Provided by: ganeti-2.15_2.15.2-3_all bug

Name

       gnt-instance - Ganeti instance administration

Synopsis

       gnt-instance {command} [arguments...]

DESCRIPTION

       The gnt-instance command is used for instance administration in the Ganeti system.

COMMANDS

   Creation/removal/querying
   ADD
       add
       {-t|--disk-template {diskless | file | plain | drbd | rbd}}
       {--disk=*N*: {size=*VAL*[,spindles=*VAL*] | adopt=*LV*}[,options...]
        | {size=*VAL*,provider=*PROVIDER*}[,param=*value*...  ][,options...]
        | {-s|--os-size} SIZE}
       [--no-ip-check] [--no-name-check] [--no-conflicts-check]
       [--no-start] [--no-install] [{--forthcoming | --commit}]
       [--net=*N* [:options...] | --no-nics]
       [{-B|--backend-parameters} BEPARAMS]
       [{-H|--hypervisor-parameters} HYPERVISOR [: option=*value*...  ]]
       [{-O|--os-parameters} param=*value*...  ]
       [--os-parameters-private param=*value*...  ]
       [--os-parameters-secret param=*value*...  ]
       [--file-storage-dir dir_path] [--file-driver {loop | blktap | blktap2}]
       {{-n|--node} node[:secondary-node] | {-I|--iallocator} name | {-g|--node-group} nodegroup}
       {{-o|--os-type} os-type}
       [--submit] [--print-jobid]
       [--ignore-ipolicy]
       [--no-wait-for-sync]
       [{-c|--communication=yes|no}]
       {instance}

       Creates  a  new instance on the specified host.  The instance argument must be in DNS, but
       depending on the bridge/routing setup, need not be in the same network as the nodes in the
       cluster.

       The  disk option specifies the parameters for the disks of the instance.  The numbering of
       disks starts at zero, and at least one disk needs to be passed.  For each disk, either the
       size  or  the adoption source needs to be given.  The size is interpreted (when no unit is
       given) in mebibytes.  You can also use one of the suffixes m, g or t to specify the  exact
       the  units  used; these suffixes map to mebibytes, gibibytes and tebibytes.  Each disk can
       also take these parameters (all optional):

       spindles
              How many spindles (physical disks on the node) the disk should span.

       mode   The access mode.  Either ro (read-only) or the default rw (read-write).

       name   This option specifies a name for the disk, which can be used as a disk  identifier.
              An instance can not have two disks with the same name.

       vg     The LVM volume group.  This works only for LVM and DRBD devices.

       metavg This  option specifies a different VG for the metadata device.  This works only for
              DRBD devices.  If not specified, the default metavg  of  the  node-group  (possibly
              inherited from the cluster-wide settings) will be used.

       access If  'userspace',  instance  will  access this disk directly without going through a
              block device, avoiding expensive context switches with kernel space.   This  option
              works  only for RBD, Gluster and ExtStorage devices.  If not specified, the default
              access of the node-group (possibly inherited from the cluster-wide  settings)  will
              be used.

       When creating ExtStorage disks, also arbitrary parameters can be passed, to the ExtStorage
       provider.  Those parameters are passed as additional comma separated options.   Therefore,
       an  ExtStorage  disk  provided  by  provider pvdr1 with parameters param1, param2 would be
       passed as --disk 0:size=10G,provider=pvdr1,param1=val1,param2=val2.

       When using the adopt key in the disk definition, Ganeti will reuse those volumes  (instead
       of  creating  new  ones) as the instance's disks.  Ganeti will rename these volumes to the
       standard format, and (without installing the OS) will use them  as-is  for  the  instance.
       This  allows migrating instances from non-managed mode (e.g.  plain KVM with LVM) to being
       managed via Ganeti.  Please note that this works only for the `plain' disk  template  (see
       below for template details).

       Alternatively,  a  single-disk  instance  can  be  created via the -s option which takes a
       single argument, the size of the disk.  This is similar to the  Ganeti  1.2  version  (but
       will only create one disk).

       The minimum disk specification is therefore --disk 0:size=20G (or -s 20G when using the -s
       option),     and     a     three-disk     instance      can      be      specified      as
       --disk 0:size=20G --disk 1:size=4G --disk 2:size=100G.

       The  minimum  information  needed  to  specify  an  ExtStorage  disk  are the size and the
       provider.  For example: --disk 0:size=20G,provider=pvdr1.

       The --no-ip-check skips the checks that are done to  see  if  the  instance's  IP  is  not
       already alive (i.e.  reachable from the master node).

       The  --no-name-check  skips the check for the instance name via the resolver (e.g.  in DNS
       or /etc/hosts, depending on your setup).  Since the name check is used to compute  the  IP
       address, if you pass this option you must also pass the --no-ip-check option.

       If you don't want the instance to automatically start after creation, this is possible via
       the --no-start option.  This will leave the instance down until a subsequent  gnt-instance
       start command.

       The  NICs  of the instances can be specified via the --net option.  By default, one NIC is
       created for the instance, with a random MAC, and set up according to the cluster level NIC
       parameters.  Each NIC can take these parameters (all optional):

       mac    either a value or 'generate' to generate a new unique MAC

       ip     specifies the IP address assigned to the instance from the Ganeti side (this is not
              necessarily what the instance will use, but what the node expects the  instance  to
              use).   Note that if an IP in the range of a network configured with gnt-network(8)
              is used, and the NIC is not already connected to it, this network has to be  passed
              in  the network parameter if this NIC is meant to be connected to the said network.
              --no-conflicts-check can be used to override this check.  The  special  value  pool
              causes  Ganeti to select an IP from the network the NIC is or will be connected to.
              One can pick an externally reserved IP of a network along with --no-conflict-check.
              Note that this IP cannot be assigned to any other instance until it gets released.

       mode   specifies the connection mode for this NIC: routed, bridged or openvswitch.

       link   in  bridged  or  openvswitch mode specifies the interface to attach this NIC to, in
              routed  mode   it's   intended   to   differentiate   between   different   routing
              tables/instance  groups  (but  the  meaning is dependent on the network script, see
              gnt-cluster(8) for more details).  Note that openvswitch support is also hypervisor
              dependent.

       network
              derives  the mode and the link from the settings of the network which is identified
              by its name.  If the network option is chosen, link and mode must not be specified.
              Note  that  the  mode  and link depend on the network-to-nodegroup connection, thus
              allowing different nodegroups to be connected to  the  same  network  in  different
              ways.

       name   this  option  specifies  a name for the NIC, which can be used as a NIC identifier.
              An instance can not have two NICs with the same name.

       vlan   in openvswitch mode specifies the VLANs that the NIC  will  be  connected  to.   To
              connect  as  an access port use n or .n with n being the VLAN ID.  To connect as an
              trunk port use :n[:n].  A hybrid port can be created with .n:n[:n]

       Of these "mode" and "link" are NIC parameters, and inherit their default at cluster level.
       Alternatively,  if  no network is desired for the instance, you can prevent the default of
       one NIC with the --no-nics option.

       The -o (--os-type) option specifies the operating system to be installed.   The  available
       operating  systems can be listed with gnt-os list.  Passing --no-install will however skip
       the  OS  installation,  allowing  a  manual  import  if  so  desired.    Note   that   the
       no-installation  mode  will automatically disable the start-up of the instance (without an
       OS, it most likely won't be able to start-up successfully).

       Passing the --forthcoming option, Ganeti will not at all try to create the instance or its
       disks.   Instead  the  instance  will  only  be  added  to  the configuration, so that the
       resources are reserved.  If the --commit option is passed, then it is a prerequisite  that
       an  instance  with  that name has already been added to the configuration as a forthcoming
       instance and the request is to replace this instance by the newly created real one.   Note
       that  if  the  reason  for  reserving  an  instance  is  that  DNS  names still need to be
       propagated, the reservation has to be done with --no-name-check and --no-ip-check as these
       options are not implied by --forthcoming.

       The  -B (--backend-parameters)  option  specifies the backend parameters for the instance.
       If no such parameters are specified, the values are inherited from the cluster.   Possible
       parameters are:

       maxmem the  maximum  memory size of the instance; as usual, suffixes can be used to denote
              the unit, otherwise the value is taken in mebibytes

       minmem the minimum memory size of the instance; as usual, suffixes can be used  to  denote
              the unit, otherwise the value is taken in mebibytes

       vcpus  the  number  of  VCPUs to assign to the instance (if this value makes sense for the
              hypervisor)

       auto_balance
              whether the instance is considered in the N+1 cluster checks (enough redundancy  in
              the cluster to survive a node failure)

       always_failover
              True  or  False,  whether the instance must be failed over (shut down and rebooted)
              always or it may be migrated (briefly suspended)

       Note that before 2.6 Ganeti had a memory parameter, which was the only value of memory  an
       instance  could  have.   With the maxmem/minmem change Ganeti guarantees that at least the
       minimum memory is always available for an instance, but allows more memory to be used  (up
       to the maximum memory) should it be free.

       The  -H (--hypervisor-parameters)  option specified the hypervisor to use for the instance
       (must be one of the enabled hypervisors on the cluster) and optionally  custom  parameters
       for  this  instance.  If not other options are used (i.e.  the invocation is just -H NAME)
       the instance will inherit the cluster  options.   The  defaults  below  show  the  cluster
       defaults at cluster creation time.

       The possible hypervisor options are as follows:

       boot_order
              Valid for the Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.

              A string value denoting the boot order.  This has different meaning for the Xen HVM
              hypervisor and for the KVM one.

              For Xen HVM, The boot order is a string of letters listing the boot  devices,  with
              valid device letters being:

              a      floppy drive

              c      hard disk

              d      CDROM drive

              n      network boot (PXE)

              The default is not to set an HVM boot order, which is interpreted as 'dc'.

              For  KVM  the  boot order is either "floppy", "cdrom", "disk" or "network".  Please
              note that older versions of KVM couldn't netboot from virtio interfaces.  This  has
              been  fixed in more recent versions and is confirmed to work at least with qemu-kvm
              0.11.1.  Also note that if you have set the kernel_path option, that will  be  used
              for booting, and this setting will be silently ignored.

       blockdev_prefix
              Valid for the Xen HVM and PVM hypervisors.

              Relevant  to  non-pvops  guest kernels, in which the disk device names are given by
              the host.  Allows one to specify 'xvd', which helps run Red Hat  based  installers,
              driven by anaconda.

       floppy_image_path
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              The  path  to  a  floppy  disk  image to attach to the instance.  This is useful to
              install Windows operating systems on Virt/IO disks because you can specify here the
              floppy for the drivers at installation time.

       cdrom_image_path
              Valid for the Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.

              The path to a CDROM image to attach to the instance.

       cdrom2_image_path
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              The path to a second CDROM image to attach to the instance.  NOTE: This image can't
              be used to boot the system.  To do that you  have  to  use  the  'cdrom_image_path'
              option.

       nic_type
              Valid for the Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.

              This  parameter determines the way the network cards are presented to the instance.
              The possible options are:

              · rtl8139 (default for Xen HVM) (HVM & KVM)

              · ne2k_isa (HVM & KVM)

              · ne2k_pci (HVM & KVM)

              · i82551 (KVM)

              · i82557b (KVM)

              · i82559er (KVM)

              · pcnet (KVM)

              · e1000 (KVM)

              · paravirtual (default for KVM) (HVM & KVM)

       vif_type
              Valid for the Xen HVM hypervisor.

              This parameter specifies the vif type of the nic  configuration  of  the  instance.
              Unsetting  the  value  leads to no type being specified in the configuration.  Note
              that this parameter only takes effect when the 'nic_type' is not set.  The possible
              options are:

              · ioemu

              · vif

       disk_type
              Valid for the Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.

