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       git-pull - Fetch from and integrate with another repository or a local branch


       git pull [options] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]


       Incorporates changes from a remote repository into the current branch. In its default
       mode, git pull is shorthand for git fetch followed by git merge FETCH_HEAD.

       More precisely, git pull runs git fetch with the given parameters and calls git merge to
       merge the retrieved branch heads into the current branch. With --rebase, it runs git
       rebase instead of git merge.

       <repository> should be the name of a remote repository as passed to git-fetch(1).
       <refspec> can name an arbitrary remote ref (for example, the name of a tag) or even a
       collection of refs with corresponding remote-tracking branches (e.g.,
       refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*), but usually it is the name of a branch in the remote

       Default values for <repository> and <branch> are read from the "remote" and "merge"
       configuration for the current branch as set by git-branch(1) --track.

       Assume the following history exists and the current branch is "master":

                     A---B---C master on origin
               D---E---F---G master
                   origin/master in your repository

       Then "git pull" will fetch and replay the changes from the remote master branch since it
       diverged from the local master (i.e., E) until its current commit (C) on top of master and
       record the result in a new commit along with the names of the two parent commits and a log
       message from the user describing the changes.

                     A---B---C origin/master
                    /         \
               D---E---F---G---H master

       See git-merge(1) for details, including how conflicts are presented and handled.

       In Git 1.7.0 or later, to cancel a conflicting merge, use git reset --merge. Warning: In
       older versions of Git, running git pull with uncommitted changes is discouraged: while
       possible, it leaves you in a state that may be hard to back out of in the case of a

       If any of the remote changes overlap with local uncommitted changes, the merge will be
       automatically canceled and the work tree untouched. It is generally best to get any local
       changes in working order before pulling or stash them away with git-stash(1).


       -q, --quiet
           This is passed to both underlying git-fetch to squelch reporting of during transfer,
           and underlying git-merge to squelch output during merging.

       -v, --verbose
           Pass --verbose to git-fetch and git-merge.

           This option controls if new commits of all populated submodules should be fetched and
           updated, too (see git-config(1) and gitmodules(5)).

           If the checkout is done via rebase, local submodule commits are rebased as well.

           If the update is done via merge, the submodule conflicts are resolved and checked out.

   Options related to merging
       --commit, --no-commit
           Perform the merge and commit the result. This option can be used to override

           With --no-commit perform the merge but pretend the merge failed and do not autocommit,
           to give the user a chance to inspect and further tweak the merge result before

       --edit, -e, --no-edit
           Invoke an editor before committing successful mechanical merge to further edit the
           auto-generated merge message, so that the user can explain and justify the merge. The
           --no-edit option can be used to accept the auto-generated message (this is generally

           Older scripts may depend on the historical behaviour of not allowing the user to edit
           the merge log message. They will see an editor opened when they run git merge. To make
           it easier to adjust such scripts to the updated behaviour, the environment variable
           GIT_MERGE_AUTOEDIT can be set to no at the beginning of them.

           When the merge resolves as a fast-forward, only update the branch pointer, without
           creating a merge commit. This is the default behavior.

           Create a merge commit even when the merge resolves as a fast-forward. This is the
           default behaviour when merging an annotated (and possibly signed) tag that is not
           stored in its natural place in refs/tags/ hierarchy.

           Refuse to merge and exit with a non-zero status unless the current HEAD is already up
           to date or the merge can be resolved as a fast-forward.

       -S[<keyid>], --gpg-sign[=<keyid>]
           GPG-sign the resulting merge commit. The keyid argument is optional and defaults to
           the committer identity; if specified, it must be stuck to the option without a space.

       --log[=<n>], --no-log
           In addition to branch names, populate the log message with one-line descriptions from
           at most <n> actual commits that are being merged. See also git-fmt-merge-msg(1).

           With --no-log do not list one-line descriptions from the actual commits being merged.

