Provided by: netplan.io_0.36.1_amd64 bug


       netplan - YAML network configuration abstraction for various backends


       netplan [ COMMAND | help ]


       See netplan help for a list of available commands on this system.


       Distribution  installers, cloud instantiation, image builds for particular devices, or any
       other way to deploy an operating system put its desired network  configuration  into  YAML
       configuration file(s).  During early boot, the netplan "network renderer" runs which reads
       /{lib,etc,run}/netplan/*.yaml and writes configuration to /run  to  hand  off  control  of
       devices to the specified networking daemon.

       • Configured  devices get handled by systemd-networkd by default, unless explicitly marked
         as managed by a specific renderer (NetworkManager)

       • Devices not covered by the network config do not get touched at all.

       • Usable in initramfs (few dependencies and fast)

       • No persistent generated config, only original YAML config

       • Parser supports multiple config files to allow  applications  like  libvirt  or  lxd  to
         package  up  expected  network  config (virbr0, lxdbr0), or to change the global default
         policy to use NetworkManager for everything.

       • Retains  the  flexibility  to  change  backends/policy  later  or  adjust  to   removing
         NetworkManager, as generated configuration is ephemeral.

   General structure
       netplan's configuration files use the YAML ( format.
       All  /{lib,etc,run}/netplan/*.yaml  are   considered.    Lexicographically   later   files
       (regardless  of  in  which  directory they are) amend (new mapping keys) or override (same
       mapping keys) previous ones.  A file in /run/netplan completely shadows a file  with  same
       name  in  /etc/netplan,  and a file in either of those directories shadows a file with the
       same name in /lib/netplan.

       The top-level node in a netplan configuration file is a  network:  mapping  that  contains
       version: 2  (the  YAML currently being used by curtin, MaaS, etc.  is version 1), and then
       device definitions grouped by their type, such as ethernets:, wifis:, or bridges:.   These
       are the types that our renderer can understand and are supported by our backends.

       Each type block contains device definitions as a map where the keys (called "configuration
       IDs") are defined as below.

   Device configuration IDs
       The key names below the per-device-type  definition  maps  (like  ethernets:)  are  called
       "ID"s.   They  must  be  unique  throughout  the entire set of configuration files.  Their
       primary purpose is to serve  as  anchor  names  for  composite  devices,  for  example  to
       enumerate the members of a bridge that is currently being defined.

       There  are two physically/structurally different classes of device definitions, and the ID
       field has a different interpretation for each:

       Physical devices
              (Examples: ethernet, wifi) These can dynamically come and go  between  reboots  and
              even  during  runtime  (hotplugging).  In the generic case, they can be selected by
              match: rules on desired properties, such as name/name pattern, MAC address, driver,
              or  device  paths.   In general these will match any number of devices (unless they
              refer to properties which are unique such as the full  path  or  MAC  address),  so
              without  further  knowledge about the hardware these will always be considered as a

              It is valid to specify no match rules at all, in which case the ID field is  simply
              the interface name to be matched.  This is mostly useful if you want to keep simple
              cases simple, and it's how network device configuration has been done  for  a  long

              If  there are match: rules, then the ID field is a purely opaque name which is only
              being used for references from definitions of compound devices in the config.

       Virtual devices
              (Examples: veth, bridge, bond) These are fully under  the  control  of  the  config
              file(s)  and the network stack.  I.  e.  these devices are being created instead of
              matched.  Thus match: and set-name: are not applicable for these, and the ID  field
              is the name of the created virtual device.

   Common properties for physical device types
       match (mapping)
              This selects a subset of available physical devices by various hardware properties.
              The following configuration will then apply to all matching  devices,  as  soon  as
              they appear.  All specified properties must match.

              name (scalar)
                     Current  interface  name.  Globs are supported, and the primary use case for
                     matching on names, as selecting one fixed name can be more  easily  achieved
                     with  having  no match: at all and just using the ID (see above).  Note that
                     currently only networkd supports globbing, NetworkManager does not.

              macaddress (scalar)
                     Device's MAC  address  in  the  form  "XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX".   Globs  are  not

              driver (scalar)
                     Kernel  driver  name,  corresponding to the DRIVER udev property.  Globs are
                     supported.  Matching on driver is only supported with networkd.


