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       git-rev-parse - Pick out and massage parameters


       git rev-parse [ --option ] <args>...


       Many Git porcelainish commands take mixture of flags (i.e. parameters that begin with a
       dash -) and parameters meant for the underlying git rev-list command they use internally
       and flags and parameters for the other commands they use downstream of git rev-list. This
       command is used to distinguish between them.


   Operation Modes
       Each of these options must appear first on the command line.

           Use git rev-parse in option parsing mode (see PARSEOPT section below).

           Use git rev-parse in shell quoting mode (see SQ-QUOTE section below). In contrast to
           the --sq option below, this mode does only quoting. Nothing else is done to command

   Options for --parseopt
           Only meaningful in --parseopt mode. Tells the option parser to echo out the first --
           met instead of skipping it.

           Only meaningful in --parseopt mode. Lets the option parser stop at the first
           non-option argument. This can be used to parse sub-commands that take options

           Only meaningful in --parseopt mode. Output the options in their long form if
           available, and with their arguments stuck.

   Options for Filtering
           Do not output flags and parameters not meant for git rev-list command.

           Do not output flags and parameters meant for git rev-list command.

           Do not output non-flag parameters.

           Do not output flag parameters.

   Options for Output
       --default <arg>
           If there is no parameter given by the user, use <arg> instead.

       --prefix <arg>
           Behave as if git rev-parse was invoked from the <arg> subdirectory of the working
           tree. Any relative filenames are resolved as if they are prefixed by <arg> and will be
           printed in that form.

           This can be used to convert arguments to a command run in a subdirectory so that they
           can still be used after moving to the top-level of the repository. For example:

               prefix=$(git rev-parse --show-prefix)
               cd "$(git rev-parse --show-toplevel)"
               # rev-parse provides the -- needed for 'set'
               eval "set $(git rev-parse --sq --prefix "$prefix" -- "$@")"

           Verify that exactly one parameter is provided, and that it can be turned into a raw
           20-byte SHA-1 that can be used to access the object database. If so, emit it to the
           standard output; otherwise, error out.

           If you want to make sure that the output actually names an object in your object
           database and/or can be used as a specific type of object you require, you can add the
           ^{type} peeling operator to the parameter. For example, git rev-parse "$VAR^{commit}"
           will make sure $VAR names an existing object that is a commit-ish (i.e. a commit, or
           an annotated tag that points at a commit). To make sure that $VAR names an existing
           object of any type, git rev-parse "$VAR^{object}" can be used.

       -q, --quiet
           Only meaningful in --verify mode. Do not output an error message if the first argument
           is not a valid object name; instead exit with non-zero status silently. SHA-1s for
           valid object names are printed to stdout on success.

           Usually the output is made one line per flag and parameter. This option makes output a
           single line, properly quoted for consumption by shell. Useful when you expect your
           parameter to contain whitespaces and newlines (e.g. when using pickaxe -S with git
           diff-*). In contrast to the --sq-quote option, the command input is still interpreted
           as usual.

           Same as --verify but shortens the object name to a unique prefix with at least length
           characters. The minimum length is 4, the default is the effective value of the
           core.abbrev configuration variable (see git-config(1)).

           When showing object names, prefix them with ^ and strip ^ prefix from the object names
           that already have one.

           A non-ambiguous short name of the objects name. The option core.warnAmbiguousRefs is
           used to select the strict abbreviation mode.

           Usually the object names are output in SHA-1 form (with possible ^ prefix); this
           option makes them output in a form as close to the original input as possible.

           This is similar to --symbolic, but it omits input that are not refs (i.e. branch or
           tag names; or more explicitly disambiguating "heads/master" form, when you want to
           name the "master" branch when there is an unfortunately named tag "master"), and show
           them as full refnames (e.g. "refs/heads/master").

   Options for Objects
           Show all refs found in refs/.

       --branches[=pattern], --tags[=pattern], --remotes[=pattern]
           Show all branches, tags, or remote-tracking branches, respectively (i.e., refs found
           in refs/heads, refs/tags, or refs/remotes, respectively).

