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       ocaml - The OCaml interactive toplevel


       ocaml [ options ] [ object-files ] [ script-file ]


       The ocaml(1) command is the toplevel system for OCaml, that permits interactive use of the
       OCaml system through a read-eval-print loop. In this mode,  the  system  repeatedly  reads
       OCaml  phrases  from  the input, then typechecks, compiles and evaluates them, then prints
       the inferred type and result value, if any. The system prints a  #  (hash)  prompt  before
       reading each phrase.

       A toplevel phrase can span several lines. It is terminated by ;; (a double-semicolon). The
       syntax of toplevel phrases is as follows.

       The toplevel system is started by the command ocaml(1).   Phrases  are  read  on  standard
       input,  results  are  printed on standard output, errors on standard error. End-of-file on
       standard input terminates ocaml(1).

       If one or more object-files (ending in .cmo or .cma) are given, they are  loaded  silently
       before starting the toplevel.

       If  a  script-file  is  given,  phrases are read silently from the file, errors printed on
       standard error.  ocaml(1) exits after the execution of the last phrase.


       The following command-line options are recognized by ocaml(1).

              Show absolute filenames in error messages.

       -I directory
              Add the given directory to the list of directories searched for source and compiled
              files.  By  default,  the  current  directory  is searched first, then the standard
              library directory. Directories  added  with  -I  are  searched  after  the  current
              directory,  in  the  order in which they were given on the command line, but before
              the standard library directory.

              If the given directory starts with +, it is taken relative to the standard  library
              directory.  For  instance, -I +compiler-libs adds the subdirectory compiler-libs of
              the standard library to the search path.

              Directories can also be added to the search path once the toplevel is running  with
              the #directory directive.

       -init file
              Load  the  given  file  instead  of  the  default  initialization  file.   See  the
              "Initialization file" section below.

              Labels are not ignored in types, labels may be used in applications,  and  labelled
              parameters can be given in any order.  This is the default.

              Deactivates  the  applicative behaviour of functors. With this option, each functor
              application generates new types in its result and applying the same  functor  twice
              to the same argument yields two incompatible structures.

              Do not compile assertion checks.  Note that the special form assert false is always
              compiled because it is typed specially.

              Do not load any initialization file.  See the "Initialization file" section below.

              Ignore non-optional labels in types. Labels cannot be  used  in  applications,  and
              parameter order becomes strict.

              Do not display any prompt when waiting for input.

              Do  not  display the secondary prompt when waiting for continuation lines in multi-
              line inputs.  This should be used e.g. when running ocaml(1) in an emacs(1) window.

              Do not include the standard library directory in the list of  directories  searched
              for source and compiled files.

       -open module
              Opens  the  given module before starting the toplevel. If several -open options are
              given, they are processed in order, just as if the statements open!  module1;;  ...
              open! moduleN;; were input.

       -plugin plugin
              Dynamically  load  the  code  of  the  given  plugin  (a  .cmo or .cma file) in the

       -ppx command
              After parsing, pipe the abstract syntax tree through the preprocessor command.  The
              module Ast_mapper(3) implements the external interface of a preprocessor.

              Check  information  path  during  type-checking,  to  make  sure that all types are
              derived in a principal way.   When  using  labelled  arguments  and/or  polymorphic
              methods,  this  flag  is required to ensure future versions of the compiler will be
              able to infer types correctly, even if internal algorithms  change.   All  programs
              accepted  in  -principal mode are also accepted in the default mode with equivalent
              types, but different binary signatures, and this may slow down type  checking;  yet
              it is a good idea to use it once before publishing source code.

              Allow  arbitrary  recursive types during type-checking.  By default, only recursive
              types where the recursion goes through an object type are supported.

              Enforce the separation between types string and bytes, thereby making strings read-
              only. This will become the default in a future version of OCaml.

              When  a  type  is  visible  under  several  module-paths, use the shortest one when
              printing the type's name in inferred interfaces and error and warning messages.

       -stdin Read the standard input as a  script  file  rather  than  starting  an  interactive

              Force the left-hand part of each sequence to have type unit.

              When  a  type  is  unboxable  (i.e.  a  record with a single argument or a concrete
              datatype with a single constructor of one  argument)  it  will  be  unboxed  unless
              annotated with [@@ocaml.boxed].

              When a type is unboxable  it will be boxed unless annotated with [@@ocaml.unboxed].
              This is the default.

              Turn  bound  checking  off  on  array  and  string  accesses   (the   v.(i)ands.[i]
              constructs).  Programs  compiled  with  -unsafe  are therefore slightly faster, but
              unsafe: anything can happen if the program accesses an array or string  outside  of
              its bounds.

              Identify  the  types string and bytes, thereby making strings writable. For reasons
              of backward compatibility, this is the default setting for  the  moment,  but  this
              will change in a future version of OCaml.

              Print version string and exit.

       -vnum  Print short version number and exit.

              Do not print the version banner at startup.

       -w warning-list
              Enable  or  disable warnings according to the argument warning-list.  See ocamlc(1)
              for the syntax of the warning-list argument.

       -warn-error warning-list
              Mark as fatal the warnings described by the argument  warning-list.   Note  that  a
              warning  is  not triggered (and does not trigger an error) if it is disabled by the
              -w option.  See ocamlc(1) for the syntax of the warning-list argument.

              Show the description of all available warning numbers.

       - file Use file as a script file name, even when it starts with a hyphen (-).

       -help or --help
              Display a short usage summary and exit.


       When ocaml(1) is invoked, it will read phrases from an initialization file  before  giving
       control to the user. The default file is .ocamlinit in the current directory if it exists,
       otherwise  .ocamlinit  in  the  user's  home  directory.  You  can  specify  a   different
       initialization  file  by  using the -init file option, and disable initialization files by
       using the -noinit option.

       Note that you can also use the #use directive to read phrases from a file.


              If set to iso_8859_1, accented characters (from the ISO Latin-1 character  set)  in
              string  and  character  literals  are printed as is; otherwise, they are printed as
              decimal escape sequences.

       TERM   When printing error messages, the toplevel system attempts  to  underline  visually
              the  location of the error. It consults the TERM variable to determines the type of
              output terminal and look up its capabilities in the terminal database.


       ocamlc(1), ocamlopt(1), ocamlrun(1).
       The OCaml user's manual, chapter "The toplevel system".