              • all cards on second PCI bus:

                         name: enp2*

              • fixed MAC address:

                         macaddress: 11:22:33:AA:BB:FF

              • first card of driver ixgbe:

                         driver: ixgbe
                         name: en*s0

       set-name (scalar)
              When matching on unique  properties  such  as  path  or  MAC,  or  with  additional
              assumptions  such  as "there will only ever be one wifi device", match rules can be
              written so that they only match one device.  Then this property can be used to give
              that  device  a  more  specific/desirable/nicer  name  than the default from udev's
              ifnames.  Any additional device that satisfies the match rules will  then  fail  to
              get renamed and keep the original kernel name (and dmesg will show an error).

       wakeonlan (bool)
              Enable wake on LAN.  Off by default.

   Common properties for all device types
       renderer (scalar)
              Use  the  given  networking  backend  for this definition.  Currently supported are
              networkd and NetworkManager.  This property can be specified globally in networks:,
              for  a  device  type (in e.  g.  ethernets:) or for a particular device definition.
              Default is networkd.

       dhcp4 (bool)
              Enable DHCP for IPv4.  Off by default.

       dhcp6 (bool)
              Enable DHCP for IPv6.  Off by default.  This covers both stateless DHCP - where the
              DHCP  server supplies information like DNS nameservers but not the IP address - and
              stateful  DHCP,  where  the  server  provides  both  the  address  and  the   other

              If  you are in an IPv6-only environment with completely stateless autoconfiguration
              (SLAAC with RDNSS), this option can be set to cause the interface to be brought up.
              (Setting  accept-ra  alone  is not sufficient.) Autoconfiguration will still honour
              the contents of the router advertisment and only use DHCP if requested in the RA.

              Note that rdnssd(8) is required to use RDNSS with networkd.  No extra  software  is
              required for NetworkManager.

       dhcp-identifier (scalar)
              When  set  to 'mac'; pass that setting over to systemd-networkd to use the device's
              MAC address as a unique identifier rather than a RFC4361-compliant Client ID.  This
              has no effect when NetworkManager is used as a renderer.

       accept-ra (bool)
              Accept  Router  Advertisement  that would have the kernel configure IPv6 by itself.
              When enabled, accept Router Advertisements.   When  disabled,  do  not  respond  to
              Router Advertisements.  If unset use the host kernel default setting.

       addresses (sequence of scalars)
              Add static addresses to the interface in addition to the ones received through DHCP
              or  RA.   Each  sequence  entry  is  in  CIDR  notation,  i.   e.   of   the   form
              addr/prefixlen.   addr is an IPv4 or IPv6 address as recognized by inet_pton(3) and
              prefixlen the number of bits of the subnet.

              Example: addresses: [, "2001:1::1/64"]

       gateway4, gateway6 (scalar)
              Set default gateway for IPv4/6, for manual address  configuration.   This  requires
              setting addresses too.  Gateway IPs must be in a form recognized by inet_pton(3).

              Example for IPv4: gateway4: Example for IPv6: gateway6: "2001:4::1"

       nameservers (mapping)
              Set  DNS  servers  and search domains, for manual address configuration.  There are
              two supported fields: addresses: is a list of IPv4 or  IPv6  addresses  similar  to
              gateway*, and search: is a list of search domains.


                           search: [lab, home]
                           addresses: [, "FEDC::1"]

       macaddress (scalar)
              Set   the   device's   MAC   address.    The  MAC  address  must  be  in  the  form


                         macaddress: 52:54:00:6b:3c:59

       optional (boolean)
              An optional device is not required for booting.  Normally, networkd will wait  some
              time for device to become configured before proceeding with booting.  However, if a
              device is marked as optional,  networkd  will  not  wait  for  it.   This  is  only
              supported by networkd, and the default is false.


                         # this is plugged into a test network that is often
                         # down - don't wait for it to come up during boot.
                         dhcp4: true
                         optional: true

       routes (mapping)
              Configure static routing for the device; see the Routing section below.

       routing-policy (mapping)
              Configure policy routing for the device; see the Routing section below.

       Complex  routing  is  possible  with  netplan.   Standard  static routes as well as policy
       routing using routing tables are supported via the networkd backend.

       These options are available for all types of interfaces.

       routes (mapping)
              The routes block defines standard static routes for an interface.  At least to  and
              via must be specified.