           If a pattern is given, only refs matching the given shell glob are shown. If the
           pattern does not contain a globbing character (?, *, or [), it is turned into a prefix
           match by appending /*.

           Show all refs matching the shell glob pattern pattern. If the pattern does not start
           with refs/, this is automatically prepended. If the pattern does not contain a
           globbing character (?, *, or [), it is turned into a prefix match by appending /*.

           Do not include refs matching <glob-pattern> that the next --all, --branches, --tags,
           --remotes, or --glob would otherwise consider. Repetitions of this option accumulate
           exclusion patterns up to the next --all, --branches, --tags, --remotes, or --glob
           option (other options or arguments do not clear accumulated patterns).

           The patterns given should not begin with refs/heads, refs/tags, or refs/remotes when
           applied to --branches, --tags, or --remotes, respectively, and they must begin with
           refs/ when applied to --glob or --all. If a trailing /* is intended, it must be given

           Show every object whose name begins with the given prefix. The <prefix> must be at
           least 4 hexadecimal digits long to avoid listing each and every object in the
           repository by mistake.

   Options for Files
           List the GIT_* environment variables that are local to the repository (e.g. GIT_DIR or
           GIT_WORK_TREE, but not GIT_EDITOR). Only the names of the variables are listed, not
           their value, even if they are set.

           Show $GIT_DIR if defined. Otherwise show the path to the .git directory. The path
           shown, when relative, is relative to the current working directory.

           If $GIT_DIR is not defined and the current directory is not detected to lie in a Git
           repository or work tree print a message to stderr and exit with nonzero status.

           Like --git-dir, but its output is always the canonicalized absolute path.

           Show $GIT_COMMON_DIR if defined, else $GIT_DIR.

           When the current working directory is below the repository directory print "true",
           otherwise "false".

           When the current working directory is inside the work tree of the repository print
           "true", otherwise "false".

           When the repository is bare print "true", otherwise "false".

           When the repository is shallow print "true", otherwise "false".

       --resolve-git-dir <path>
           Check if <path> is a valid repository or a gitfile that points at a valid repository,
           and print the location of the repository. If <path> is a gitfile then the resolved
           path to the real repository is printed.

       --git-path <path>
           Resolve "$GIT_DIR/<path>" and takes other path relocation variables such as
           $GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY, $GIT_INDEX_FILE... into account. For example, if
           $GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY is set to /foo/bar then "git rev-parse --git-path objects/abc"
           returns /foo/bar/abc.

           When the command is invoked from a subdirectory, show the path of the top-level
           directory relative to the current directory (typically a sequence of "../", or an
           empty string).

           When the command is invoked from a subdirectory, show the path of the current
           directory relative to the top-level directory.

           Show the absolute path of the top-level directory.

           Show the absolute path of the root of the superproject’s working tree (if exists) that
           uses the current repository as its submodule. Outputs nothing if the current
           repository is not used as a submodule by any project.

           Show the path to the shared index file in split index mode, or empty if not in
           split-index mode.

   Other Options
       --since=datestring, --after=datestring
           Parse the date string, and output the corresponding --max-age= parameter for git

       --until=datestring, --before=datestring
           Parse the date string, and output the corresponding --min-age= parameter for git

           Flags and parameters to be parsed.


       A revision parameter <rev> typically, but not necessarily, names a commit object. It uses
       what is called an extended SHA-1 syntax. Here are various ways to spell object names. The
       ones listed near the end of this list name trees and blobs contained in a commit.

       <sha1>, e.g. dae86e1950b1277e545cee180551750029cfe735, dae86e
           The full SHA-1 object name (40-byte hexadecimal string), or a leading substring that
           is unique within the repository. E.g. dae86e1950b1277e545cee180551750029cfe735 and
           dae86e both name the same commit object if there is no other object in your repository
           whose object name starts with dae86e.

       <describeOutput>, e.g. v1.7.4.2-679-g3bee7fb
           Output from git describe; i.e. a closest tag, optionally followed by a dash and a
           number of commits, followed by a dash, a g, and an abbreviated object name.