              This  parameter  determines  the  way the disks are presented to the instance.  The
              possible options are:

              · ioemu [default] (HVM & KVM)

              · paravirtual (HVM & KVM)

              · ide (KVM)

              · scsi (KVM)

              · sd (KVM)

              · mtd (KVM)

              · pflash (KVM)

       cdrom_disk_type
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              This parameter determines the way the cdroms disks are presented to  the  instance.
              The default behavior is to get the same value of the earlier parameter (disk_type).
              The possible options are:

              · paravirtual

              · ide

              · scsi

              · sd

              · mtd

              · pflash

       vnc_bind_address
              Valid for the Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.

              Specifies the address that the VNC listener  for  this  instance  should  bind  to.
              Valid  values are IPv4 addresses.  Use the address 0.0.0.0 to bind to all available
              interfaces (this is the default) or specify the address of one of the interfaces on
              the node to restrict listening to that interface.

       vnc_password_file
              Valid for the Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.

              Specifies  the  location  of the file containing the password for connections using
              VNC.  The default is a file named vnc-cluster-password which can be  found  in  the
              configuration directory.

       vnc_tls
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              A boolean option that controls whether the VNC connection is secured with TLS.

       vnc_x509_path
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              If  vnc_tls  is enabled, this options specifies the path to the x509 certificate to
              use.

       vnc_x509_verify
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

       spice_bind
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Specifies the address or interface on which the SPICE server  will  listen.   Valid
              values are:

              · IPv4 addresses, including 0.0.0.0 and 127.0.0.1

              · IPv6 addresses, including :: and ::1

              · names of network interfaces

              If  a  network interface is specified, the SPICE server will be bound to one of the
              addresses of that interface.

       spice_ip_version
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Specifies which version of the IP protocol should be used by the SPICE server.

              It is mainly intended to be used for specifying what kind of IP addresses should be
              used  if a network interface with both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses is specified via the
              spice_bind parameter.  In this case, if the spice_ip_version parameter is not used,
              the default IP version of the cluster will be used.

       spice_password_file
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Specifies  a file containing the password that must be used when connecting via the
              SPICE protocol.  If the option  is  not  specified,  passwordless  connections  are
              allowed.

       spice_image_compression
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Configures the SPICE lossless image compression.  Valid values are:

              · auto_glz

              · auto_lz

              · quic

              · glz

              · lz

              · off

       spice_jpeg_wan_compression
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Configures  how  SPICE should use the jpeg algorithm for lossy image compression on
              slow links.  Valid values are:

              · auto

              · never

              · always

       spice_zlib_glz_wan_compression
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Configures how SPICE should use the zlib-glz algorithm for lossy image  compression
              on slow links.  Valid values are:

              · auto

              · never

              · always

       spice_streaming_video
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Configures how SPICE should detect video streams.  Valid values are:

              · off

              · all

              · filter

       spice_playback_compression
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Configures whether SPICE should compress audio streams or not.

       spice_use_tls
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Specifies  that  the  SPICE server must use TLS to encrypt all the traffic with the
              client.

       spice_tls_ciphers
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Specifies a  list  of  comma-separated  ciphers  that  SPICE  should  use  for  TLS
              connections.  For the format, see man cipher(1).

       spice_use_vdagent
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Enables or disables passing mouse events via SPICE vdagent.

       cpu_type
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              This  parameter determines the emulated cpu for the instance.  If this parameter is
              empty (which is the default configuration), it will not be passed to KVM.

              Be aware of setting this parameter to "host" if you have nodes with different  CPUs
              from each other.  Live migration may stop working in this situation.

              For more information please refer to the KVM manual.

       acpi   Valid for the Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.

              A  boolean  option  that specifies if the hypervisor should enable ACPI support for
              this instance.  By default, ACPI is disabled.

              ACPI should be enabled for user shutdown detection.  See user_shutdown.

       pae    Valid for the Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.

              A boolean option that specifies if the hypervisor should  enable  PAE  support  for
              this instance.  The default is false, disabling PAE support.

       viridian
              Valid for the Xen HVM hypervisor.

              A  boolean option that specifies if the hypervisor should enable viridian (Hyper-V)
              for this instance.  The default is false, disabling viridian support.

       use_localtime
              Valid for the Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.

              A boolean option that specifies if the instance should be started  with  its  clock
              set  to  the  localtime of the machine (when true) or to the UTC (When false).  The
              default is false, which is useful for Linux/Unix machines; for Windows OSes, it  is
              recommended to enable this parameter.

       kernel_path
              Valid for the Xen PVM and KVM hypervisors.

              This  option  specifies  the  path (on the node) to the kernel to boot the instance
              with.  Xen PVM instances always require this, while  for  KVM  if  this  option  is
              empty,  it  will  cause the machine to load the kernel from its disks (and the boot
              will be done accordingly to boot_order).

       kernel_args
              Valid for the Xen PVM and KVM hypervisors.

              This options specifies extra arguments to the kernel that will be loaded.  This  is
              always used for Xen PVM, while for KVM it is only used if the kernel_path option is
              also specified.

              The default setting for this value is simply  "ro",  which  mounts  the  root  disk
              (initially)  in  read-only one.  For example, setting this to single will cause the
              instance to start in single-user mode.

              Note     that     the      hypervisor      setting      serial_console      appends
              "console=ttyS0,<serial_speed>" to the end of kernel_args in KVM.

       initrd_path
              Valid for the Xen PVM and KVM hypervisors.

              This  option  specifies  the  path (on the node) to the initrd to boot the instance
              with.  Xen PVM instances can use this always, while for KVM if this option is  only
              used  if  the  kernel_path  option  is also specified.  You can pass here either an
              absolute filename (the path to the initrd) if you want to use an initrd, or use the
              format no_initrd_path for no initrd.

       root_path
              Valid for the Xen PVM and KVM hypervisors.

              This  options specifies the name of the root device.  This is always needed for Xen
              PVM, while for KVM it is only used if the kernel_path option is also specified.

              Please note, that if this setting is an empty string and the hypervisor is  Xen  it
              will not be written to the Xen configuration file

       serial_console
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              This boolean option specifies whether to emulate a serial console for the instance.
              Note that some versions of KVM have a bug that will  make  an  instance  hang  when
              configured to use the serial console unless a connection is made to it within about
              2 seconds of the instance's startup.  For such case  it's  recommended  to  disable
              this option, which is enabled by default.

              Enabling  serial  console  emulation also appends "console=ttyS0,<serial_speed>" to
              the end of kernel_args in KVM and may infere with previous settings.

       serial_speed
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              This integer option specifies the speed of the serial console.  Common  values  are
              9600,  19200,  38400,  57600 and 115200: choose the one which works on your system.
              (The default is 38400 for historical reasons, but newer versions of  kvm/qemu  work
              with 115200)

       disk_cache
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              The disk cache mode.  It can be either default to not pass any cache option to KVM,
              or one of the KVM cache modes: none (for direct I/O), writethrough (to use the host
              cache  but  report  completion  to  the  guest only when the host has committed the
              changes to disk) or writeback (to use the host cache and report completion as  soon
              as  the data is in the host cache).  Note that there are special considerations for
              the cache mode depending on version of KVM used and  disk  type  (always  raw  file
              under Ganeti), please refer to the KVM documentation for more details.

       disk_aio
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              This  is  an  optional  parameter  that  specifies the aio mode for the disks.  KVM
              default is to use the 'threads' mode, so if not explicitly  specified,  the  native
              mode will not be used.  Possible values are: threads or native.

       security_model
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              The  security model for kvm.  Currently one of none, user or pool.  Under none, the
              default, nothing is done and instances are run as the Ganeti daemon user  (normally
              root).

              Under  user  kvm  will  drop  privileges  and  become  the  user  specified  by the
              security_domain parameter.

              Under pool a global cluster pool  of  users  will  be  used,  making  sure  no  two
              instances share the same user on the same node.  (this mode is not implemented yet)

       security_domain
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Under  security  model  user  the username to run the instance under.  It must be a
              valid username existing on the host.

              Cannot be set under security model none or pool.

       kvm_flag
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              If enabled the -enable-kvm flag is passed to  kvm.   If  disabled  -disable-kvm  is
              passed.   If  unset  no  flag  is passed, and the default running mode for your kvm
              binary will be used.

       mem_path
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              This option passes the -mem-path argument to kvm with the path (on the node) to the
              mount  point  of  the  hugetlbfs file system, along with the -mem-prealloc argument
              too.

       use_chroot
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              This boolean option determines  whether  to  run  the  KVM  instance  in  a  chroot
              directory.

              If  it  is  set to true, an empty directory is created before starting the instance
              and its path is passed via the -chroot flag to kvm.  The directory is removed  when
              the instance is stopped.

              It is set to false by default.

       user_shutdown
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              This  boolean  option  determines  whether  the  KVM instance suports user shutdown
              detection.  This option does not necessarily require ACPI enabled, but ACPI must be
              enabled for users to poweroff their KVM instances.

              If  it  is  set  to true, the user can shutdown this KVM instance and its status is
              reported as USER_down.

              It is set to false by default.

       migration_downtime
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              The maximum amount of time (in ms) a KVM instance is allowed to be frozen during  a
              live  migration,  in  order to copy dirty memory pages.  Default value is 30ms, but
              you may need to increase this value for busy instances.

              This option is only effective with kvm versions >=  87  and  qemu-kvm  versions  >=
              0.11.0.

       cpu_mask
              Valid for the Xen, KVM and LXC hypervisors.

              The  processes  belonging to the given instance are only scheduled on the specified
              CPUs.

              The format of the mask can be given in three forms.  First, the word  "all",  which
              signifies  the  common  case  where  all  VCPUs  can  live on any CPU, based on the
              hypervisor's decisions.

              Second, a comma-separated list of CPU IDs or CPU ID ranges.  The ranges are defined
              by  a  lower  and  higher  boundary,  separated  by  a dash, and the boundaries are
              inclusive.  In this form, all VCPUs of the instance will be mapped on the  selected
              list of CPUs.  Example: 0-2,5, mapping all VCPUs (no matter how many) onto physical
              CPUs 0, 1, 2 and 5.

              The last form is used for explicit control of VCPU-CPU pinnings.  In this form, the
              list  of  VCPU  mappings is given as a colon (:) separated list, whose elements are
              the possible values for the second or first form above.  In this form,  the  number
              of  elements  in  the  colon-separated list _must_ equal the number of VCPUs of the
              instance.

              Example:

                     # Map the entire instance to CPUs 0-2
                     gnt-instance modify -H cpu_mask=0-2 my-inst

                     # Map vCPU 0 to physical CPU 1 and vCPU 1 to CPU 3 (assuming 2 vCPUs)
                     gnt-instance modify -H cpu_mask=1:3 my-inst

                     # Pin vCPU 0 to CPUs 1 or 2, and vCPU 1 to any CPU
                     gnt-instance modify -H cpu_mask=1-2:all my-inst

                     # Pin vCPU 0 to any CPU, vCPU 1 to CPUs 1, 3, 4 or 5, and CPU 2 to
                     # CPU 0 (backslashes for escaping the comma)
                     gnt-instance modify -H cpu_mask=all:1\\,3-5:0 my-inst

                     # Pin entire VM to CPU 0
                     gnt-instance modify -H cpu_mask=0 my-inst

                     # Turn off CPU pinning (default setting)
                     gnt-instance modify -H cpu_mask=all my-inst

       cpu_cap
              Valid for the Xen hypervisor.

              Set the maximum amount of cpu usage by the VM.  The value is a percentage between 0
              and (100 * number of VCPUs).  Default cap is 0: unlimited.

       cpu_weight
              Valid for the Xen hypervisor.