              For  from, to, and via, both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses are recognized, and must be in
              the form addr/prefixlen or addr.

              from (scalar)
                     Set a source IP address for traffic going through the route.

              to (scalar)
                     Destination address for the route.

              via (scalar)
                     Address to the gateway to use for this route.

              on-link (bool)
                     When set to "true", specifies that the route is directly  connected  to  the

              metric (scalar)
                     The relative priority of the route.  Must be a positive integer value.

              type (scalar)
                     The  type  of  route.  Valid options are "unicast" (default), "unreachable",
                     "blackhole" or "prohibited".

              scope (scalar)
                     The route scope, how wide-ranging it is to the network.  Possible values are
                     "global", "link", or "host".

              table (scalar)
                     The  table number to use for the route.  In some scenarios, it may be useful
                     to set routes in a separate routing table.  It may also be used to refer  to
                     routing  policy  rules  which also accept a table parameter.  Allowed values
                     are positive integers starting from 1.  Some values are already  in  use  to
                     refer to specific routing tables: see /etc/iproute2/rt_tables.

       routing-policy (mapping)
              The  routing-policy block defines extra routing policy for a network, where traffic
              may be handled specially based on the source IP, firewall marking, etc.

              For from, to, both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses are recognized, and must be in the  form
              addr/prefixlen or addr.

              from (scalar)
                     Set a source IP address to match traffic for this policy rule.

              to (scalar)
                     Match on traffic going to the specified destination.

              table (scalar)
                     The  table  number  to  match  for  the route.  In some scenarios, it may be
                     useful to set routes in a separate routing table.  It may also  be  used  to
                     refer  to  routes  which  also accept a table parameter.  Allowed values are
                     positive integers starting from 1.  Some values are already in use to  refer
                     to specific routing tables: see /etc/iproute2/rt_tables.

              priority (scalar)
                     Specify  a  priority  for the routing policy rule, to influence the order in
                     which routing rules are processed.  A higher number  means  lower  priority:
                     rules are processed in order by increasing priority number.

              fwmark (scalar)
                     Have  this  routing policy rule match on traffic that has been marked by the
                     iptables firewall with this value.  Allowed  values  are  positive  integers
                     starting from 1.

              type-of-service (scalar)
                     Match  this  policy  rule based on the type of service number applied to the

   Properties for device type ethernets:
       Ethernet device definitions do not support any specific properties beyond the common  ones
       described above.

   Properties for device type wifis:
       Note  that  systemd-networkd  does  not  natively  support wifi, so you need wpasupplicant
       installed if you let the networkd renderer handle wifi.

       access-points (mapping)
              This provides pre-configured connections to NetworkManager.  Note that users can of
              course  select  other  access points/SSIDs.  The keys of the mapping are the SSIDs,
              and the values are mappings with the following supported properties:

              password (scalar)
                     Enable WPA2 authentication and set the passphrase for it.  If not given, the
                     network is assumed to be open.  Other authentication modes are not currently

              mode (scalar)
                     Possible access point modes are infrastructure (the default), ap (create  an
                     access  point  to  which other devices can connect), and adhoc (peer to peer
                     networks without a  central  access  point).   ap  is  only  supported  with

   Properties for device type bridges:
       interfaces (sequence of scalars)
              All devices matching this ID list will be added to the bridge.


                           match: {name: "enp2*"}
                           interfaces: [switchports]

       parameters (mapping)
              Customization  parameters  for  special bridging options.  Using the NetworkManager
              renderer, parameter values for time intervals should be expressed in  milliseconds;
              for  the  systemd  renderer,  they  are  interpreted to be in seconds unless a time
              suffix (such as "ms" for  milliseconds)  is  specified.   Time  values  are  passed
              directly to the backend.

              ageing-time (scalar)
                     Set  the  period  of  time  to keep a MAC address in the forwarding database
                     after a packet is received.  This maps to the AgeingTimeSec=  property  when
                     the networkd renderer is used.

              priority (scalar)
                     Set  the  priority  value  for  the  bridge.   This value should be a number
                     between 0 and 65535.  Lower values mean higher priority.   The  bridge  with
                     the higher priority will be elected as the root bridge.

              port-priority (scalar)
                     Set the port priority to .  The priority value is a number between 0 and 63.
                     This metric  is  used  in  the  designated  port  and  root  port  selection

              forward-delay (scalar)
                     Specify  the period of time the bridge will remain in Listening and Learning
                     states before getting to the Forwarding  state.   This  field  maps  to  the
                     ForwardDelaySec= property for the networkd renderer.