       <refname>, e.g. master, heads/master, refs/heads/master
           A symbolic ref name. E.g.  master typically means the commit object referenced by
           refs/heads/master. If you happen to have both heads/master and tags/master, you can
           explicitly say heads/master to tell Git which one you mean. When ambiguous, a
           <refname> is disambiguated by taking the first match in the following rules:

            1. If $GIT_DIR/<refname> exists, that is what you mean (this is usually useful only

            2. otherwise, refs/<refname> if it exists;

            3. otherwise, refs/tags/<refname> if it exists;

            4. otherwise, refs/heads/<refname> if it exists;

            5. otherwise, refs/remotes/<refname> if it exists;

            6. otherwise, refs/remotes/<refname>/HEAD if it exists.

               HEAD names the commit on which you based the changes in the working tree.
               FETCH_HEAD records the branch which you fetched from a remote repository with your
               last git fetch invocation.  ORIG_HEAD is created by commands that move your HEAD
               in a drastic way, to record the position of the HEAD before their operation, so
               that you can easily change the tip of the branch back to the state before you ran
               them.  MERGE_HEAD records the commit(s) which you are merging into your branch
               when you run git merge.  CHERRY_PICK_HEAD records the commit which you are
               cherry-picking when you run git cherry-pick.

               Note that any of the refs/* cases above may come either from the $GIT_DIR/refs
               directory or from the $GIT_DIR/packed-refs file. While the ref name encoding is
               unspecified, UTF-8 is preferred as some output processing may assume ref names in

           @ alone is a shortcut for HEAD.

       <refname>@{<date>}, e.g. master@{yesterday}, HEAD@{5 minutes ago}
           A ref followed by the suffix @ with a date specification enclosed in a brace pair
           (e.g.  {yesterday}, {1 month 2 weeks 3 days 1 hour 1 second ago} or {1979-02-26
           18:30:00}) specifies the value of the ref at a prior point in time. This suffix may
           only be used immediately following a ref name and the ref must have an existing log
           ($GIT_DIR/logs/<ref>). Note that this looks up the state of your local ref at a given
           time; e.g., what was in your local master branch last week. If you want to look at
           commits made during certain times, see --since and --until.

       <refname>@{<n>}, e.g. master@{1}
           A ref followed by the suffix @ with an ordinal specification enclosed in a brace pair
           (e.g.  {1}, {15}) specifies the n-th prior value of that ref. For example master@{1}
           is the immediate prior value of master while master@{5} is the 5th prior value of
           master. This suffix may only be used immediately following a ref name and the ref must
           have an existing log ($GIT_DIR/logs/<refname>).

       @{<n>}, e.g. @{1}
           You can use the @ construct with an empty ref part to get at a reflog entry of the
           current branch. For example, if you are on branch blabla then @{1} means the same as

       @{-<n>}, e.g. @{-1}
           The construct @{-<n>} means the <n>th branch/commit checked out before the current

       <branchname>@{upstream}, e.g. master@{upstream}, @{u}
           The suffix @{upstream} to a branchname (short form <branchname>@{u}) refers to the
           branch that the branch specified by branchname is set to build on top of (configured
           with branch.<name>.remote and branch.<name>.merge). A missing branchname defaults to
           the current one. These suffixes are also accepted when spelled in uppercase, and they
           mean the same thing no matter the case.

       <branchname>@{push}, e.g. master@{push}, @{push}
           The suffix @{push} reports the branch "where we would push to" if git push were run
           while branchname was checked out (or the current HEAD if no branchname is specified).
           Since our push destination is in a remote repository, of course, we report the local
           tracking branch that corresponds to that branch (i.e., something in refs/remotes/).

           Here’s an example to make it more clear:

               $ git config push.default current
               $ git config remote.pushdefault myfork
               $ git checkout -b mybranch origin/master

               $ git rev-parse --symbolic-full-name @{upstream}

               $ git rev-parse --symbolic-full-name @{push}

           Note in the example that we set up a triangular workflow, where we pull from one
           location and push to another. In a non-triangular workflow, @{push} is the same as
           @{upstream}, and there is no need for it.

