Provided by: e2fsprogs_1.44.1-1_amd64 bug


       tune2fs - adjust tunable filesystem parameters on ext2/ext3/ext4 filesystems


       tune2fs  [  -l  ]  [  -c  max-mount-counts  ] [ -e errors-behavior ] [ -f ] [ -i interval-
       between-checks ] [ -I new_inode_size ] [ -j ] [ -J journal-options ] [ -m reserved-blocks-
       percentage  ] [ -o [^]mount-options[,...]  ] [ -r reserved-blocks-count ] [ -u user ] [ -g
       group ] [ -C mount-count ] [ -E extended-options ] [ -L volume-label ] [ -M  last-mounted-
       directory  ]  [  -O [^]feature[,...]  ] [ -Q quota-options ] [ -T time-last-checked ] [ -U
       UUID ] [ -z undo_file ] device


       tune2fs allows the system administrator to adjust various tunable filesystem parameters on
       Linux  ext2,  ext3,  or  ext4  filesystems.   The  current  values of these options can be
       displayed by using the -l option to  tune2fs(8)  program,  or  by  using  the  dumpe2fs(8)

       The  device  specifier  can  either  be  a  filename (i.e., /dev/sda1), or a LABEL or UUID
       specifier:    "LABEL=volume-label"    or    "UUID=uuid".      (i.e.,     LABEL=home     or


       -c max-mount-counts
              Adjust  the  number  of  mounts  after  which  the  filesystem  will  be checked by
              e2fsck(8).  If max-mount-counts is 0 or -1, the number of times the  filesystem  is
              mounted will be disregarded by e2fsck(8) and the kernel.

              Staggering  the  mount-counts  at which filesystems are forcibly checked will avoid
              all filesystems being checked at one time when using journaled filesystems.

              Mount-count-dependent checking is disabled by default to avoid  unanticipated  long
              reboots  while  e2fsck  does  its  work.   However,  you  may  wish to consider the
              consequences  of  disabling  mount-count-dependent  checking  entirely.   Bad  disk
              drives,  cables,  memory,  and  kernel  bugs could all corrupt a filesystem without
              marking the filesystem dirty or in error.  If you  are  using  journaling  on  your
              filesystem,  your filesystem will never be marked dirty, so it will not normally be
              checked.  A filesystem error detected by the kernel will still force an fsck on the
              next reboot, but it may already be too late to prevent data loss at that point.

              See also the -i option for time-dependent checking.

       -C mount-count
              Set the number of times the filesystem has been mounted.  If set to a greater value
              than the max-mount-counts parameter set by the -c option, e2fsck(8) will check  the
              filesystem at the next reboot.

       -e error-behavior
              Change  the  behavior of the kernel code when errors are detected.  In all cases, a
              filesystem error will cause e2fsck(8) to check the filesystem  on  the  next  boot.
              error-behavior can be one of the following:

                   continue    Continue normal execution.

                   remount-ro  Remount filesystem read-only.

                   panic       Cause a kernel panic.

       -E extended-options
              Set extended options for the filesystem.  Extended options are comma separated, and
              may take an argument using the equals ('=') sign.  The following  extended  options
              are supported:

                          Reset  the  MMP  block  (if  any) back to the clean state.  Use only if
                          absolutely certain the device is not currently mounted or being fscked,
                          or major filesystem corruption can result.  Needs '-f'.

                          Adjust the initial MMP update interval to interval seconds.  Specifying
                          an interval of 0 means to use  the  default  interval.   The  specified
                          interval  must be less than 300 seconds.  Requires that the mmp feature
                          be enabled.

                          Configure the filesystem for a RAID array with  stride-size  filesystem
                          blocks.  This  is  the  number of blocks read or written to disk before
                          moving to next  disk.  This  mostly  affects  placement  of  filesystem
                          metadata  like  bitmaps  at  mke2fs(2)  time to avoid placing them on a
                          single disk, which can hurt the performance.  It may also  be  used  by
                          block allocator.