              hello-time (scalar)
                     Specify  the interval between two hello packets being sent out from the root
                     and designated bridges.  Hello packets  communicate  information  about  the
                     network  topology.   When  the  networkd  renderer is used, this maps to the
                     HelloTimeSec= property.

              max-age (scalar)
                     Set the maximum age of a hello packet.  If the last hello  packet  is  older
                     than  that  value,  the bridge will attempt to become the root bridge.  This
                     maps to the MaxAgeSec= property when the networkd renderer is used.

              path-cost (scalar)
                     Set the cost of a path on the bridge.  Faster interfaces should have a lower
                     cost.   This  allows  a  finer  control  on the network topology so that the
                     fastest paths are available whenever possible.

              stp (bool)
                     Define whether the bridge should use Spanning Tree  Protocol.   The  default
                     value is "true", which means that Spanning Tree should be used.

   Properties for device type bonds:
       interfaces (sequence of scalars)
              All devices matching this ID list will be added to the bond.


                           match: {name: "enp2*"}
                           interfaces: [switchports]

       parameters (mapping)
              Customization  parameters  for  special  bonding options.  Using the NetworkManager
              renderer, parameter values for intervals should be expressed in  milliseconds;  for
              the  systemd  renderer,  they  are  interpreted to be in milliseconds unless a time
              suffix (such as "s" for seconds) is specified.  Time values are passed directly  to
              the backend.

              mode (scalar)
                     Set  the  bonding  mode  used for the interfaces.  The default is balance-rr
                     (round robin).  Possible values are balance-rr, active-backup,  balance-xor,
                     broadcast, 802.3ad, balance-tlb, and balance-alb.

              lacp-rate (scalar)
                     Set  the  rate  at  which  LACPDUs  are transmitted.  This is only useful in
                     802.3ad mode.  Possible values are slow  (30  seconds,  default),  and  fast
                     (every second).

              mii-monitor-interval (scalar)
                     Specifies  the interval for MII monitoring (verifying if an interface of the
                     bond has carrier).  The default is 0; which disables MII  monitoring.   This
                     is equivalent to the MIIMonitorSec= field for the networkd backend.

              min-links (scalar)
                     The  minimum  number of links up in a bond to consider the bond interface to
                     be up.

              transmit-hash-policy (scalar)
                     Specifies the transmit hash policy for the selection  of  slaves.   This  is
                     only  useful in balance-xor, 802.3ad and balance-tlb modes.  Possible values
                     are layer2, layer3+4, layer2+3, encap2+3, and encap3+4.

              ad-select (scalar)
                     Set the aggregation selection mode.  Possible values are stable,  bandwidth,
                     and count.  This option is only used in 802.3ad mode.

              all-slaves-active (bool)
                     If  the  bond  should  drop duplicate frames received on inactive ports, set
                     this option to false.  If they should be delivered, set this option to true.
                     The  default  value  is  false,  and  is  the  desirable  behavior  in  most

              arp-interval (scalar)
                     Set the interval value for how frequently ARP link monitoring should happen.
                     The  default  value  is  0, which disables ARP monitoring.  For the networkd
                     backend, this maps to the ARPIntervalSec= property.

              arp-ip-targets (sequence of scalars)
                     IPs of other hosts on the link which should be sent ARP requests in order to
                     validate  that a slave is up.  This option is only used when arp-interval is
                     set to a value other than 0.  At least one IP address must be given for  ARP
                     link  monitoring  to  function.  Only IPv4 addresses are supported.  You can
                     specify up to 16 IP addresses.  The default value is an empty list.

              arp-validate (scalar)
                     Configure  how  ARP  replies  are  to  be  validated  when  using  ARP  link
                     monitoring.  Possible values are none, active, backup, and all.

              arp-all-targets (scalar)
                     Specify  whether to use any ARP IP target being up as sufficient for a slave
                     to be considered up; or if all the targets must be up.  This  is  only  used
                     for  active-backup  mode  when arp-validate is enabled.  Possible values are
                     any and all.

              up-delay (scalar)
                     Specify the delay before enabling a link once the  link  is  physically  up.
                     The  default  value  is  0.   This  maps to the UpDelaySec= property for the
                     networkd renderer.