              Set  the  cpu time ratio to be allocated to the VM.  Valid values are between 1 and
              65535.  Default weight is 256.

       usb_mouse
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              This option specifies the usb mouse  type  to  be  used.   It  can  be  "mouse"  or
              "tablet".  When using VNC it's recommended to set it to "tablet".

       keymap Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              This  option  specifies  the  keyboard  mapping to be used.  It is only needed when
              using the VNC console.  For example: "fr" or "en-gb".

       reboot_behavior
              Valid for Xen PVM, Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.

              Normally if an instance reboots, the hypervisor will restart it.  If this option is
              set to exit, the hypervisor will treat a reboot as a shutdown instead.

              It is set to reboot by default.

       cpu_cores
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Number of emulated CPU cores.

       cpu_threads
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Number of emulated CPU threads.

       cpu_sockets
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Number of emulated CPU sockets.

       soundhw
              Valid for Xen PVM, Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.

              Comma separated list of emulated sounds cards, or "all" to enable all the available
              ones.  See the qemu(1) manpage for valid options and additional details.

       cpuid  Valid for the XEN hypervisor.

              Modify  the   values   returned   by   CPUID   (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CPUID)
              instructions run within instances.

              This  allows  you  to  enable migration between nodes with different CPU attributes
              like cores, threads, hyperthreading or SS4 support by  hiding  the  extra  features
              where needed.

              See the XEN documentation for syntax and more information.

       usb_devices
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Space  separated list of usb devices.  These can be emulated devices or passthrough
              ones, and each one gets passed to kvm with its  own  -usbdevice  option.   See  the
              qemu(1)  manpage  for  the syntax of the possible components.  Note that values set
              with this parameter are split on a space  character  and  currently  don't  support
              quoting.   For  backwards compatibility reasons, the RAPI interface keeps accepting
              comma separated lists too.

       vga    Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Emulated vga mode, passed the the kvm -vga option.

       kvm_extra
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Any other option to the  KVM  hypervisor,  useful  tweaking  anything  that  Ganeti
              doesn't  support.   Note  that  values set with this parameter are split on a space
              character and currently don't support quoting.

       machine_version
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Use in case an instance must be booted with an exact type of machine  version  (due
              to  e.g.  outdated drivers).  In case it's not set the default version supported by
              your version of kvm is used.

       migration_caps
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Enable specific migration  capabilities  by  providing  a  ":"  separated  list  of
              supported  capabilites.   QEMU version 1.7.0 defines x-rdma-pin-all, auto-converge,
              zero-blocks, and xbzrle.  Please note  that  while  a  combination  of  xbzrle  and
              auto-converge  might  speed  up  the migration process significantly, the first may
              cause BSOD on Windows8r2 instances running on drbd.

       kvm_path
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Path to the userspace KVM (or qemu) program.

       vnet_hdr
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              This boolean option determines whether the tap devices used by the KVM  paravirtual
              nics (virtio-net) will get created with VNET_HDR (IFF_VNET_HDR) support.

              If  set  to  false, it effectively disables offloading on the virio-net interfaces,
              which prevents host kernel tainting and log flooding, when dealing with  broken  or
              malicious virtio-net drivers.

              It is set to true by default.

       virtio_net_queues
              Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

              Set  a  number  of  queues (file descriptors) for tap device to parallelize packets
              sending  or  receiving.    Tap   devices   will   be   created   with   MULTI_QUEUE
              (IFF_MULTI_QUEUE)  support.  This only works with KVM paravirtual nics (virtio-net)
              and the maximum number of queues is limited to 8.  Tehnically this is an  extension
              of vnet_hdr which must be enabled for multiqueue support.

              If  set  to  1  queue,  it  effectively  disables multiqueue support on the tap and
              virio-net devices.

              For instances it is necessary to manually set number of  queues  (on  Linux  using:
              ethtool -L ethX combined $queues).

              It is set to 1 by default.

       startup_timeout
              Valid for the LXC hypervisor.

              This integer option specifies the number of seconds to wait for the state of an LXC
              container changes to "RUNNING" after startup, as reported by  lxc-wait.   Otherwise
              we assume an error has occurred and report it.

              It is set to 30 by default.

       extra_cgroups
              Valid for the LXC hypervisor.

              This  option specifies the list of cgroup subsystems that will be mounted alongside
              the needed ones before starting LXC containers.

              Since LXC version >= 1.0.0, LXC strictly  requires  all  cgroup  subsystems  to  be
              mounted  before starting a container.  Users can control the list of desired cgroup
              subsystems for LXC containers by specifying the lxc.cgroup.use parameter in the LXC
              system   configuration   file(see:   lxc.system.conf(5)).   Its  default  value  is
              <%22@kernel>" which means all cgroup kernel subsystems.

              The LXC hypervisor of Ganeti ensures that all cgroup subsystems needed to start  an
              LXC  container  are mounted, as well as the subsystems specified in this parameter.
              The needed subsystems are currently cpuset, memory, devices, and cpuacct.

              The value of this parameter should be a list of cgroup subsystems  separated  by  a
              comma(e.g., "net_cls,perf_event,blkio").

              If  this  parameter  is  not  specified,  a  list  of subsystems will be taken from
              /proc/cgroups instead.

       drop_capabilities
              Valid for the LXC hypervisor.

              This option specifies the list of capabilities which should be dropped  for  a  LXC
              container.   Each value of this option must be in the same form as the lxc.cap.drop
              configuration parameter of lxc.container.conf(5).  It is  the  lower  case  of  the
              capability  name  without  the  "CAP_"  prefix  (e.g., "sys_module,sys_time").  See
              capabilities(7)  for  more  details  about  Linux  capabilities.   Note  that  some
              capabilities  are required by the LXC container (see: lxc.container.conf(5)).  Also
              note that the CAP_SYS_BOOT is required(should not be dropped) to perform  the  soft
              reboot for the LXC container.

              The default value is mac_override,sys_boot,sys_module,sys_time.

       devices
              Valid for the LXC hypervisor.

              This  option  specifies the list of devices that can be accessed from inside of the
              LXC container.  Each  value  of  this  option  must  have  the  same  form  as  the
              lxc.cgroup.devices.allow  configuration  parameter  of  lxc.container.conf(5).   It
              consists of the type(a: all, b: block, c: character), the major-minor pair, and the
              access type sequence(r: read, w: write, m: mknod), e.g.  "c 1:3 rw".  If you'd like
              to allow the LXC container  to  access  /dev/null  and  /dev/zero  with  read-write
              access,  you  can  set  this parameter to: "c 1:3 rw,c 1:5 rw".  The LXC hypervisor
              drops all direct device access by  default,  so  if  you  want  to  allow  the  LXC
              container to access an additional device which is not included in the default value
              of this parameter, you have to set this parameter manually.

              By default, this parameter contains (/dev/null, /dev/zero, /dev/full,  /dev/random,
              /dev/urandom, /dev/aio, /dev/tty, /dev/console, /dev/ptmx and first block of Unix98
              PTY slaves) with read-write(rw) access.

       extra_config
              Valid for the LXC hypervisor.

              This option specifies the list of extra config parameters which are  not  supported
              by  the  Ganeti LXC hypervisor natively.  Each value of this option must be a valid
              line of the LXC container config file(see: lxc.container.conf(5)).

              This parameter is not set by default.

       num_ttys
              Valid for the LXC hypervisor.

              This option specifies the number of ttys(actually ptys) that  should  be  allocated
              for  the  LXC  container.   You  can  disable  pty  devices  allocation for the LXC
              container by setting this parameter to 0, but you can't use gnt-instance console in
              this case.

              It is set to 6 by default.

       The  -O (--os-parameters)  option  allows  customisation of the OS parameters.  The actual
       parameter names and values depend on the OS  being  used,  but  the  syntax  is  the  same
       key=value.  For example, setting a hypothetical dhcp parameter to yes can be achieved by:

              gnt-instance add -O dhcp=yes ...

       You  can  also  specify  OS  parameters  that  should not be logged but reused at the next
       reinstall with --os-parameters-private and OS parameters that  should  not  be  logged  or
       saved to configuration with --os-parameters-secret.  Bear in mind that:

              · Launching  the  daemons  in  debug mode will cause debug logging to happen, which
                leaks private and secret parameters to the log files.  Do not use the debug  mode
                in production.  Deamons will emit a warning on startup if they are in debug mode.

              · You will have to pass again all --os-parameters-secret parameters should you want
                to reinstall this instance.

       The -I (--iallocator) option specifies the instance allocator plugin to use (.  means  the
       default  allocator).   If you pass in this option the allocator will select nodes for this
       instance automatically, so you don't need to pass them  with  the  -n  option.   For  more
       information please refer to the instance allocator documentation.

       The  -g (--node-group)  option  can  be  used  to create the instance in a particular node
       group, specified by name.

       The -t (--disk-template) options specifies the disk layout type for the instance.   If  no
       disk  template is specified, the default disk template is used.  The default disk template
       is the first in the list of enabled disk templates, which  can  be  adjusted  cluster-wide
       with gnt-cluster modify.  The available choices for disk templates are:

       diskless
              This  creates  an  instance  with  no disks.  Its useful for testing only (or other
              special cases).

       file   Disk devices will be regular files.

       sharedfile
              Disk devices will be regulare files on a shared directory.

       plain  Disk devices will be logical volumes.

       drbd   Disk devices will be drbd (version 8.x) on top of lvm volumes.

       rbd    Disk devices will be rbd volumes residing inside a RADOS cluster.

       blockdev
              Disk devices will be adopted pre-existent block devices.

       ext    Disk devices will be provided by external shared storage,  through  the  ExtStorage
              Interface using ExtStorage providers.

       The  optional  second  value  of  the  -n (--node)  is used for the drbd template type and
       specifies the remote node.

       If you do not want gnt-instance to wait  for  the  disk  mirror  to  be  synced,  use  the
       --no-wait-for-sync option.

       The  --file-storage-dir  specifies  the  relative path under the cluster-wide file storage
       directory to store file-based disks.  It is useful for having different subdirectories for
       different  instances.  The full path of the directory where the disk files are stored will
       consist of cluster-wide file storage directory + optional subdirectory  +  instance  name.
       This option is only relevant for instances using the file storage backend.

       The  --file-driver  specifies the driver to use for file-based disks.  Note that currently
       these drivers work with the xen  hypervisor  only.   This  option  is  only  relevant  for
       instances using the file storage backend.  The available choices are:

       loop   Kernel loopback driver.  This driver uses loopback devices to access the filesystem
              within the file.  However, running I/O  intensive  applications  in  your  instance
              using  the  loop  driver  might  result  in slowdowns.  Furthermore, if you use the
              loopback driver consider increasing the maximum amount of loopback devices (on most
              systems it's 8) using the max_loop param.

       blktap The  blktap  driver  (for  Xen hypervisors).  In order to be able to use the blktap
              driver you should check if the  'blktapctrl'  user  space  disk  agent  is  running
              (usually  automatically  started via xend).  This user-level disk I/O interface has
              the advantage of better performance.  Especially if you use a network  file  system
              (e.g.  NFS) to store your instances this is the recommended choice.

       blktap2
              Analogous to the blktap driver, but used by newer versions of Xen.

       If --ignore-ipolicy is given any instance policy violations occuring during this operation
       are ignored.

       The -c and --communication specify whether to enable/disable instance communication, which
       is a communication mechanism between the instance and the host.