                          Configure  the filesystem for a RAID array with stripe-width filesystem
                          blocks per stripe. This is typically be stride-size * N, where N is the
                          number  of  data disks in the RAID (e.g. RAID 5 N+1, RAID 6 N+2).  This
                          allows the block allocator to prevent read-modify-write of  the  parity
                          in a RAID stripe if possible when the data is written.

                          Set  the default hash algorithm used for filesystems with hashed b-tree
                          directories.  Valid algorithms accepted are: legacy, half_md4, and tea.

                          Set a set of default mount options which will be  used  when  the  file
                          system  is  mounted.   Unlike  the  bitmask-based default mount options
                          which can be specified with the -o option,  mount_option_string  is  an
                          arbitrary  string with a maximum length of 63 bytes, which is stored in
                          the superblock.

                          The ext4 file system driver will first apply the bitmask-based  default
                          options,  and  then  parse  the mount_option_string, before parsing the
                          mount options passed from the mount(8) program.

                          This superblock setting is only honored in 2.6.35+ kernels; and not  at
                          all by the ext2 and ext3 file system drivers.

                          Set  a  flag  in  the  filesystem  superblock indicating that it may be
                          mounted using experimental kernel code, such as the ext4dev filesystem.

                          Clear the test_fs  flag,  indicating  the  filesystem  should  only  be
                          mounted using production-level filesystem code.

       -f     Force the tune2fs operation to complete even in the face of errors.  This option is
              useful when removing the has_journal filesystem feature from a filesystem which has
              an  external  journal  (or  is  corrupted  such that it appears to have an external
              journal), but that external journal is not available.   If the  filesystem  appears
              to require journal replay, the -f flag must be specified twice to proceed.

              WARNING:  Removing  an  external  journal  from  a filesystem which was not cleanly
              unmounted without first replaying the external journal can result  in  severe  data
              loss and filesystem corruption.

       -g group
              Set  the  group  which can use the reserved filesystem blocks.  The group parameter
              can be a numerical gid or a group name.  If a group name is given, it is  converted
              to a numerical gid before it is stored in the superblock.

       -i  interval-between-checks[d|m|w]
              Adjust  the  maximal  time  between  two  filesystem  checks.   No suffix or d will
              interpret the number interval-between-checks as days, m as months, and w as  weeks.
              A value of zero will disable the time-dependent checking.

              There  are  pros  and  cons  to disabling these periodic checks; see the discussion
              under the -c (mount-count-dependent check) option for details.

       -I     Change the inode size used by the file system.   This requires rewriting the  inode
              table,  so  it requires that the file system is checked for consistency first using
              e2fsck(8).  This operation can also take  a  while  and  the  file  system  can  be
              corrupted  and data lost if it is interrupted while in the middle of converting the
              file system.

       -j     Add an ext3 journal to the filesystem.  If the -J  option  is  not  specified,  the
              default  journal  parameters  will be used to create an appropriately sized journal
              (given the size of the filesystem) stored within the  filesystem.   Note  that  you
              must  be using a kernel which has ext3 support in order to actually make use of the

              If this option is used to create a journal on a mounted  filesystem,  an  immutable
              file, .journal, will be created in the top-level directory of the filesystem, as it
              is the only safe way to create the journal inode while the filesystem  is  mounted.
              While  the ext3 journal is visible, it is not safe to delete it, or modify it while
              the filesystem is mounted; for this reason the file  is  marked  immutable.   While
              checking unmounted filesystems, e2fsck(8) will automatically move .journal files to
              the invisible, reserved journal inode.  For all filesystems  except  for  the  root
              filesystem,   this should happen automatically and naturally during the next reboot
              cycle.  Since the root filesystem is mounted read-only, e2fsck(8) must be run  from
              a rescue floppy in order to effect this transition.