              down-delay (scalar)
                     Specify the delay before disabling a link once the link has been lost.   The
                     default  value  is  0.   This  maps  to  the  DownDelaySec= property for the
                     networkd renderer.

              fail-over-mac-policy (scalar)
                     Set whether to set all slaves to the same MAC address when  adding  them  to
                     the  bond, or how else the system should handle MAC addresses.  The possible
                     values are none, active, and follow.

              gratuitious-arp (scalar)
                     Specify how many ARP packets to send after failover.  Once a link is up on a
                     new slave, a notification is sent and possibly repeated if this value is set
                     to a number greater than 1.  The default value is 1  and  valid  values  are
                     between 1 and 255.  This only affects active-backup mode.

              packets-per-slave (scalar)
                     In  balance-rr  mode, specifies the number of packets to transmit on a slave
                     before switching to the next.  When this value  is  set  to  0,  slaves  are
                     chosen  at  random.   Allowable values are between 0 and 65535.  The default
                     value is 1.  This setting is only used in balance-rr mode.

              primary-reselect-policy (scalar)
                     Set the reselection policy for the primary slave.  On failure of the  active
                     slave,  the  system  will use this policy to decide how the new active slave
                     will be chosen and how recovery will be handled.  The  possible  values  are
                     always, better, and failure.

              resend-igmp (scalar)
                     In  modes balance-rr, active-backup, balance-tlb and balance-alb, a failover
                     can switch IGMP traffic from one slave to another.

                     This parameter specifies how many IGMP membership reports are  issued  on  a
                     failover  event.  Values range from 0 to 255.  0 disables sending membership
                     reports.  Otherwise, the first membership report is  sent  on  failover  and
                     subsequent reports are sent at 200ms intervals.

              learn-packet-interval (scalar)
                     Specify  the  interval  (seconds)  between  sending learning packets to each
                     slave.  The value range is between 1 and 0x7fffffff.  The default  value  is
                     1.   This  option only affects balance-tlb and balance-alb modes.  Using the
                     networkd renderer, this field maps to the LearnPacketIntervalSec= property.

              primary (scalar)
                     Specify a device to be used as a primary slave, or preferred device  to  use
                     as  a  slave  for the bond (ie.  the preferred device to send data through),
                     whenever it is available.  This only affects active-backup, balance-alb, and
                     balance-tlb modes.

   Properties for device type vlans:
       id (scalar)
              VLAN ID, a number between 0 and 4094.

       link (scalar)
              netplan ID of the underlying device definition on which this VLAN gets created.


                eno1: {...}
                  id: 1
                  link: eno1
                  dhcp4: yes
                  id: 2
                  link: eno1
                  address: ...

       Configure an ethernet device with networkd, identified by its name, and enable DHCP:

                version: 2
                    dhcp4: true

       This is a complex example which shows most available features:

                version: 2
                # if specified, can only realistically have that value, as networkd cannot
                # render wifi/3G.
                renderer: NetworkManager
                  # opaque ID for physical interfaces, only referred to by other stanzas
                      macaddress: 00:11:22:33:44:55
                    wakeonlan: true
                    dhcp4: true
                      - "2001:1::1/64"
                    gateway6: "2001:1::2"
                      search: [foo.local, bar.local]
                      addresses: []
                      - to:
                        table: 70
                        on-link: true
                        metric: 3
                      - to:
                        table: 70
                        priority: 100
                      - to:
                        table: 70
                        priority: 50
                      driver: ixgbe
                    # you are responsible for setting tight enough match rules
                    # that only match one device if you use set-name
                    set-name: lom1
                    dhcp6: true
                    # all cards on second PCI bus unconfigured by
                    # themselves, will be added to br0 below
                    # note: globbing is not supported by NetworkManager
                      name: enp2*
                    mtu: 1280
                    # useful on a system where you know there is
                    # only ever going to be one device
                    match: {}
                      "Joe's home":
                        # mode defaults to "infrastructure" (client)
                        password: "s3kr1t"
                  # this creates an AP on wlp1s0 using hostapd
                  # no match rules, thus the ID is the interface name
                         mode: ap
                         # no WPA config implies default of open
                  # the key name is the name for virtual (created) interfaces
                  # no match: and set-name: allowed
                    # IDs of the components; switchports expands into multiple interfaces
                    interfaces: [wlp1s0, switchports]
                    dhcp4: true


       Mathieu Trudel-Lapierre (<>); Martin Pitt (<>).