       See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

       Example:

              # gnt-instance add -t file --disk 0:size=30g -B maxmem=512 -o debian-etch \
                -n node1.example.com --file-storage-dir=mysubdir instance1.example.com
              # gnt-instance add -t plain --disk 0:size=30g -B maxmem=1024,minmem=512 \
                -o debian-etch -n node1.example.com instance1.example.com
              # gnt-instance add -t plain --disk 0:size=30g --disk 1:size=100g,vg=san \
                -B maxmem=512 -o debian-etch -n node1.example.com instance1.example.com
              # gnt-instance add -t drbd --disk 0:size=30g -B maxmem=512 -o debian-etch \
                -n node1.example.com:node2.example.com instance2.example.com
              # gnt-instance add -t rbd --disk 0:size=30g -B maxmem=512 -o debian-etch \
                -n node1.example.com instance1.example.com
              # gnt-instance add -t ext --disk 0:size=30g,provider=pvdr1 -B maxmem=512 \
                -o debian-etch -n node1.example.com instance1.example.com
              # gnt-instance add -t ext --disk 0:size=30g,provider=pvdr1,param1=val1 \
                --disk 1:size=40g,provider=pvdr2,param2=val2,param3=val3 -B maxmem=512 \
                -o debian-etch -n node1.example.com instance1.example.com

   BATCH-CREATE
       batch-create
       [{-I|--iallocator} instance allocator]
       {instances_file.json}

       This  command  (similar to the Ganeti 1.2 batcher tool) submits multiple instance creation
       jobs based on a definition file.  This file can contain all options which are  valid  when
       adding  an  instance  with  the exception of the iallocator field.  The IAllocator is, for
       optimization purposes, only allowed to be set for the  whole  batch  operation  using  the
       --iallocator parameter.

       The  instance  file  must be a valid-formed JSON file, containing an array of dictionaries
       with instance creation parameters.  All parameters (except iallocator) which are valid for
       the instance creation OP code are allowed.  The most important ones are:

       instance_name
              The FQDN of the new instance.

       disk_template
              The disk template to use for the instance, the same as in the add command.

       disks  Array  of  disk  specifications.   Each entry describes one disk as a dictionary of
              disk parameters.

       beparams
              A dictionary of backend parameters.

       hypervisor
              The hypervisor for the instance.

       hvparams
              A dictionary with the hypervisor options.  If not passed,  the  default  hypervisor
              options will be inherited.

       nics   List  of  NICs that will be created for the instance.  Each entry should be a dict,
              with mac, ip, mode and link as possible keys.  Please don't provide the  "mac,  ip,
              mode, link" parent keys if you use this method for specifying NICs.

       pnode, snode
              The  primary  and optionally the secondary node to use for the instance (in case an
              iallocator script is not used).  If those parameters are given,  they  have  to  be
              given consistently for all instances in the batch operation.

       start  whether to start the instance

       ip_check
              Skip  the check for already-in-use instance; see the description in the add command
              for details.

       name_check
              Skip the name check for instances; see the  description  in  the  add  command  for
              details.

       file_storage_dir, file_driver
              Configuration for the file disk type, see the add command for details.

       A  simple  definition  for one instance can be (with most of the parameters taken from the
       cluster defaults):

              [
                {
                  "mode": "create",
                  "instance_name": "instance1.example.com",
                  "disk_template": "drbd",
                  "os_type": "debootstrap",
                  "disks": [{"size":"1024"}],
                  "nics": [{}],
                  "hypervisor": "xen-pvm"
                },
                {
                  "mode": "create",
                  "instance_name": "instance2.example.com",
                  "disk_template": "drbd",
                  "os_type": "debootstrap",
                  "disks": [{"size":"4096", "mode": "rw", "vg": "xenvg"}],
                  "nics": [{}],
                  "hypervisor": "xen-hvm",
                  "hvparams": {"acpi": true},
                  "beparams": {"maxmem": 512, "minmem": 256}
                }
              ]

       The command will display the job id for each submitted instance, as follows:

              # gnt-instance batch-create instances.json
              Submitted jobs 37, 38

       Note: If the allocator is used for computing suitable nodes for  the  instances,  it  will
       only  take  into account disk information for the default disk template.  That means, even
       if other disk templates are specified for the  instances,  storage  space  information  of
       these disk templates will not be considered in the allocation computation.

   REMOVE
       remove [--ignore-failures] [--shutdown-timeout=*N*] [--submit]
       [--print-jobid] [--force] {instance}

       Remove an instance.  This will remove all data from the instance and there is no way back.
       If you are not sure if you use an instance again, use shutdown first and leave it  in  the
       shutdown state for a while.

       The  --ignore-failures  option  will  cause the removal to proceed even in the presence of
       errors during the removal of the instance (e.g.  during the shutdown or the disk removal).
       If this option is not given, the command will stop at the first error.

       The  --shutdown-timeout  is  used  to  specify  how  much  time to wait before forcing the
       shutdown (e.g.  xm destroy in Xen, killing the kvm process for KVM, etc.).  By default two
       minutes are given to each instance to stop.

       The --force option is used to skip the interactive confirmation.

       See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

       Example:

              # gnt-instance remove instance1.example.com

   LIST
       list
       [--no-headers] [--separator=*SEPARATOR*] [--units=*UNITS*] [-v]
       [{-o|--output} [+]FIELD,...] [--filter] [instance...]

       Shows  the currently configured instances with memory usage, disk usage, the node they are
       running on, and their run status.

       The --no-headers option will skip the initial header line.  The --separator  option  takes
       an argument which denotes what will be used between the output fields.  Both these options
       are to help scripting.

       The units used to display the numeric values  in  the  output  varies,  depending  on  the
       options given.  By default, the values will be formatted in the most appropriate unit.  If
       the --separator option is given, then the values are shown in mebibytes to  allow  parsing
       by scripts.  In both cases, the --units option can be used to enforce a given output unit.

       The  -v  option  activates verbose mode, which changes the display of special field states
       (see ganeti(7)).

       The -o (--output) option takes a comma-separated list of  output  fields.   The  available
       fields and their meaning are:

       admin_state
              Desired state of the instance

       admin_state_source
              Who last changed the desired state of the instance

       admin_up
              Desired state of the instance

       be/always_failover
              The "always_failover" backend parameter

       be/auto_balance
              The "auto_balance" backend parameter

       be/maxmem
              The "maxmem" backend parameter

       be/memory
              The "maxmem" backend parameter

       be/minmem
              The "minmem" backend parameter

       be/spindle_use
              The "spindle_use" backend parameter

       be/vcpus
              The "vcpus" backend parameter

       beparams
              Backend parameters (merged)

       bridge Bridge of 1st network interface

       console
              Instance console information

       ctime  Creation timestamp

       custom_beparams
              Custom backend parameters

       custom_hvparams
              Custom hypervisor parameters

       custom_nicparams
              Custom network interface parameters

       custom_osparams
              Custom operating system parameters

       disk.count
              Number of disks

       disk.name/0
              Name of 1st disk

       disk.name/1
              Name of 2nd disk

       disk.name/2
              Name of 3rd disk

       disk.name/3
              Name of 4th disk

       disk.name/4
              Name of 5th disk

       disk.name/5
              Name of 6th disk

       disk.name/6
              Name of 7th disk

       disk.name/7
              Name of 8th disk

       disk.name/8
              Name of 9th disk

       disk.name/9
              Name of 10th disk

       disk.name/10
              Name of 11th disk

       disk.name/11
              Name of 12th disk

       disk.name/12
              Name of 13th disk

       disk.name/13
              Name of 14th disk

       disk.name/14
              Name of 15th disk

       disk.name/15
              Name of 16th disk

       disk.names
              List of disk names

       disk.size/0
              Disk size of 1st disk

       disk.size/1
              Disk size of 2nd disk

       disk.size/2
              Disk size of 3rd disk

       disk.size/3
              Disk size of 4th disk

       disk.size/4
              Disk size of 5th disk

       disk.size/5
              Disk size of 6th disk

       disk.size/6
              Disk size of 7th disk

       disk.size/7
              Disk size of 8th disk

       disk.size/8
              Disk size of 9th disk

       disk.size/9
              Disk size of 10th disk

       disk.size/10
              Disk size of 11th disk

       disk.size/11
              Disk size of 12th disk

       disk.size/12
              Disk size of 13th disk

       disk.size/13
              Disk size of 14th disk

       disk.size/14
              Disk size of 15th disk

       disk.size/15
              Disk size of 16th disk

       disk.sizes
              List of disk sizes

       disk.spindles
              List of disk spindles

       disk.spindles/0
              Spindles of 1st disk

       disk.spindles/1
              Spindles of 2nd disk

       disk.spindles/2
              Spindles of 3rd disk

       disk.spindles/3
              Spindles of 4th disk

       disk.spindles/4
              Spindles of 5th disk

       disk.spindles/5
              Spindles of 6th disk

       disk.spindles/6
              Spindles of 7th disk

       disk.spindles/7
              Spindles of 8th disk

       disk.spindles/8
              Spindles of 9th disk

       disk.spindles/9
              Spindles of 10th disk

       disk.spindles/10
              Spindles of 11th disk

       disk.spindles/11
              Spindles of 12th disk

       disk.spindles/12
              Spindles of 13th disk

       disk.spindles/13
              Spindles of 14th disk

       disk.spindles/14
              Spindles of 15th disk

       disk.spindles/15
              Spindles of 16th disk

       disk.uuid/0
              UUID of 1st disk

       disk.uuid/1
              UUID of 2nd disk

       disk.uuid/2
              UUID of 3rd disk

       disk.uuid/3
              UUID of 4th disk

       disk.uuid/4
              UUID of 5th disk

       disk.uuid/5
              UUID of 6th disk

       disk.uuid/6
              UUID of 7th disk

       disk.uuid/7
              UUID of 8th disk

       disk.uuid/8
              UUID of 9th disk

       disk.uuid/9
              UUID of 10th disk

       disk.uuid/10
              UUID of 11th disk

       disk.uuid/11
              UUID of 12th disk

       disk.uuid/12
              UUID of 13th disk

       disk.uuid/13
              UUID of 14th disk

       disk.uuid/14
              UUID of 15th disk

       disk.uuid/15
              UUID of 16th disk

       disk.uuids
              List of disk UUIDs

       disk_template
              Instance disk template

       disk_usage
              Total  disk  space used by instance on each of its nodes; this is not the disk size
              visible to the instance, but the usage on the node

       disks_active
              Desired state of the instance disks

       forthcoming
              Whether the Instance is forthcoming

       hv/acpi
              The "acpi" hypervisor parameter

       hv/blockdev_prefix
              The "blockdev_prefix" hypervisor parameter

       hv/boot_order
              The "boot_order" hypervisor parameter

       hv/bootloader_args
              The "bootloader_args" hypervisor parameter

       hv/bootloader_path
              The "bootloader_path" hypervisor parameter

       hv/cdrom2_image_path
              The "cdrom2_image_path" hypervisor parameter

       hv/cdrom_disk_type
              The "cdrom_disk_type" hypervisor parameter

       hv/cdrom_image_path
              The "cdrom_image_path" hypervisor parameter

       hv/cpu_cap
              The "cpu_cap" hypervisor parameter

       hv/cpu_cores
              The "cpu_cores" hypervisor parameter

       hv/cpu_mask
              The "cpu_mask" hypervisor parameter

       hv/cpu_sockets
              The "cpu_sockets" hypervisor parameter

       hv/cpu_threads
              The "cpu_threads" hypervisor parameter

       hv/cpu_type
              The "cpu_type" hypervisor parameter

       hv/cpu_weight
              The "cpu_weight" hypervisor parameter

       hv/cpuid
              The "cpuid" hypervisor parameter

       hv/device_model
              The "device_model" hypervisor parameter

       hv/devices
              The "devices" hypervisor parameter

       hv/disk_aio
              The "disk_aio" hypervisor parameter

       hv/disk_cache
              The "disk_cache" hypervisor parameter

       hv/disk_type
              The "disk_type" hypervisor parameter

       hv/drop_capabilities
              The "drop_capabilities" hypervisor parameter

       hv/extra_cgroups
              The "extra_cgroups" hypervisor parameter

       hv/extra_config
              The "extra_config" hypervisor parameter

       hv/floppy_image_path
              The "floppy_image_path" hypervisor parameter

       hv/init_script
              The "init_script" hypervisor parameter

       hv/initrd_path
              The "initrd_path" hypervisor parameter

       hv/kernel_args
              The "kernel_args" hypervisor parameter

       hv/kernel_path
              The "kernel_path" hypervisor parameter

       hv/keymap
              The "keymap" hypervisor parameter

       hv/kvm_extra
              The "kvm_extra" hypervisor parameter

       hv/kvm_flag
              The "kvm_flag" hypervisor parameter

       hv/kvm_path
              The "kvm_path" hypervisor parameter

       hv/machine_version
              The "machine_version" hypervisor parameter

       hv/mem_path
              The "mem_path" hypervisor parameter

       hv/migration_caps
              The "migration_caps" hypervisor parameter

       hv/migration_downtime
              The "migration_downtime" hypervisor parameter