              On  some  distributions,  such as Debian, if an initial ramdisk is used, the initrd
              scripts will  automatically  convert  an  ext2  root  filesystem  to  ext3  if  the
              /etc/fstab  file  specifies the ext3 filesystem for the root filesystem in order to
              avoid requiring the use of a rescue floppy to add  an  ext3  journal  to  the  root

       -J journal-options
              Override  the default ext3 journal parameters. Journal options are comma separated,
              and may take an argument using the  equals  ('=')   sign.   The  following  journal
              options are supported:

                          Create  a  journal  stored  in  the  filesystem  of  size  journal-size
                          megabytes.   The size of the journal must be at least  1024  filesystem
                          blocks  (i.e.,  1MB  if  using 1k blocks, 4MB if using 4k blocks, etc.)
                          and may be no more than 10,240,000 filesystem blocks.   There  must  be
                          enough free space in the filesystem to create a journal of that size.

                          Specify the location of the journal.  The argument journal-location can
                          either be specified as a block number, or if the  number  has  a  units
                          suffix  (e.g.,  'M',  'G',  etc.)  interpret  it as the offset from the
                          beginning of the file system.

                          Attach the filesystem to the journal block device located on  external-
                          journal.  The external journal must have been already created using the

                          mke2fs -O journal_dev external-journal

                          Note that external-journal must be formatted with the same  block  size
                          as  filesystems  which  will  be using it.  In addition, while there is
                          support  for  attaching  multiple  filesystems  to  a  single  external
                          journal, the Linux kernel and e2fsck(8) do not currently support shared
                          external journals yet.

                          Instead of specifying a device name directly, external-journal can also
                          be  specified by either LABEL=label or UUID=UUID to locate the external
                          journal by  either  the  volume  label  or  UUID  stored  in  the  ext2
                          superblock  at  the start of the journal.  Use dumpe2fs(8) to display a
                          journal device's volume label and UUID.  See  also  the  -L  option  of

              Only one of the size or device options can be given for a filesystem.

       -l     List the contents of the filesystem superblock, including the current values of the
              parameters that can be set via this program.

       -L volume-label
              Set the volume label of the filesystem.  Ext2 filesystem labels can be at  most  16
              characters  long;  if  volume-label  is  longer  than  16  characters, tune2fs will
              truncate it and print a warning.   The  volume  label  can  be  used  by  mount(8),
              fsck(8),  and  /etc/fstab(5) (and possibly others) by specifying LABEL=volume-label
              instead of a block special device name like /dev/hda5.

       -m reserved-blocks-percentage
              Set the percentage of the filesystem which may  only  be  allocated  by  privileged
              processes.    Reserving  some  number  of  filesystem  blocks for use by privileged
              processes is done to avoid filesystem fragmentation, and to allow  system  daemons,
              such  as  syslogd(8),  to  continue  to  function  correctly  after  non-privileged
              processes are prevented from writing to  the  filesystem.   Normally,  the  default
              percentage of reserved blocks is 5%.

       -M last-mounted-directory
              Set the last-mounted directory for the filesystem.

       -o [^]mount-option[,...]
              Set  or clear the indicated default mount options in the filesystem.  Default mount
              options can be overridden by mount options specified either in /etc/fstab(5) or  on
              the  command  line  arguments  to  mount(8).   Older  kernels  may not support this
              feature; in particular, kernels which predate 2.4.20 will almost  certainly  ignore
              the default mount options field in the superblock.

              More  than  one  mount  option  can  be  cleared or set by separating features with
              commas.  Mount options prefixed with a caret character ('^') will be cleared in the
              filesystem's  superblock; mount options without a prefix character or prefixed with
              a plus character ('+') will be added to the filesystem.

              The following mount options can be set or cleared using tune2fs:

                   debug  Enable debugging code for this filesystem.

                          Emulate BSD behavior when creating new files: they will take the group-
                          id  of the directory in which they were created.  The standard System V
                          behavior is the default, where newly created files take on the fsgid of
                          the  current  process,  unless the directory has the setgid bit set, in
                          which case it takes the gid from the parent directory,  and  also  gets
                          the setgid bit set if it is a directory itself.