       --signoff, --no-signoff
           Add Signed-off-by line by the committer at the end of the commit log message. The
           meaning of a signoff depends on the project, but it typically certifies that committer
           has the rights to submit this work under the same license and agrees to a Developer
           Certificate of Origin (see for more information).

           With --no-signoff do not add a Signed-off-by line.

       --stat, -n, --no-stat
           Show a diffstat at the end of the merge. The diffstat is also controlled by the
           configuration option merge.stat.

           With -n or --no-stat do not show a diffstat at the end of the merge.

       --squash, --no-squash
           Produce the working tree and index state as if a real merge happened (except for the
           merge information), but do not actually make a commit, move the HEAD, or record
           $GIT_DIR/MERGE_HEAD (to cause the next git commit command to create a merge commit).
           This allows you to create a single commit on top of the current branch whose effect is
           the same as merging another branch (or more in case of an octopus).

           With --no-squash perform the merge and commit the result. This option can be used to
           override --squash.

       -s <strategy>, --strategy=<strategy>
           Use the given merge strategy; can be supplied more than once to specify them in the
           order they should be tried. If there is no -s option, a built-in list of strategies is
           used instead (git merge-recursive when merging a single head, git merge-octopus

       -X <option>, --strategy-option=<option>
           Pass merge strategy specific option through to the merge strategy.

       --verify-signatures, --no-verify-signatures
           Verify that the tip commit of the side branch being merged is signed with a valid key,
           i.e. a key that has a valid uid: in the default trust model, this means the signing
           key has been signed by a trusted key. If the tip commit of the side branch is not
           signed with a valid key, the merge is aborted.

       --summary, --no-summary
           Synonyms to --stat and --no-stat; these are deprecated and will be removed in the

           By default, git merge command refuses to merge histories that do not share a common
           ancestor. This option can be used to override this safety when merging histories of
           two projects that started their lives independently. As that is a very rare occasion,
           no configuration variable to enable this by default exists and will not be added.

       -r, --rebase[=false|true|preserve|interactive]
           When true, rebase the current branch on top of the upstream branch after fetching. If
           there is a remote-tracking branch corresponding to the upstream branch and the
           upstream branch was rebased since last fetched, the rebase uses that information to
           avoid rebasing non-local changes.

           When set to preserve, rebase with the --preserve-merges option passed to git rebase so
           that locally created merge commits will not be flattened.

           When false, merge the current branch into the upstream branch.

           When interactive, enable the interactive mode of rebase.

           See pull.rebase, branch.<name>.rebase and branch.autoSetupRebase in git-config(1) if
           you want to make git pull always use --rebase instead of merging.

               This is a potentially dangerous mode of operation. It rewrites history, which does
               not bode well when you published that history already. Do not use this option
               unless you have read git-rebase(1) carefully.

           Override earlier --rebase.

       --autostash, --no-autostash
           Before starting rebase, stash local modifications away (see git-stash(1)) if needed,
           and apply the stash entry when done.  --no-autostash is useful to override the
           rebase.autoStash configuration variable (see git-config(1)).

           This option is only valid when "--rebase" is used.

   Options related to fetching
           Fetch all remotes.

       -a, --append
           Append ref names and object names of fetched refs to the existing contents of
           .git/FETCH_HEAD. Without this option old data in .git/FETCH_HEAD will be overwritten.

           Limit fetching to the specified number of commits from the tip of each remote branch
           history. If fetching to a shallow repository created by git clone with --depth=<depth>
           option (see git-clone(1)), deepen or shorten the history to the specified number of
           commits. Tags for the deepened commits are not fetched.

           Similar to --depth, except it specifies the number of commits from the current shallow
           boundary instead of from the tip of each remote branch history.

           Deepen or shorten the history of a shallow repository to include all reachable commits
           after <date>.

           Deepen or shorten the history of a shallow repository to exclude commits reachable
           from a specified remote branch or tag. This option can be specified multiple times.

           If the source repository is complete, convert a shallow repository to a complete one,
           removing all the limitations imposed by shallow repositories.