           This suffix is also accepted when spelled in uppercase, and means the same thing no
           matter the case.

       <rev>^, e.g. HEAD^, v1.5.1^0
           A suffix ^ to a revision parameter means the first parent of that commit object.  ^<n>
           means the <n>th parent (i.e.  <rev>^ is equivalent to <rev>^1). As a special rule,
           <rev>^0 means the commit itself and is used when <rev> is the object name of a tag
           object that refers to a commit object.

       <rev>~<n>, e.g. master~3
           A suffix ~<n> to a revision parameter means the commit object that is the <n>th
           generation ancestor of the named commit object, following only the first parents. I.e.
           <rev>~3 is equivalent to <rev>^^^ which is equivalent to <rev>^1^1^1. See below for an
           illustration of the usage of this form.

       <rev>^{<type>}, e.g. v0.99.8^{commit}
           A suffix ^ followed by an object type name enclosed in brace pair means dereference
           the object at <rev> recursively until an object of type <type> is found or the object
           cannot be dereferenced anymore (in which case, barf). For example, if <rev> is a
           commit-ish, <rev>^{commit} describes the corresponding commit object. Similarly, if
           <rev> is a tree-ish, <rev>^{tree} describes the corresponding tree object.  <rev>^0 is
           a short-hand for <rev>^{commit}.

           rev^{object} can be used to make sure rev names an object that exists, without
           requiring rev to be a tag, and without dereferencing rev; because a tag is already an
           object, it does not have to be dereferenced even once to get to an object.

           rev^{tag} can be used to ensure that rev identifies an existing tag object.

       <rev>^{}, e.g. v0.99.8^{}
           A suffix ^ followed by an empty brace pair means the object could be a tag, and
           dereference the tag recursively until a non-tag object is found.

       <rev>^{/<text>}, e.g. HEAD^{/fix nasty bug}
           A suffix ^ to a revision parameter, followed by a brace pair that contains a text led
           by a slash, is the same as the :/fix nasty bug syntax below except that it returns the
           youngest matching commit which is reachable from the <rev> before ^.

       :/<text>, e.g. :/fix nasty bug
           A colon, followed by a slash, followed by a text, names a commit whose commit message
           matches the specified regular expression. This name returns the youngest matching
           commit which is reachable from any ref. The regular expression can match any part of
           the commit message. To match messages starting with a string, one can use e.g.
           :/^foo. The special sequence :/!  is reserved for modifiers to what is matched.
           :/!-foo performs a negative match, while :/!!foo matches a literal !  character,
           followed by foo. Any other sequence beginning with :/!  is reserved for now.

       <rev>:<path>, e.g. HEAD:README, :README, master:./README
           A suffix : followed by a path names the blob or tree at the given path in the tree-ish
           object named by the part before the colon.  :path (with an empty part before the
           colon) is a special case of the syntax described next: content recorded in the index
           at the given path. A path starting with ./ or ../ is relative to the current working
           directory. The given path will be converted to be relative to the working tree’s root
           directory. This is most useful to address a blob or tree from a commit or tree that
           has the same tree structure as the working tree.

       :<n>:<path>, e.g. :0:README, :README
           A colon, optionally followed by a stage number (0 to 3) and a colon, followed by a
           path, names a blob object in the index at the given path. A missing stage number (and
           the colon that follows it) names a stage 0 entry. During a merge, stage 1 is the
           common ancestor, stage 2 is the target branch’s version (typically the current
           branch), and stage 3 is the version from the branch which is being merged.

       Here is an illustration, by Jon Loeliger. Both commit nodes B and C are parents of commit
       node A. Parent commits are ordered left-to-right.

           G   H   I   J
            \ /     \ /
             D   E   F
              \  |  / \
               \ | /   |
                \|/    |
                 B     C
                  \   /
                   \ /

           A =      = A^0
           B = A^   = A^1     = A~1
           C = A^2  = A^2
           D = A^^  = A^1^1   = A~2
           E = B^2  = A^^2
           F = B^3  = A^^3
           G = A^^^ = A^1^1^1 = A~3
           H = D^2  = B^^2    = A^^^2  = A~2^2
           I = F^   = B^3^    = A^^3^
           J = F^2  = B^3^2   = A^^3^2


       History traversing commands such as git log operate on a set of commits, not just a single

       For these commands, specifying a single revision, using the notation described in the
       previous section, means the set of commits reachable from the given commit.