                          Enable user-specified extended attributes.

                   acl    Enable Posix Access Control Lists.

                   uid16  Disables 32-bit UIDs and GIDs.  This is for interoperability with older
                          kernels which only store and expect 16-bit values.

                          When the filesystem is mounted with journalling enabled, all data  (not
                          just  metadata)  is  committed  into the journal prior to being written
                          into the main filesystem.

                          When the filesystem is mounted with journalling enabled,  all  data  is
                          forced directly out to the main file system prior to its metadata being
                          committed to the journal.

                          When the filesystem is mounted with journalling enabled,  data  may  be
                          written  into the main filesystem after its metadata has been committed
                          to the journal.  This may increase throughput, however,  it  may  allow
                          old data to appear in files after a crash and journal recovery.

                          The  file system will be mounted with barrier operations in the journal
                          disabled.  (This option is currently only supported by  the  ext4  file
                          system driver in 2.6.35+ kernels.)

                          The file system will be mounted with the block_validity option enabled,
                          which causes extra checks to be performed after reading or writing from
                          the  file system.  This prevents corrupted metadata blocks from causing
                          file system damage by overwriting parts of the  inode  table  or  block
                          group  descriptors.  This comes at the cost of increased memory and CPU
                          overhead, so it is enabled only for debugging purposes.   (This  option
                          is  currently  only supported by the ext4 file system driver in 2.6.35+

                          The file system will be mounted with the discard  mount  option.   This
                          will  cause  the  file system driver to attempt to use the trim/discard
                          feature of some storage devices (such  as  SSD's  and  thin-provisioned
                          drives  available  in  some  enterprise  storage  arrays) to inform the
                          storage device that blocks belonging to deleted files can be reused for
                          other  purposes.   (This option is currently only supported by the ext4
                          file system driver in 2.6.35+ kernels.)

                          The file system will be mounted with the nodelalloc mount option.  This
                          will disable the delayed allocation feature.  (This option is currently
                          only supported by the ext4 file system driver in 2.6.35+ kernels.)

       -O [^]feature[,...]
              Set or clear the indicated filesystem features (options) in the  filesystem.   More
              than  one  filesystem  feature  can  be  cleared or set by separating features with
              commas.  Filesystem features prefixed with a caret character ('^') will be  cleared
              in  the  filesystem's superblock; filesystem features without a prefix character or
              prefixed with a plus character ('+') will  be  added  to  the  filesystem.   For  a
              detailed description of the file system features, please see the man page ext4(5).

              The following filesystem features can be set or cleared using tune2fs:

                   64bit  Enable the file system to be larger than 2^32 blocks.

                          Use hashed b-trees to speed up lookups for large directories.

                          Allow more than 65000 subdirectories per directory.

                          Allow  the  value  of  each extended attribute to be placed in the data
                          blocks of a separate inode if necessary, increasing the  limit  on  the
                          size  and  number  of  extended attributes per file.  Tune2fs currently
                          only supports setting this filesystem feature.

                          Enable file system level encryption.  Tune2fs currently  only  supports
                          setting this filesystem feature.

                   extent Enable  the use of extent trees to store the location of data blocks in
                          inodes.   Tune2fs  currently  only  supports  setting  this  filesystem

                          Enable the extended inode fields used by ext4.

                          Store file type information in directory entries.

                          Allow  bitmaps and inode tables for a block group to be placed anywhere
                          on the storage media.  Tune2fs will not reorganize the location of  the
                          inode  tables  and  allocation  bitmaps,  as  mke2fs(8) will do when it
                          creates a freshly formatted file system with flex_bg enabled.

                          Use a journal to ensure  filesystem  consistency  even  across  unclean
                          shutdowns.   Setting  the filesystem feature is equivalent to using the
                          -j option.

                          Increase the limit on the  number  of  files  per  directory.   Tune2fs
                          currently only supports setting this filesystem feature.