           If the source repository is shallow, fetch as much as possible so that the current
           repository has the same history as the source repository.

           By default when fetching from a shallow repository, git fetch refuses refs that
           require updating .git/shallow. This option updates .git/shallow and accept such refs.

       -f, --force
           When git fetch is used with <rbranch>:<lbranch> refspec, it refuses to update the
           local branch <lbranch> unless the remote branch <rbranch> it fetches is a descendant
           of <lbranch>. This option overrides that check.

       -k, --keep
           Keep downloaded pack.

           By default, tags that point at objects that are downloaded from the remote repository
           are fetched and stored locally. This option disables this automatic tag following. The
           default behavior for a remote may be specified with the remote.<name>.tagOpt setting.
           See git-config(1).

       -u, --update-head-ok
           By default git fetch refuses to update the head which corresponds to the current
           branch. This flag disables the check. This is purely for the internal use for git pull
           to communicate with git fetch, and unless you are implementing your own Porcelain you
           are not supposed to use it.

       --upload-pack <upload-pack>
           When given, and the repository to fetch from is handled by git fetch-pack,
           --exec=<upload-pack> is passed to the command to specify non-default path for the
           command run on the other end.

           Progress status is reported on the standard error stream by default when it is
           attached to a terminal, unless -q is specified. This flag forces progress status even
           if the standard error stream is not directed to a terminal.

       -4, --ipv4
           Use IPv4 addresses only, ignoring IPv6 addresses.

       -6, --ipv6
           Use IPv6 addresses only, ignoring IPv4 addresses.

           The "remote" repository that is the source of a fetch or pull operation. This
           parameter can be either a URL (see the section GIT URLS below) or the name of a remote
           (see the section REMOTES below).

           Specifies which refs to fetch and which local refs to update. When no <refspec>s
           appear on the command line, the refs to fetch are read from remote.<repository>.fetch
           variables instead (see git-fetch(1)).

           The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus +, followed by the source
           <src>, followed by a colon :, followed by the destination ref <dst>. The colon can be
           omitted when <dst> is empty. <src> is typically a ref, but it can also be a fully
           spelled hex object name.

           tag <tag> means the same as refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>; it requests fetching
           everything up to the given tag.

           The remote ref that matches <src> is fetched, and if <dst> is not empty string, the
           local ref that matches it is fast-forwarded using <src>. If the optional plus + is
           used, the local ref is updated even if it does not result in a fast-forward update.

               When the remote branch you want to fetch is known to be rewound and rebased
               regularly, it is expected that its new tip will not be descendant of its previous
               tip (as stored in your remote-tracking branch the last time you fetched). You
               would want to use the + sign to indicate non-fast-forward updates will be needed
               for such branches. There is no way to determine or declare that a branch will be
               made available in a repository with this behavior; the pulling user simply must
               know this is the expected usage pattern for a branch.

               There is a difference between listing multiple <refspec> directly on git pull
               command line and having multiple remote.<repository>.fetch entries in your
               configuration for a <repository> and running a git pull command without any
               explicit <refspec> parameters. <refspec>s listed explicitly on the command line
               are always merged into the current branch after fetching. In other words, if you
               list more than one remote ref, git pull will create an Octopus merge. On the other
               hand, if you do not list any explicit <refspec> parameter on the command line, git
               pull will fetch all the <refspec>s it finds in the remote.<repository>.fetch
               configuration and merge only the first <refspec> found into the current branch.
               This is because making an Octopus from remote refs is rarely done, while keeping
               track of multiple remote heads in one-go by fetching more than one is often


       In general, URLs contain information about the transport protocol, the address of the
       remote server, and the path to the repository. Depending on the transport protocol, some
       of this information may be absent.

       Git supports ssh, git, http, and https protocols (in addition, ftp, and ftps can be used
       for fetching, but this is inefficient and deprecated; do not use it).

       The native transport (i.e. git:// URL) does no authentication and should be used with
       caution on unsecured networks.