       A commit’s reachable set is the commit itself and the commits in its ancestry chain.

   Commit Exclusions
       ^<rev> (caret) Notation
           To exclude commits reachable from a commit, a prefix ^ notation is used. E.g.  ^r1 r2
           means commits reachable from r2 but exclude the ones reachable from r1 (i.e.  r1 and
           its ancestors).

   Dotted Range Notations
       The .. (two-dot) Range Notation
           The ^r1 r2 set operation appears so often that there is a shorthand for it. When you
           have two commits r1 and r2 (named according to the syntax explained in SPECIFYING
           REVISIONS above), you can ask for commits that are reachable from r2 excluding those
           that are reachable from r1 by ^r1 r2 and it can be written as r1..r2.

       The ... (three-dot) Symmetric Difference Notation
           A similar notation r1...r2 is called symmetric difference of r1 and r2 and is defined
           as r1 r2 --not $(git merge-base --all r1 r2). It is the set of commits that are
           reachable from either one of r1 (left side) or r2 (right side) but not from both.

       In these two shorthand notations, you can omit one end and let it default to HEAD. For
       example, origin.. is a shorthand for origin..HEAD and asks "What did I do since I forked
       from the origin branch?" Similarly, ..origin is a shorthand for HEAD..origin and asks
       "What did the origin do since I forked from them?" Note that .. would mean HEAD..HEAD
       which is an empty range that is both reachable and unreachable from HEAD.

   Other <rev>^ Parent Shorthand Notations
       Three other shorthands exist, particularly useful for merge commits, for naming a set that
       is formed by a commit and its parent commits.

       The r1^@ notation means all parents of r1.

       The r1^! notation includes commit r1 but excludes all of its parents. By itself, this
       notation denotes the single commit r1.

       The <rev>^-<n> notation includes <rev> but excludes the <n>th parent (i.e. a shorthand for
       <rev>^<n>..<rev>), with <n> = 1 if not given. This is typically useful for merge commits
       where you can just pass <commit>^- to get all the commits in the branch that was merged in
       merge commit <commit> (including <commit> itself).

       While <rev>^<n> was about specifying a single commit parent, these three notations also
       consider its parents. For example you can say HEAD^2^@, however you cannot say HEAD^@^2.


           Include commits that are reachable from <rev> (i.e. <rev> and its ancestors).

           Exclude commits that are reachable from <rev> (i.e. <rev> and its ancestors).

           Include commits that are reachable from <rev2> but exclude those that are reachable
           from <rev1>. When either <rev1> or <rev2> is omitted, it defaults to HEAD.

           Include commits that are reachable from either <rev1> or <rev2> but exclude those that
           are reachable from both. When either <rev1> or <rev2> is omitted, it defaults to HEAD.

       <rev>^@, e.g. HEAD^@
           A suffix ^ followed by an at sign is the same as listing all parents of <rev>
           (meaning, include anything reachable from its parents, but not the commit itself).

       <rev>^!, e.g. HEAD^!
           A suffix ^ followed by an exclamation mark is the same as giving commit <rev> and then
           all its parents prefixed with ^ to exclude them (and their ancestors).

       <rev>^-<n>, e.g. HEAD^-, HEAD^-2
           Equivalent to <rev>^<n>..<rev>, with <n> = 1 if not given.