       hv/nic_type
              The "nic_type" hypervisor parameter

       hv/num_ttys
              The "num_ttys" hypervisor parameter

       hv/pae The "pae" hypervisor parameter

       hv/pci_pass
              The "pci_pass" hypervisor parameter

       hv/reboot_behavior
              The "reboot_behavior" hypervisor parameter

       hv/root_path
              The "root_path" hypervisor parameter

       hv/security_domain
              The "security_domain" hypervisor parameter

       hv/security_model
              The "security_model" hypervisor parameter

       hv/serial_console
              The "serial_console" hypervisor parameter

       hv/serial_speed
              The "serial_speed" hypervisor parameter

       hv/soundhw
              The "soundhw" hypervisor parameter

       hv/spice_bind
              The "spice_bind" hypervisor parameter

       hv/spice_image_compression
              The "spice_image_compression" hypervisor parameter

       hv/spice_ip_version
              The "spice_ip_version" hypervisor parameter

       hv/spice_jpeg_wan_compression
              The "spice_jpeg_wan_compression" hypervisor parameter

       hv/spice_password_file
              The "spice_password_file" hypervisor parameter

       hv/spice_playback_compression
              The "spice_playback_compression" hypervisor parameter

       hv/spice_streaming_video
              The "spice_streaming_video" hypervisor parameter

       hv/spice_tls_ciphers
              The "spice_tls_ciphers" hypervisor parameter

       hv/spice_use_tls
              The "spice_use_tls" hypervisor parameter

       hv/spice_use_vdagent
              The "spice_use_vdagent" hypervisor parameter

       hv/spice_zlib_glz_wan_compression
              The "spice_zlib_glz_wan_compression" hypervisor parameter

       hv/startup_timeout
              The "startup_timeout" hypervisor parameter

       hv/usb_devices
              The "usb_devices" hypervisor parameter

       hv/usb_mouse
              The "usb_mouse" hypervisor parameter

       hv/use_bootloader
              The "use_bootloader" hypervisor parameter

       hv/use_chroot
              The "use_chroot" hypervisor parameter

       hv/use_localtime
              The "use_localtime" hypervisor parameter

       hv/user_shutdown
              The "user_shutdown" hypervisor parameter

       hv/vga The "vga" hypervisor parameter

       hv/vhost_net
              The "vhost_net" hypervisor parameter

       hv/vif_script
              The "vif_script" hypervisor parameter

       hv/vif_type
              The "vif_type" hypervisor parameter

       hv/viridian
              The "viridian" hypervisor parameter

       hv/virtio_net_queues
              The "virtio_net_queues" hypervisor parameter

       hv/vnc_bind_address
              The "vnc_bind_address" hypervisor parameter

       hv/vnc_password_file
              The "vnc_password_file" hypervisor parameter

       hv/vnc_tls
              The "vnc_tls" hypervisor parameter

       hv/vnc_x509_path
              The "vnc_x509_path" hypervisor parameter

       hv/vnc_x509_verify
              The "vnc_x509_verify" hypervisor parameter

       hv/vnet_hdr
              The "vnet_hdr" hypervisor parameter

       hvparams
              Hypervisor parameters (merged)

       hypervisor
              Hypervisor name

       ip     IP address of 1st network interface

       mac    MAC address of 1st network interface

       mtime  Modification timestamp

       name   Instance name

       network_port
              Instance network port if available (e.g.  for VNC console)

       nic.bridge/0
              Bridge of 1st network interface

       nic.bridge/1
              Bridge of 2nd network interface

       nic.bridge/2
              Bridge of 3rd network interface

       nic.bridge/3
              Bridge of 4th network interface

       nic.bridge/4
              Bridge of 5th network interface

       nic.bridge/5
              Bridge of 6th network interface

       nic.bridge/6
              Bridge of 7th network interface

       nic.bridge/7
              Bridge of 8th network interface

       nic.bridges
              List containing each network interface's bridge

       nic.count
              Number of network interfaces

       nic.ip/0
              IP address of 1st network interface

       nic.ip/1
              IP address of 2nd network interface

       nic.ip/2
              IP address of 3rd network interface

       nic.ip/3
              IP address of 4th network interface

       nic.ip/4
              IP address of 5th network interface

       nic.ip/5
              IP address of 6th network interface

       nic.ip/6
              IP address of 7th network interface

       nic.ip/7
              IP address of 8th network interface

       nic.ips
              List containing each network interface's IP address

       nic.link/0
              Link of 1st network interface

       nic.link/1
              Link of 2nd network interface

       nic.link/2
              Link of 3rd network interface

       nic.link/3
              Link of 4th network interface

       nic.link/4
              Link of 5th network interface

       nic.link/5
              Link of 6th network interface

       nic.link/6
              Link of 7th network interface

       nic.link/7
              Link of 8th network interface

       nic.links
              List containing each network interface's link

       nic.mac/0
              MAC address of 1st network interface

       nic.mac/1
              MAC address of 2nd network interface

       nic.mac/2
              MAC address of 3rd network interface

       nic.mac/3
              MAC address of 4th network interface

       nic.mac/4
              MAC address of 5th network interface

       nic.mac/5
              MAC address of 6th network interface

       nic.mac/6
              MAC address of 7th network interface

       nic.mac/7
              MAC address of 8th network interface

       nic.macs
              List containing each network interface's MAC address

       nic.mode/0
              Mode of 1st network interface

       nic.mode/1
              Mode of 2nd network interface

       nic.mode/2
              Mode of 3rd network interface

       nic.mode/3
              Mode of 4th network interface

       nic.mode/4
              Mode of 5th network interface

       nic.mode/5
              Mode of 6th network interface

       nic.mode/6
              Mode of 7th network interface

       nic.mode/7
              Mode of 8th network interface

       nic.modes
              List containing each network interface's mode

       nic.name/0
              Name address of 1st network interface

       nic.name/1
              Name address of 2nd network interface

       nic.name/2
              Name address of 3rd network interface

       nic.name/3
              Name address of 4th network interface

       nic.name/4
              Name address of 5th network interface

       nic.name/5
              Name address of 6th network interface

       nic.name/6
              Name address of 7th network interface

       nic.name/7
              Name address of 8th network interface

       nic.names
              List containing each network interface's name

       nic.network.name/0
              Network name of 1st network interface

       nic.network.name/1
              Network name of 2nd network interface

       nic.network.name/2
              Network name of 3rd network interface

       nic.network.name/3
              Network name of 4th network interface

       nic.network.name/4
              Network name of 5th network interface

       nic.network.name/5
              Network name of 6th network interface

       nic.network.name/6
              Network name of 7th network interface

       nic.network.name/7
              Network name of 8th network interface

       nic.network/0
              Network of 1st network interface

       nic.network/1
              Network of 2nd network interface

       nic.network/2
              Network of 3rd network interface

       nic.network/3
              Network of 4th network interface

       nic.network/4
              Network of 5th network interface

       nic.network/5
              Network of 6th network interface

       nic.network/6
              Network of 7th network interface

       nic.network/7
              Network of 8th network interface

       nic.networks
              List containing each interface's network

       nic.networks.names
              List containing each interface's network

       nic.uuid/0
              UUID address of 1st network interface

       nic.uuid/1
              UUID address of 2nd network interface

       nic.uuid/2
              UUID address of 3rd network interface

       nic.uuid/3
              UUID address of 4th network interface

       nic.uuid/4
              UUID address of 5th network interface

       nic.uuid/5
              UUID address of 6th network interface

       nic.uuid/6
              UUID address of 7th network interface

       nic.uuid/7
              UUID address of 8th network interface

       nic.uuids
              List containing each network interface's UUID

       nic.vlan/0
              VLAN of 1st network interface

       nic.vlan/1
              VLAN of 2nd network interface

       nic.vlan/2
              VLAN of 3rd network interface

       nic.vlan/3
              VLAN of 4th network interface

       nic.vlan/4
              VLAN of 5th network interface

       nic.vlan/5
              VLAN of 6th network interface

       nic.vlan/6
              VLAN of 7th network interface

       nic.vlan/7
              VLAN of 8th network interface

       nic.vlans
              List containing each network interface's VLAN

       nic_link
              Link of 1st network interface

       nic_mode
              Mode of 1st network interface

       nic_network
              Network of 1st network interface

       oper_ram
              Actual memory usage as seen by hypervisor

       oper_state
              Actual state of instance

       oper_vcpus
              Actual number of VCPUs as seen by hypervisor

       os     Operating system

       osparams
              Operating system parameters (merged)

       pnode  Primary node

       pnode.group
              Primary node's group

       pnode.group.uuid
              Primary node's group UUID

       sda_size
              Disk size of 1st disk

       sdb_size
              Disk size of 2nd disk

       serial_no
              Instance object serial number, incremented on each modification

       snodes Secondary nodes; usually this will just be one node

       snodes.group
              Node groups of secondary nodes

       snodes.group.uuid
              Node group UUIDs of secondary nodes

       status Instance status; "running" if instance is  set  to  be  running  and  actually  is,
              "ADMIN_down"  if  instance  is  stopped  and  is  not running, "ERROR_wrongnode" if
              instance running, but not on its designated primary node,  "ERROR_up"  if  instance
              should  be  stopped,  but is actually running, "ERROR_down" if instance should run,
              but   doesn't,   "ERROR_nodedown"   if   instance's   primary   node    is    down,
              "ERROR_nodeoffline"  if  instance's primary node is marked offline, "ADMIN_offline"
              if instance is offline and does not use dynamic, "USER_down" if the  user  shutdown
              the instance resources

       tags   Tags

       uuid   Instance UUID

       vcpus  The "vcpus" backend parameter

       If  the value of the option starts with the character +, the new field(s) will be added to
       the default list.  This allows one to quickly see  the  default  list  plus  a  few  other
       fields, instead of retyping the entire list of fields.

       There  is  a  subtle  grouping  about  the  available output fields: all fields except for
       oper_state, oper_ram, oper_vcpus and status  are  configuration  value  and  not  run-time
       values.   So  if  you  don't  select  any of the these fields, the query will be satisfied
       instantly from the cluster configuration, without having to ask the remote nodes  for  the
       data.   This  can  be  helpful  for big clusters when you only want some data and it makes
       sense to specify a reduced set of output fields.

       If exactly one argument is given and it appears to be a query filter (see ganeti(7)),  the
       query result is filtered accordingly.  For ambiguous cases (e.g.  a single field name as a
       filter) the --filter (-F) option forces the argument to  be  treated  as  a  filter  (e.g.
       gnt-instance list -F admin_state).

       The default output field list is: name, os, pnode, admin_state, oper_state, oper_ram.

   LIST-FIELDS
       list-fields [field...]

       Lists available fields for instances.

   INFO
       info [-s | --static] [--roman] {--all | instance}

       Show  detailed information about the given instance(s).  This is different from list as it
       shows detailed data about the instance's  disks  (especially  useful  for  the  drbd  disk
       template).