       The following syntaxes may be used with them:

       •   ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       •   git://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       •   http[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       •   ftp[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       An alternative scp-like syntax may also be used with the ssh protocol:

       •   [user@]host.xz:path/to/repo.git/

       This syntax is only recognized if there are no slashes before the first colon. This helps
       differentiate a local path that contains a colon. For example the local path foo:bar could
       be specified as an absolute path or ./foo:bar to avoid being misinterpreted as an ssh url.

       The ssh and git protocols additionally support ~username expansion:

       •   ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

       •   git://host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

       •   [user@]host.xz:/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

       For local repositories, also supported by Git natively, the following syntaxes may be

       •   /path/to/repo.git/

       •   file:///path/to/repo.git/

       These two syntaxes are mostly equivalent, except when cloning, when the former implies
       --local option. See git-clone(1) for details.

       When Git doesn’t know how to handle a certain transport protocol, it attempts to use the
       remote-<transport> remote helper, if one exists. To explicitly request a remote helper,
       the following syntax may be used:

       •   <transport>::<address>

       where <address> may be a path, a server and path, or an arbitrary URL-like string
       recognized by the specific remote helper being invoked. See gitremote-helpers(1) for

       If there are a large number of similarly-named remote repositories and you want to use a
       different format for them (such that the URLs you use will be rewritten into URLs that
       work), you can create a configuration section of the form:

                   [url "<actual url base>"]
                           insteadOf = <other url base>

       For example, with this:

                   [url "git://"]
                           insteadOf = host.xz:/path/to/
                           insteadOf = work:

       a URL like "work:repo.git" or like "host.xz:/path/to/repo.git" will be rewritten in any
       context that takes a URL to be "git://".

       If you want to rewrite URLs for push only, you can create a configuration section of the

                   [url "<actual url base>"]
                           pushInsteadOf = <other url base>

       For example, with this:

                   [url "ssh://"]
                           pushInsteadOf = git://

       a URL like "git://" will be rewritten to
       "ssh://" for pushes, but pulls will still use the original


       The name of one of the following can be used instead of a URL as <repository> argument:

       •   a remote in the Git configuration file: $GIT_DIR/config,

       •   a file in the $GIT_DIR/remotes directory, or

       •   a file in the $GIT_DIR/branches directory.

       All of these also allow you to omit the refspec from the command line because they each
       contain a refspec which git will use by default.

   Named remote in configuration file
       You can choose to provide the name of a remote which you had previously configured using
       git-remote(1), git-config(1) or even by a manual edit to the $GIT_DIR/config file. The URL
       of this remote will be used to access the repository. The refspec of this remote will be
       used by default when you do not provide a refspec on the command line. The entry in the
       config file would appear like this:

                   [remote "<name>"]
                           url = <url>
                           pushurl = <pushurl>
                           push = <refspec>
                           fetch = <refspec>

       The <pushurl> is used for pushes only. It is optional and defaults to <url>.

   Named file in $GIT_DIR/remotes
       You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/remotes. The URL in this file
       will be used to access the repository. The refspec in this file will be used as default
       when you do not provide a refspec on the command line. This file should have the following

                   URL: one of the above URL format
                   Push: <refspec>
                   Pull: <refspec>

       Push: lines are used by git push and Pull: lines are used by git pull and git fetch.
       Multiple Push: and Pull: lines may be specified for additional branch mappings.

   Named file in $GIT_DIR/branches
       You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/branches. The URL in this file
       will be used to access the repository. This file should have the following format:


       <url> is required; #<head> is optional.

       Depending on the operation, git will use one of the following refspecs, if you don’t
       provide one on the command line. <branch> is the name of this file in $GIT_DIR/branches
       and <head> defaults to master.

       git fetch uses:


       git push uses:



       The merge mechanism (git merge and git pull commands) allows the backend merge strategies
       to be chosen with -s option. Some strategies can also take their own options, which can be
       passed by giving -X<option> arguments to git merge and/or git pull.