       Here are a handful of examples using the Loeliger illustration above, with each step in
       the notation’s expansion and selection carefully spelt out:

           Args   Expanded arguments    Selected commits
           D                            G H D
           D F                          G H I J D F
           ^G D                         H D
           ^D B                         E I J F B
           ^D B C                       E I J F B C
           C                            I J F C
           B..C   = ^B C                C
           B...C  = B ^F C              G H D E B C
           B^-    = B^..B
                  = ^B^1 B              E I J F B
           C^@    = C^1
                  = F                   I J F
           B^@    = B^1 B^2 B^3
                  = D E F               D G H E F I J
           C^!    = C ^C^@
                  = C ^C^1
                  = C ^F                C
           B^!    = B ^B^@
                  = B ^B^1 ^B^2 ^B^3
                  = B ^D ^E ^F          B
           F^! D  = F ^I ^J D           G H D F


       In --parseopt mode, git rev-parse helps massaging options to bring to shell scripts the
       same facilities C builtins have. It works as an option normalizer (e.g. splits single
       switches aggregate values), a bit like getopt(1) does.

       It takes on the standard input the specification of the options to parse and understand,
       and echoes on the standard output a string suitable for sh(1) eval to replace the
       arguments with normalized ones. In case of error, it outputs usage on the standard error
       stream, and exits with code 129.

       Note: Make sure you quote the result when passing it to eval. See below for an example.

   Input Format
       git rev-parse --parseopt input format is fully text based. It has two parts, separated by
       a line that contains only --. The lines before the separator (should be one or more) are
       used for the usage. The lines after the separator describe the options.

       Each line of options has this format:

           <opt-spec><flags>*<arg-hint>? SP+ help LF

           its format is the short option character, then the long option name separated by a
           comma. Both parts are not required, though at least one is necessary. May not contain
           any of the <flags> characters.  h,help, dry-run and f are examples of correct

           <flags> are of *, =, ?  or !.

           •   Use = if the option takes an argument.

           •   Use ?  to mean that the option takes an optional argument. You probably want to
               use the --stuck-long mode to be able to unambiguously parse the optional argument.

           •   Use * to mean that this option should not be listed in the usage generated for the
               -h argument. It’s shown for --help-all as documented in gitcli(7).

           •   Use !  to not make the corresponding negated long option available.

           <arg-hint>, if specified, is used as a name of the argument in the help output, for
           options that take arguments.  <arg-hint> is terminated by the first whitespace. It is
           customary to use a dash to separate words in a multi-word argument hint.

       The remainder of the line, after stripping the spaces, is used as the help associated to
       the option.

       Blank lines are ignored, and lines that don’t match this specification are used as option
       group headers (start the line with a space to create such lines on purpose).

           some-command [options] <args>...

           some-command does foo and bar!
           h,help    show the help

           foo       some nifty option --foo
           bar=      some cool option --bar with an argument
           baz=arg   another cool option --baz with a named argument
           qux?path  qux may take a path argument but has meaning by itself

             An option group Header
           C?        option C with an optional argument"

           eval "$(echo "$OPTS_SPEC" | git rev-parse --parseopt -- "$@" || echo exit $?)"

   Usage text
       When "$@" is -h or --help in the above example, the following usage text would be shown:

           usage: some-command [options] <args>...

               some-command does foo and bar!

               -h, --help            show the help
               --foo                 some nifty option --foo
               --bar ...             some cool option --bar with an argument
               --baz <arg>           another cool option --baz with a named argument
               --qux[=<path>]        qux may take a path argument but has meaning by itself

           An option group Header
               -C[...]               option C with an optional argument


       In --sq-quote mode, git rev-parse echoes on the standard output a single line suitable for
       sh(1) eval. This line is made by normalizing the arguments following --sq-quote. Nothing
       other than quoting the arguments is done.

       If you want command input to still be interpreted as usual by git rev-parse before the
       output is shell quoted, see the --sq option.

           $ cat > <<\EOF
           args=$(git rev-parse --sq-quote "$@")   # quote user-supplied arguments
           command="git frotz -n24 $args"          # and use it inside a handcrafted
                                                   # command line
           eval "$command"

           $ sh "a b'c"


       •   Print the object name of the current commit:

               $ git rev-parse --verify HEAD

       •   Print the commit object name from the revision in the $REV shell variable:

               $ git rev-parse --verify $REV^{commit}

           This will error out if $REV is empty or not a valid revision.

       •   Similar to above:

               $ git rev-parse --default master --verify $REV

           but if $REV is empty, the commit object name from master will be printed.


       Part of the git(1) suite