       If  the  option  -s  is  used,  only  information  available  in the configuration file is
       returned, without querying nodes, making the operation faster.

       Use the --all to get info about all instances, rather than  explicitly  passing  the  ones
       you're interested in.

       The  --roman  option can be used to cause envy among people who like ancient cultures, but
       are stuck with non-latin-friendly cluster virtualization technologies.

   MODIFY
       modify
       [{-H|--hypervisor-parameters} HYPERVISOR_PARAMETERS]
       [{-B|--backend-parameters} BACKEND_PARAMETERS]
       [{-m|--runtime-memory} SIZE]
       [--net add[:options...] |
        --net [N:]add[,options...] |
        --net [ID:]remove |
        --net ID:modify[,options...]]
       [--disk add:size=*SIZE*[,options...] |
        --disk N:add,size=*SIZE*[,options...] |
        --disk N:add,size=*SIZE*,provider=*PROVIDER*[,options...][,param=*value*...  ] |
        --disk N:attach,{name=*NAME* | uuid=*UUID*}|
        --disk ID:modify[,options...]
        --disk [ID:]remove]
        --disk [ID:]detach]
       [{-t|--disk-template} { plain | rbd } |
        {-t|--disk-template} drbd -n new_secondary] [--no-wait-for-sync] |
        {-t|--disk-template} ext {-e|--ext-params} {provider=*PROVIDER*}[,param=*value*...  ] |
        {-t|--disk-template} { file | sharedfile | gluster }
        | [--file-storage-dir dir_path] [--file-driver {loop | blktap | blktap2}]
       [--new-primary=*node*]
       [--os-type=*OS* [--force-variant]]
       [{-O|--os-parameters} param=*value*...  ]
       [--os-parameters-private param=*value*...  ]
       [--offline | --online]
       [--submit] [--print-jobid]
       [--ignore-ipolicy]
       [--hotplug]
       [--hotplug-if-possible]
       {instance}

       Modifies the memory size, number of vcpus, ip address, MAC address and/or  NIC  parameters
       for  an  instance.   It can also add and remove disks and NICs to/from the instance.  Note
       that you need to give at least one of the arguments, otherwise the command complains.

       The  -H (--hypervisor-parameters),  -B (--backend-parameters)   and   -O (--os-parameters)
       options   specifies   hypervisor,  backend  and  OS  parameter  options  in  the  form  of
       name=value[,...].  For details which options can be specified, see the add command.

       The -t (--disk-template) option will change the disk template of the instance.  Currently,
       conversions between all the available templates are supported, except the diskless and the
       blockdev templates.  For the blockdev disk template, only partial support is provided  and
       acts  only  as  a  source  template.   Since  these volumes are adopted pre-existent block
       devices, conversions targeting this template are not supported.  Also, there is no support
       for  conversions  to  or  from the diskless template.  The instance must be stopped before
       attempting the conversion.  When changing from the plain to the drbd disk template, a  new
       secondary  node must be specified via the -n option.  The option --no-wait-for-sync can be
       used when converting to the drbd template in order to  make  the  instance  available  for
       startup  before DRBD has finished resyncing.  When changing to a file-based disk template,
       i.e., file, sharedfile and gluster, the file storage directory and the file driver can  be
       specified  via  the  --file-storage-dir and --file-driver options, respectively.  For more
       details on these options please refer to the add command section.  When changing to an ext
       template,  the  provider's  name  must  be  specified.   Also, arbitrary parameters can be
       passed, as additional comma separated options.  Those parameters along with the ExtStorage
       provider  must  be  passed  using either the --ext-params or -e option.  It is not allowed
       specifying existing disk parameters such as the  size,  mode,  name,  access,  adopt,  vg,
       metavg, provider, or spindles options.

       The  -m (--runtime-memory)  option  will  change an instance's runtime memory to the given
       size (in MB if a different suffix is not specified), by ballooning it up or  down  to  the
       new value.

       The   --disk add:size=*SIZE*,[options..]   option   adds  a  disk  to  the  instance,  and
       --disk *N*:add,size=*SIZE*,[options..]  will add a disk to  the  instance  at  a  specific
       index.   The  available  options are the same as in the add command (spindles, mode, name,
       vg, metavg and access).  By default, gnt-instance waits for the disk mirror to  sync.   If
       you  do  not  want  this  behavior,  use  the  --no-wait-for-sync  option.  When adding an
       ExtStorage disk, the provider=*PROVIDER*  option  is  also  mandatory  and  specifies  the
       ExtStorage  provider.   Also,  for  ExtStorage disks arbitrary parameters can be passed as
       additional   comma   separated   options,   same   as   in   the   add    command.     The
       --disk attach:name=*NAME*  option  attaches  an  existing disk to the instance at the last
       disk index and --disk *N*:attach,name=*NAME* will attach a  disk  to  the  instance  at  a
       specific  index.   The  accepted disk identifiers are its name or uuid.  The --disk remove
       option will remove the last disk of the instance.  Use --disk ID:remove to remove  a  disk
       by its identifier.  ID can be the index of the disk, the disks's name or the disks's UUID.
       The above apply also to the --disk detach option, which removes a disk  from  an  instance
       but    keeps    it    in    the    configuration    and    doesn't    destroy   it.    The
       --disk *ID*:modify[,options...] will change the options of the  disk.   Available  options
       are:

       mode   The access mode.  Either ro (read-only) or the default rw (read-write).

       name   This  option specifies a name for the disk, which can be used as a disk identifier.
              An instance can not have two disks with the same name.

       The --net *N*:add[,options..] will add a new  network  interface  to  the  instance.   The
       available  options are the same as in the add command (mac, ip, link, mode, network).  The
       --net *ID*,remove will remove the intances' NIC with ID identifier, which can be the index
       of  the  NIC,  the NIC's name or the NIC's UUID.  The --net *ID*:modify[,options..] option
       will change the parameters of the instance network interface with the ID identifier.

       The  option  -o (--os-type)  will  change  the  OS  name   for   the   instance   (without
       reinstallation).   In  case  an OS variant is specified that is not found, then by default
       the modification is refused, unless --force-variant is passed.  An invalid OS will also be
       refused, unless the --force option is given.

       The  option  --new-primary will set the new primary node of an instance assuming the disks
       have already been moved manually.  Unless the --force option is given, it is verified that
       the instance is no longer running on its current primary node.

       The  --online and --offline options are used to transition an instance into and out of the
       offline state.  An instance can be turned offline only if it  was  previously  down.   The
       --online  option  fails if the instance was not in the offline state, otherwise it changes
       instance's state to down.  These modifications take effect immediately.

       If --ignore-ipolicy is given any instance policy violations occuring during this operation
       are ignored.

       If  --hotplug is given any disk and NIC modifications will take effect without the need of
       actual reboot.  Please note  that  this  feature  is  currently  supported  only  for  KVM
       hypervisor  and  there  are some restrictions: a) NIC/Disk hot-remove should work for QEMU
       versions >= 1.0 b) instances with chroot or pool/user security model support disk  hot-add
       only  for  QEMU  version > 1.7 where add-fd QMP command exists c) For the previous case as
       well as for NIC hot-add, python-fdsend package must be installed d) if hotplug fails  (for
       any  reason)  a  warning  is  printed  but  execution  is  continued  e)  for existing NIC
       modification interactive verification is needed unless --force option is passed.

       If --hotplug-if-possible is  given  then  ganeti  won't  abort  in  case  hotplug  is  not
       supported.   It  will  continue  execution  and modification will take place after reboot.
       This covers use cases where instances are not running or hypervisor is not KVM.

       See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

       Most of the changes take effect at the next restart.  If the instance is running, there is
       no effect on the instance.

   REINSTALL
       reinstall [{-o|--os-type} os-type] [--select-os] [-f force]
       [--force-multiple]
       [--instance | --node | --primary | --secondary | --all]
       [{-O|--os-parameters} OS_PARAMETERS]
       [--os-parameters-private} OS_PARAMETERS]
       [--os-parameters-secret} OS_PARAMETERS]
       [--submit] [--print-jobid]
       {instance...}

       Reinstalls the operating system on the given instance(s).  The instance(s) must be stopped
       when running this command.  If the -o (--os-type) is specified, the  operating  system  is
       changed.

       The  --select-os  option switches to an interactive OS reinstall.  The user is prompted to
       select the OS template from the list of available OS  templates.   OS  parameters  can  be
       overridden  using  -O (--os-parameters)  (more documentation for this option under the add
       command).

       Since this is a potentially dangerous command, the user will be required to  confirm  this
       action,  unless  the  -f  flag is passed.  When multiple instances are selected (either by
       passing multiple arguments or  by  using  the  --node,  --primary,  --secondary  or  --all
       options),  the  user  must  pass  the  --force-multiple  options  to  skip the interactive
       confirmation.

       See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

   RENAME
       rename [--no-ip-check] [--no-name-check] [--submit] [--print-jobid]
       {instance} {new_name}

       Renames the given instance.  The instance must be stopped when running this command.   The
       requirements for the new name are the same as for adding an instance: the new name must be
       resolvable and the IP it resolves to must not be reachable (in order to prevent  duplicate
       IPs  the  next  time  the  instance  is  started).   The  IP  test  can  be skipped if the
       --no-ip-check option is passed.

       Note that you can rename  an  instance  to  its  same  name,  to  force  re-executing  the
       os-specific rename script for that instance, if needed.

       The  --no-name-check  skips the check for the new instance name via the resolver (e.g.  in
       DNS or /etc/hosts, depending on your  setup)  and  that  the  resolved  name  matches  the
       provided  name.   Since the name check is used to compute the IP address, if you pass this
       option you must also pass the --no-ip-check option.

       See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

   Starting/stopping/connecting to console
   STARTUP
       startup
       [--force] [--ignore-offline]
       [--force-multiple] [--no-remember]
       [--instance | --node | --primary | --secondary | --all |
       --tags | --node-tags | --pri-node-tags | --sec-node-tags]
       [{-H|--hypervisor-parameters} key=value...]
       [{-B|--backend-parameters} key=value...]
       [--submit] [--print-jobid] [--paused]
       {name...}

       Starts one or more instances, depending on the  following  options.   The  four  available
       modes are:

       --instance
              will  start the instances given as arguments (at least one argument required); this
              is the default selection

       --node will start the instances who have the given node as either primary or secondary

       --primary
              will start all instances whose primary node is in  the  list  of  nodes  passed  as
              arguments (at least one node required)

       --secondary
              will  start  all  instances  whose secondary node is in the list of nodes passed as
              arguments (at least one node required)

       --all  will start all instances in the cluster (no arguments accepted)

       --tags will start all instances in the cluster with the tags given as arguments

       --node-tags
              will start all instances in the cluster on nodes with the tags given as arguments

       --pri-node-tags
              will start all instances in the cluster on primary nodes with  the  tags  given  as
              arguments

       --sec-node-tags
              will  start  all instances in the cluster on secondary nodes with the tags given as
              arguments

       Note that although you can pass more than one selection option, the last one wins,  so  in
       order to guarantee the desired result, don't pass more than one such option.

       Use --force to start even if secondary disks are failing.  --ignore-offline can be used to
       ignore offline primary nodes and mark the instance as started even if the primary  is  not
       available.

       The  --force-multiple will skip the interactive confirmation in the case the more than one
       instance will be affected.

       The --no-remember option will perform the startup but not change the state of the instance
       in  the  configuration file (if it was stopped before, Ganeti will still think it needs to
       be stopped).  This can be used for testing, or for a one shot-start where you  don't  want
       the watcher to restart the instance if it crashes.