           This can only resolve two heads (i.e. the current branch and another branch you pulled
           from) using a 3-way merge algorithm. It tries to carefully detect criss-cross merge
           ambiguities and is considered generally safe and fast.

           This can only resolve two heads using a 3-way merge algorithm. When there is more than
           one common ancestor that can be used for 3-way merge, it creates a merged tree of the
           common ancestors and uses that as the reference tree for the 3-way merge. This has
           been reported to result in fewer merge conflicts without causing mismerges by tests
           done on actual merge commits taken from Linux 2.6 kernel development history.
           Additionally this can detect and handle merges involving renames. This is the default
           merge strategy when pulling or merging one branch.

           The recursive strategy can take the following options:

               This option forces conflicting hunks to be auto-resolved cleanly by favoring our
               version. Changes from the other tree that do not conflict with our side are
               reflected to the merge result. For a binary file, the entire contents are taken
               from our side.

               This should not be confused with the ours merge strategy, which does not even look
               at what the other tree contains at all. It discards everything the other tree did,
               declaring our history contains all that happened in it.

               This is the opposite of ours; note that, unlike ours, there is no theirs merge
               strategy to confuse this merge option with.

               With this option, merge-recursive spends a little extra time to avoid mismerges
               that sometimes occur due to unimportant matching lines (e.g., braces from distinct
               functions). Use this when the branches to be merged have diverged wildly. See also
               git-diff(1) --patience.

               Tells merge-recursive to use a different diff algorithm, which can help avoid
               mismerges that occur due to unimportant matching lines (such as braces from
               distinct functions). See also git-diff(1) --diff-algorithm.

           ignore-space-change, ignore-all-space, ignore-space-at-eol, ignore-cr-at-eol
               Treats lines with the indicated type of whitespace change as unchanged for the
               sake of a three-way merge. Whitespace changes mixed with other changes to a line
               are not ignored. See also git-diff(1) -b, -w, --ignore-space-at-eol, and

               •   If their version only introduces whitespace changes to a line, our version is

               •   If our version introduces whitespace changes but their version includes a
                   substantial change, their version is used;

               •   Otherwise, the merge proceeds in the usual way.

               This runs a virtual check-out and check-in of all three stages of a file when
               resolving a three-way merge. This option is meant to be used when merging branches
               with different clean filters or end-of-line normalization rules. See "Merging
               branches with differing checkin/checkout attributes" in gitattributes(5) for

               Disables the renormalize option. This overrides the merge.renormalize
               configuration variable.

               Turn off rename detection. See also git-diff(1) --no-renames.

               Turn on rename detection, optionally setting the similarity threshold. This is the
               default. See also git-diff(1) --find-renames.

               Deprecated synonym for find-renames=<n>.

               This option is a more advanced form of subtree strategy, where the strategy makes
               a guess on how two trees must be shifted to match with each other when merging.
               Instead, the specified path is prefixed (or stripped from the beginning) to make
               the shape of two trees to match.

           This resolves cases with more than two heads, but refuses to do a complex merge that
           needs manual resolution. It is primarily meant to be used for bundling topic branch
           heads together. This is the default merge strategy when pulling or merging more than
           one branch.

           This resolves any number of heads, but the resulting tree of the merge is always that
           of the current branch head, effectively ignoring all changes from all other branches.
           It is meant to be used to supersede old development history of side branches. Note
           that this is different from the -Xours option to the recursive merge strategy.

           This is a modified recursive strategy. When merging trees A and B, if B corresponds to
           a subtree of A, B is first adjusted to match the tree structure of A, instead of
           reading the trees at the same level. This adjustment is also done to the common
           ancestor tree.

       With the strategies that use 3-way merge (including the default, recursive), if a change
       is made on both branches, but later reverted on one of the branches, that change will be
       present in the merged result; some people find this behavior confusing. It occurs because
       only the heads and the merge base are considered when performing a merge, not the
       individual commits. The merge algorithm therefore considers the reverted change as no
       change at all, and substitutes the changed version instead.


