewalld(1), firewall-cmd(1), firewall-config(1), firewalld.conf(5),, firewalld.icmptype(5), firewalld.lockdown-whitelist(5), firewall-
       offline-cmd(1), firewalld.richlanguage(5), firewalld.service(5),,


       firewalld home page:

       More documentation with examples:


       Thomas Woerner <>

       Jiri Popelka <>