       The  -H (--hypervisor-parameters)  and -B (--backend-parameters) options specify temporary
       hypervisor and backend parameters that can be used to  start  an  instance  with  modified
       parameters.   They  can  be  useful for quick testing without having to modify an instance
       back and forth, e.g.:

              # gnt-instance start -H kernel_args="single" instance1
              # gnt-instance start -B maxmem=2048 instance2

       The first form will start the instance instance1 in single-user  mode,  and  the  instance
       instance2  with 2GB of RAM (this time only, unless that is the actual instance memory size
       already).  Note that the values override the instance parameters (and not extend them): an
       instance  with  "kernel_args=ro"  when  started  with -H kernel_args=single will result in
       "single", not "ro single".

       The --paused option is only valid for Xen and kvm hypervisors.  This pauses  the  instance
       at  the  start of bootup, awaiting gnt-instance console to unpause it, allowing the entire
       boot process to be monitored for debugging.

       See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

       Example:

              # gnt-instance start instance1.example.com
              # gnt-instance start --node node1.example.com node2.example.com
              # gnt-instance start --all

   SHUTDOWN
       shutdown
       [--timeout=*N*]
       [--force] [--force-multiple] [--ignore-offline] [--no-remember]
       [--instance | --node | --primary | --secondary | --all |
       --tags | --node-tags | --pri-node-tags | --sec-node-tags]
       [--submit] [--print-jobid]
       {name...}

       Stops one or more instances.  If the instance cannot be cleanly stopped during a hardcoded
       interval  (currently  2  minutes),  it  will  forcibly  stop  the  instance (equivalent to
       switching off the power on a physical machine).

       The --timeout is used to specify how much time to wait before forcing the  shutdown  (e.g.
       xm destroy  in  Xen,  killing  the kvm process for KVM, etc.).  By default two minutes are
       given to each instance to stop.

       The   --instance,   --node,   --primary,   --secondary,   --all,   --tags,    --node-tags,
       --pri-node-tags  and  --sec-node-tags  options  are similar as for the startup command and
       they influence the actual instances being shutdown.

       --ignore-offline can be used to ignore offline primary nodes and force the instance to  be
       marked as stopped.  This option should be used with care as it can lead to an inconsistent
       cluster state.

       Use --force to be able to shutdown an instance even when it's marked as offline.  This  is
       useful is an offline instance ends up in the ERROR_up state, for example.

       The  --no-remember  option  will  perform  the  shutdown  but  not change the state of the
       instance in the configuration file (if it was running before, Ganeti will still thinks  it
       needs  to  be  running).   This  can  be  useful  for  a cluster-wide shutdown, where some
       instances are marked as up and some as down, and you don't  want  to  change  the  running
       state:  you  just  need to disable the watcher, shutdown all instances with --no-remember,
       and when the watcher is activated again it will restore the correct runtime state for  all
       instances.

       See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

       Example:

              # gnt-instance shutdown instance1.example.com
              # gnt-instance shutdown --all

   REBOOT
       reboot
       [{-t|--type} REBOOT-TYPE]
       [--ignore-secondaries]
       [--shutdown-timeout=*N*]
       [--force-multiple]
       [--instance | --node | --primary | --secondary | --all |
       --tags | --node-tags | --pri-node-tags | --sec-node-tags]
       [--submit] [--print-jobid]
       [name...]

       Reboots one or more instances.  The type of reboot depends on the value of -t (--type).  A
       soft reboot does a hypervisor reboot, a hard reboot does a instance  stop,  recreates  the
       hypervisor  config  for  the  instance  and  starts  the instance.  A full reboot does the
       equivalent of gnt-instance shutdown && gnt-instance startup.  The default is hard reboot.

       For the hard reboot the option --ignore-secondaries ignores errors for the secondary  node
       while re-assembling the instance disks.

       The    --instance,   --node,   --primary,   --secondary,   --all,   --tags,   --node-tags,
       --pri-node-tags and --sec-node-tags options are similar as for  the  startup  command  and
       they influence the actual instances being rebooted.

       The  --shutdown-timeout  is  used  to  specify  how  much  time to wait before forcing the
       shutdown (xm destroy in xen, killing the kvm process, for kvm).  By  default  two  minutes
       are given to each instance to stop.

       The  --force-multiple will skip the interactive confirmation in the case the more than one
       instance will be affected.

       See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

       Example:

              # gnt-instance reboot instance1.example.com
              # gnt-instance reboot --type=full instance1.example.com

   CONSOLE
       console [--show-cmd] {instance}

       Connects to the console of the given instance.  If the instance is not  up,  an  error  is
       returned.  Use the --show-cmd option to display the command instead of executing it.

       For HVM instances, this will attempt to connect to the serial console of the instance.  To
       connect to the virtualized "physical" console of a HVM instance, use a VNC client with the
       connection info from the info command.

       For  Xen/kvm  instances,  if the instance is paused, this attempts to unpause the instance
       after waiting a few seconds for the connection to the console to be made.

       Example:

              # gnt-instance console instance1.example.com

   Disk management
   REPLACE-DISKS
       replace-disks [--submit] [--print-jobid] [--early-release]
       [--ignore-ipolicy] {-p} [--disks idx] {instance}

       replace-disks [--submit] [--print-jobid] [--early-release]
       [--ignore-ipolicy] {-s} [--disks idx] {instance}

       replace-disks [--submit] [--print-jobid] [--early-release]
       [--ignore-ipolicy]
       {{-I|--iallocator} name | {{-n|--new-secondary} node } {instance}

       replace-disks [--submit] [--print-jobid] [--early-release]
       [--ignore-ipolicy] {-a|--auto} {instance}

       This command is a generalized form for replacing disks.  It is currently  only  valid  for
       the mirrored (DRBD) disk template.

       The  first  form (when passing the -p option) will replace the disks on the primary, while
       the second form (when passing the -s option will replace the disks on the secondary  node.
       For  these  two cases (as the node doesn't change), it is possible to only run the replace
       for a subset of the disks, using the option --disks which takes a list of  comma-delimited
       disk indices (zero-based), e.g.  0,2 to replace only the first and third disks.

       The  third  form  (when  passing either the --iallocator or the --new-secondary option) is
       designed to change secondary node of the instance.  Specifying --iallocator makes the  new
       secondary  be  selected automatically by the specified allocator plugin (use . to indicate
       the default allocator), otherwise the new secondary node will be the one  chosen  manually
       via the --new-secondary option.

       Note that it is not possible to select an offline or drained node as a new secondary.

       The  fourth  form  (when  using  --auto)  will  automatically  determine which disks of an
       instance are faulty and replace them within the same node.  The --auto option  works  only
       when an instance has only faulty disks on either the primary or secondary node; it doesn't
       work when both sides have faulty disks.

       The --early-release changes the code so that the  old  storage  on  secondary  node(s)  is
       removed  early  (before  the  resync  is  completed) and the internal Ganeti locks for the
       current (and new, if any) secondary node are also released, thus allowing more parallelism
       in the cluster operation.  This should be used only when recovering from a disk failure on
       the current secondary (thus the old storage is already broken) or when the storage on  the
       primary  node  is  known  to  be  fine  (thus  we won't need the old storage for potential
       recovery).

       The --ignore-ipolicy let the command ignore instance policy  violations  if  replace-disks
       changes groups and the instance would violate the new groups instance policy.

       See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

   ACTIVATE-DISKS
       activate-disks [--submit] [--print-jobid] [--ignore-size]
       [--wait-for-sync] {instance}

       Activates  the  block devices of the given instance.  If successful, the command will show
       the location and name of the block devices:

              node1.example.com:disk/0:/dev/drbd0
              node1.example.com:disk/1:/dev/drbd1

       In this example, node1.example.com is the name of the node on which the devices have  been
       activated.  The disk/0 and disk/1 are the Ganeti-names of the instance disks; how they are
       visible inside the instance is hypervisor-specific.  /dev/drbd0  and  /dev/drbd1  are  the
       actual block devices as visible on the node.

       The  --ignore-size  option can be used to activate disks ignoring the currently configured
       size in Ganeti.  This can be used in cases where the configuration has gotten out of  sync
       with the real-world (e.g.  after a partially-failed grow-disk operation or due to rounding
       in LVM devices).  This should not be used in normal cases, but  only  when  activate-disks
       fails without it.

       The  --wait-for-sync option will ensure that the command returns only after the instance's
       disks are synchronised (mostly for DRBD); this can be useful  to  ensure  consistency,  as
       otherwise there are no commands that can wait until synchronisation is done.  However when
       passing this option, the command will have additional output, making it  harder  to  parse
       the disk information.

       Note that it is safe to run this command while the instance is already running.

       See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

   DEACTIVATE-DISKS
       deactivate-disks [-f] [--submit] [--print-jobid] {instance}

       De-activates  the  block devices of the given instance.  Note that if you run this command
       for an instance with a drbd disk template, while it is running, it will  not  be  able  to
       shutdown  the block devices on the primary node, but it will shutdown the block devices on
       the secondary nodes, thus breaking the replication.

       The -f/--force option will skip checks that the instance is down; in case  the  hypervisor
       is  confused and we can't talk to it, normally Ganeti will refuse to deactivate the disks,
       but with this option passed it will skip this check and directly  try  to  deactivate  the
       disks.  This can still fail due to the instance actually running or other issues.

       See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

   GROW-DISK
       grow-disk [--no-wait-for-sync] [--submit] [--print-jobid]
       [--absolute]
       {instance} {disk} {amount}

       Grows an instance's disk.  This is only possible for instances having a plain, drbd, file,
       sharedfile, rbd or ext disk template.  For  the  ext  template  to  work,  the  ExtStorage
       provider should also support growing.  This means having a grow script that actually grows
       the volume of the external shared storage.

       Note that this command only change the block device size; it  will  not  grow  the  actual
       filesystems, partitions, etc.  that live on that disk.  Usually, you will need to:

       1. use gnt-instance grow-disk

       2. reboot the instance (later, at a convenient time)

       3. use  a  filesystem  resizer,  such  as  ext2online(8)  or  xfs_growfs(8)  to resize the
          filesystem, or use fdisk(8) to change the partition table on the disk

       The disk argument is the index of the instance disk to grow.  The amount argument is given
       as a number which can have a suffix (like the disk size in instance create); if the suffix
       is missing, the value will be interpreted as mebibytes.

       By default, the amount value represents the desired increase in the disk  size  (e.g.   an
       amount  of 1G will take a disk of size 3G to 4G).  If the optional --absolute parameter is
       passed, then the amount argument doesn't represent the  delta,  but  instead  the  desired
       final disk size (e.g.  an amount of 8G will take a disk of size 4G to 8G).

       For  instances  with  a drbd template, note that the disk grow operation might complete on
       one node but fail on the other; this will leave the instance with different-sized  LVs  on
       the two nodes, but this will not create problems (except for unused space).

       If  you  do  not  want  gnt-instance to wait for the new disk region to be synced, use the
       --no-wait-for-sync option.

       See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

       Example (increase the first disk for instance1 by 16GiB):

              # gnt-instance grow-disk instance1.example.com 0 16g

       Example for increasing the disk size to a certain size:

              # gnt-instance grow-disk --absolute instance1.example.com 0 32g

       Also note that disk shrinking is not supported; use gnt-backup export and then  gnt-backup
       import to reduce the disk size of an instance.

   RECREATE-DISKS
       recreate-disks [--submit] [--print-jobid]
       [{-n node1:[node2] | {-I|--iallocator name}}]
       [--disk=*N*[:[size=*VAL*][,spindles=*VAL*][,mode=*ro|rw*]]] {instance}

       Recreates all or a subset of disks of the given instance.

       Note  that  this  functionality should only be used for missing disks; if any of the given
       disks already exists, the operation will fail.  While this is  suboptimal,  recreate-disks
       should hopefully not be needed in normal operation and as such the impact of this is low.