       Often people use git pull without giving any parameter. Traditionally, this has been
       equivalent to saying git pull origin. However, when configuration branch.<name>.remote is
       present while on branch <name>, that value is used instead of origin.

       In order to determine what URL to use to fetch from, the value of the configuration
       remote.<origin>.url is consulted and if there is not any such variable, the value on the
       URL: line in $GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin> is used.

       In order to determine what remote branches to fetch (and optionally store in the
       remote-tracking branches) when the command is run without any refspec parameters on the
       command line, values of the configuration variable remote.<origin>.fetch are consulted,
       and if there aren’t any, $GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin> is consulted and its Pull: lines are
       used. In addition to the refspec formats described in the OPTIONS section, you can have a
       globbing refspec that looks like this:


       A globbing refspec must have a non-empty RHS (i.e. must store what were fetched in
       remote-tracking branches), and its LHS and RHS must end with /*. The above specifies that
       all remote branches are tracked using remote-tracking branches in refs/remotes/origin/
       hierarchy under the same name.

       The rule to determine which remote branch to merge after fetching is a bit involved, in
       order not to break backward compatibility.

       If explicit refspecs were given on the command line of git pull, they are all merged.

       When no refspec was given on the command line, then git pull uses the refspec from the
       configuration or $GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin>. In such cases, the following rules apply:

        1. If branch.<name>.merge configuration for the current branch <name> exists, that is the
           name of the branch at the remote site that is merged.

        2. If the refspec is a globbing one, nothing is merged.

        3. Otherwise the remote branch of the first refspec is merged.


       •   Update the remote-tracking branches for the repository you cloned from, then merge one
           of them into your current branch:

               $ git pull
               $ git pull origin

           Normally the branch merged in is the HEAD of the remote repository, but the choice is
           determined by the branch.<name>.remote and branch.<name>.merge options; see git-
           config(1) for details.

       •   Merge into the current branch the remote branch next:

               $ git pull origin next

           This leaves a copy of next temporarily in FETCH_HEAD, but does not update any
           remote-tracking branches. Using remote-tracking branches, the same can be done by
           invoking fetch and merge:

               $ git fetch origin
               $ git merge origin/next

       If you tried a pull which resulted in complex conflicts and would want to start over, you
       can recover with git reset.


       The fetch and push protocols are not designed to prevent one side from stealing data from
       the other repository that was not intended to be shared. If you have private data that you
       need to protect from a malicious peer, your best option is to store it in another
       repository. This applies to both clients and servers. In particular, namespaces on a
       server are not effective for read access control; you should only grant read access to a
       namespace to clients that you would trust with read access to the entire repository.

       The known attack vectors are as follows:

        1. The victim sends "have" lines advertising the IDs of objects it has that are not
           explicitly intended to be shared but can be used to optimize the transfer if the peer
           also has them. The attacker chooses an object ID X to steal and sends a ref to X, but
           isn’t required to send the content of X because the victim already has it. Now the
           victim believes that the attacker has X, and it sends the content of X back to the
           attacker later. (This attack is most straightforward for a client to perform on a
           server, by creating a ref to X in the namespace the client has access to and then
           fetching it. The most likely way for a server to perform it on a client is to "merge"
           X into a public branch and hope that the user does additional work on this branch and
           pushes it back to the server without noticing the merge.)

        2. As in #1, the attacker chooses an object ID X to steal. The victim sends an object Y
           that the attacker already has, and the attacker falsely claims to have X and not Y, so
           the victim sends Y as a delta against X. The delta reveals regions of X that are
           similar to Y to the attacker.


       Using --recurse-submodules can only fetch new commits in already checked out submodules
       right now. When e.g. upstream added a new submodule in the just fetched commits of the
       superproject the submodule itself can not be fetched, making it impossible to check out
       that submodule later without having to do a fetch again. This is expected to be fixed in a
       future Git version.


       git-fetch(1), git-merge(1), git-config(1)


       Part of the git(1) suite