       If  only  a  subset  should be recreated, any number of disk options can be specified.  It
       expects a disk index and an optional list  of  disk  parameters  to  change.   Only  size,
       spindles,  and  mode  can  be changed while recreating disks.  To recreate all disks while
       changing parameters on a subset only, a --disk option must be given for every disk of  the
       instance.

       Optionally  the  instance's disks can be recreated on different nodes.  This can be useful
       if, for example, the original nodes of  the  instance  have  gone  down  (and  are  marked
       offline), so we can't recreate on the same nodes.  To do this, pass the new node(s) via -n
       option, with a syntax similar to the add command.  The number of nodes passed  must  equal
       the  number  of  nodes  that the instance currently has.  Note that changing nodes is only
       allowed when all disks are replaced, e.g.  when no --disk option is passed.

       Another method of choosing which nodes to place the instance on is by using the  specified
       iallocator,  passing  the  --iallocator  option.   The primary and secondary nodes will be
       chosen by the specified iallocator plugin, or by the default allocator if . is specified.

       See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

   Recovery/moving
   FAILOVER
       failover [-f] [--ignore-consistency] [--ignore-ipolicy]
       [--shutdown-timeout=*N*]
       [{-n|--target-node} node | {-I|--iallocator} name]
       [--cleanup]
       [--submit] [--print-jobid]
       {instance}

       Failover will stop the instance (if running), change its  primary  node,  and  if  it  was
       originally  running it will start it again (on the new primary).  This works for instances
       with drbd template (in which case you can  only  fail  to  the  secondary  node)  and  for
       externally  mirrored  templates (sharedfile, blockdev, rbd and ext) (in which case you can
       fail to any other node).

       If the instance's disk template is of type sharedfile, blockdev, rbd or ext, then you  can
       explicitly  specify  the target node (which can be any node) using the -n or --target-node
       option, or specify an iallocator plugin using the -I or --iallocator option.  If you  omit
       both, the default iallocator will be used to specify the target node.

       If the instance's disk template is of type drbd, the target node is automatically selected
       as  the  drbd's  secondary  node.   Changing  the  secondary  node  is  possible  with   a
       replace-disks operation.

       Normally  the  failover  will  check  the consistency of the disks before failing over the
       instance.  If you are trying to migrate instances off a dead node, this  will  fail.   Use
       the  --ignore-consistency option for this purpose.  Note that this option can be dangerous
       as errors in shutting down the instance will be ignored, resulting in possibly having  the
       instance running on two machines in parallel (on disconnected DRBD drives).

       The  --shutdown-timeout  is  used  to  specify  how  much  time to wait before forcing the
       shutdown (xm destroy in xen, killing the kvm process, for kvm).  By  default  two  minutes
       are given to each instance to stop.

       If --ignore-ipolicy is given any instance policy violations occuring during this operation
       are ignored.

       If the --cleanup option is passed, the operation changes  from  performin  a  failover  to
       attempting  recovery  from a failed previous failover.  In this mode, Ganeti checks if the
       instance runs on the correct node (and updates its configuration if not) and  ensures  the
       instances' disks are configured correctly.

       See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

       Example:

              # gnt-instance failover instance1.example.com

       For externally mirrored templates also -n is available:

              # gnt-instance failover -n node3.example.com instance1.example.com

   MIGRATE
       migrate [-f] [--allow-failover] [--non-live]
       [--migration-mode=live|non-live] [--ignore-ipolicy] [--ignore-hvversions]
       [--no-runtime-changes] [--submit] [--print-jobid]
       [{-n|--target-node} node | {-I|--iallocator} name] {instance}

       migrate [-f] --cleanup [--submit] [--print-jobid] {instance}

       Migrate  will move the instance to its secondary node without shutdown.  As with failover,
       it works for instances having the drbd  disk  template  or  an  externally  mirrored  disk
       template type such as sharedfile, blockdev, rbd or ext.

       If  the instance's disk template is of type sharedfile, blockdev, rbd or ext, then you can
       explicitly specify the target node (which can be any node) using the -n  or  --target-node
       option,  or specify an iallocator plugin using the -I or --iallocator option.  If you omit
       both, the default iallocator will be used to specify the target node.  Alternatively,  the
       default iallocator can be requested by specifying . as the name of the plugin.

       If the instance's disk template is of type drbd, the target node is automatically selected
       as  the  drbd's  secondary  node.   Changing  the  secondary  node  is  possible  with   a
       replace-disks operation.

       The migration command needs a perfectly healthy instance for drbd instances, as we rely on
       the dual-master capability of drbd8 and the disks of the instance are not  allowed  to  be
       degraded.

       The --non-live and --migration-mode=non-live options will switch (for the hypervisors that
       support it) between a "fully live" (i.e.  the interruption  is  as  minimal  as  possible)
       migration  and one in which the instance is frozen, its state saved and transported to the
       remote node, and then resumed there.  This all depends on the hypervisor support  for  two
       different  methods.   In any case, it is not an error to pass this parameter (it will just
       be ignored if the hypervisor doesn't support it).  The option --migration-mode=live option
       will  request a fully-live migration.  The default, when neither option is passed, depends
       on the hypervisor parameters (and can be viewed with the gnt-cluster info command).

       If the --cleanup option is passed, the operation  changes  from  migration  to  attempting
       recovery  from  a  failed previous migration.  In this mode, Ganeti checks if the instance
       runs on the correct node (and updates its configuration if not) and ensures the instances'
       disks are configured correctly.  In this mode, the --non-live option is ignored.

       The option -f will skip the prompting for confirmation.

       If  --allow-failover  is  specified  it  tries  to  fallback to failover if it already can
       determine that a migration won't work (e.g.  if the instance is shut down).   Please  note
       that the fallback will not happen during execution.  If a migration fails during execution
       it still fails.

       If --ignore-ipolicy is given any instance policy violations occuring during this operation
       are ignored.

       Normally,  Ganeti  will  verify  that  the  hypervisor  versions  on source and target are
       compatible and error out if they are not.  If --ignore-hvversions is  given,  Ganeti  will
       only warn in this case.

       The  --no-runtime-changes  option  forbids  migrate  to alter an instance's runtime before
       migrating it (eg.  ballooning an instance down because the target node doesn't have enough
       available memory).

       If  an  instance has the backend parameter always_failover set to true, then the migration
       is automatically converted into a failover.

       See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

       Example (and expected output):

              # gnt-instance migrate instance1
              Instance instance1 will be migrated. Note that migration
              might impact the instance if anything goes wrong (e.g. due to bugs in
              the hypervisor). Continue?
              y/[n]/?: y
              Migrating instance instance1.example.com
              * checking disk consistency between source and target
              * switching node node2.example.com to secondary mode
              * changing into standalone mode
              * changing disks into dual-master mode
              * wait until resync is done
              * preparing node2.example.com to accept the instance
              * migrating instance to node2.example.com
              * switching node node1.example.com to secondary mode
              * wait until resync is done
              * changing into standalone mode
              * changing disks into single-master mode
              * wait until resync is done
              * done
              #

   MOVE
       move [-f] [--ignore-consistency]
       [-n node] [--compress=*compression-mode*] [--shutdown-timeout=*N*]
       [--submit] [--print-jobid] [--ignore-ipolicy]
       {instance}

       Move will move the instance to an arbitrary node in the  cluster.   This  works  only  for
       instances having a plain or file disk template.

       Note  that  since  this  operation is done via data copy, it will take a long time for big
       disks (similar to replace-disks for a drbd instance).

       The --compress option is used to specify which compression mode is used during  the  move.
       Valid  values are 'none' (the default) and any values specified in the 'compression_tools'
       cluster parameter.

       The --shutdown-timeout is used to specify  how  much  time  to  wait  before  forcing  the
       shutdown (e.g.  xm destroy in XEN, killing the kvm process for KVM, etc.).  By default two
       minutes are given to each instance to stop.

       The --ignore-consistency option will make Ganeti ignore any errors in trying  to  shutdown
       the  instance  on its node; useful if the hypervisor is broken and you want to recover the
       data.

       If --ignore-ipolicy is given any instance policy violations occuring during this operation
       are ignored.

       See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

       Example:

              # gnt-instance move -n node3.example.com instance1.example.com

   CHANGE-GROUP
       change-group [--submit] [--print-jobid]
       [--iallocator NAME] [--to GROUP...]  {instance}

       This  command  moves  an  instance  to  another  node group.  The move is calculated by an
       iallocator, either given on the command line or as  a  cluster  default.   Note  that  the
       iallocator  does  only consider disk information of the default disk template, even if the
       instances' disk templates differ from that.

       If no specific destination groups are specified using --to,  all  groups  except  the  one
       containing the instance are considered.

       See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

       Example:

              # gnt-instance change-group -I hail --to rack2 inst1.example.com

   Tags
   ADD-TAGS
       add-tags [--from file] {instancename} {tag...}

       Add  tags  to  the  given  instance.   If any of the tags contains invalid characters, the
       entire operation will abort.

       If the --from option is given, the list of tags will be extended with the contents of that
       file  (each  line  becomes  a  tag).   In this case, there is not need to pass tags on the
       command line (if you do, both sources will be used).  A file name of - will be interpreted
       as stdin.

   LIST-TAGS
       list-tags {instancename}

       List the tags of the given instance.

   REMOVE-TAGS
       remove-tags [--from file] {instancename} {tag...}

       Remove tags from the given instance.  If any of the tags are not existing on the node, the
       entire operation will abort.

       If the --from option is given, the list of tags to be removed will be  extended  with  the
       contents  of that file (each line becomes a tag).  In this case, there is not need to pass
       tags on the command line (if you do, tags from both sources will be removed).  A file name
       of - will be interpreted as stdin.

REPORTING BUGS

       Report   bugs   to  project  website  (http://code.google.com/p/ganeti/)  or  contact  the
       developers using the Ganeti mailing list (ganeti@googlegroups.com).

SEE ALSO

       Ganeti overview and specifications: ganeti(7) (general  overview),  ganeti-os-interface(7)
       (guest OS definitions), ganeti-extstorage-interface(7) (external storage providers).

       Ganeti   commands:   gnt-cluster(8)   (cluster-wide   commands),  gnt-job(8)  (job-related
       commands),  gnt-node(8)  (node-related  commands),  gnt-instance(8)  (instance  commands),
       gnt-os(8) (guest OS commands), gnt-storage(8) (storage commands), gnt-group(8) (node group
       commands), gnt-backup(8) (instance import/export commands), gnt-debug(8) (debug commands).

       Ganeti daemons: ganeti-watcher(8) (automatic instance restarter),  ganeti-cleaner(8)  (job
       queue cleaner), ganeti-noded(8) (node daemon), ganeti-rapi(8) (remote API daemon).

       Ganeti htools: htools(1) (generic binary), hbal(1) (cluster balancer), hspace(1) (capacity
       calculation), hail(1) (IAllocator plugin), hscan(1) (data gatherer from remote  clusters),
       hinfo(1) (cluster information printer), mon-collector(7) (data collectors interface).

COPYRIGHT

       Copyright (C) 2006-2015 Google Inc.  All rights reserved.

       Redistribution  and  use  in  source  and  binary forms, with or without modification, are
       permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

       1.  Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice,  this  list  of
       conditions and the following disclaimer.

       2.  Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of
       conditions and the following  disclaimer  in  the  documentation  and/or  other  materials
       provided with the distribution.

       THIS  SOFTWARE  IS  PROVIDED  BY  THE  COPYRIGHT  HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY
       EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE  IMPLIED  WARRANTIES  OF
       MERCHANTABILITY  AND  FITNESS  FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL
       THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE  LIABLE  FOR  ANY  DIRECT,  INDIRECT,  INCIDENTAL,
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