                          Support files larger than 2 terabytes in size.

                          Filesystem can contain files that are greater than 2GB.

                          Store a checksum to protect the contents in each metadata block.

                          Allow  the  filesystem  to  store  the  metadata  checksum  seed in the
                          superblock,  enabling  the  administrator  to  change  the  UUID  of  a
                          filesystem using the metadata_csum feature while it is mounted.

                   mmp    Enable or disable multiple mount protection (MMP) feature.

                          Enable project ID tracking.  This is used for project quota tracking.

                   quota  Enable internal file system quota inodes.

                          Force the kernel to mount the file system read-only.

                          Reserve  space  so  the  block  group  descriptor table may grow in the
                          future.  Tune2fs only supports clearing this filesystem feature.

                          Limit  the  number  of  backup  superblocks  to  save  space  on  large
                          filesystems.   Tune2fs  currently only supports setting this filesystem

                          Allow the kernel to initialize bitmaps and inode tables lazily, and  to
                          keep  a high watermark for the unused inodes in a filesystem, to reduce
                          e2fsck(8) time.  The first e2fsck run after enabling this feature  will
                          take  the  full  time,  but  subsequent  e2fsck  runs  will take only a
                          fraction of the original time, depending on how full  the  file  system

              After  setting  or  clearing  sparse_super,  uninit_bg,  filetype,  or resize_inode
              filesystem features, the file system may require being checked using  e2fsck(8)  to
              return  the  filesystem  to  a  consistent  state.   Tune2fs  will  print a message
              requesting that the system administrator run e2fsck(8) if necessary.  After setting
              the  dir_index feature, e2fsck -D can be run to convert existing directories to the
              hashed B-tree  format.   Enabling  certain  filesystem  features  may  prevent  the
              filesystem  from  being mounted by kernels which do not support those features.  In
              particular, the uninit_bg and flex_bg features  are  only  supported  by  the  ext4

       -r reserved-blocks-count
              Set the number of reserved filesystem blocks.

       -Q quota-options
              Sets  'quota'  feature on the superblock and works on the quota files for the given
              quota type. Quota options could be one or more of the following:

                          Sets/clears user quota inode in the superblock.

                          Sets/clears group quota inode in the superblock.

                          Sets/clears project quota inode in the superblock.

       -T time-last-checked
              Set the time the filesystem was last checked using e2fsck.  The time is interpreted
              using  the  current  (local)  timezone.   This can be useful in scripts which use a
              Logical Volume Manager to make a consistent snapshot  of  a  filesystem,  and  then
              check  the filesystem during off hours to make sure it hasn't been corrupted due to
              hardware problems, etc.  If the filesystem was clean, then this option can be  used
              to  set the last checked time on the original filesystem.  The format of time-last-
              checked is the international date format, with an  optional  time  specifier,  i.e.
              YYYYMMDD[HH[MM[SS]]].    The  keyword  now is also accepted, in which case the last
              checked time will be set to the current time.

       -u user
              Set the user who can use the reserved filesystem blocks.  user can be  a  numerical
              uid  or  a  user name.  If a user name is given, it is converted to a numerical uid
              before it is stored in the superblock.

       -U UUID
              Set the universally unique identifier (UUID) of the filesystem to UUID.  The format
              of  the  UUID  is  a  series  of  hex  digits  separated  by  hyphens,  like  this:
              "c1b9d5a2-f162-11cf-9ece-0020afc76f16".  The UUID parameter may also be one of  the

                   clear  clear the filesystem UUID

                   random generate a new randomly-generated UUID

                   time   generate a new time-based UUID

              The  UUID may be used by mount(8), fsck(8), and /etc/fstab(5) (and possibly others)
              by specifying UUID=uuid instead of a block special device name like /dev/hda1.

              See uuidgen(8) for more information.  If the system does not  have  a  good  random
              number  generator  such  as /dev/random or /dev/urandom, tune2fs will automatically
              use a time-based UUID instead of a randomly-generated UUID.

       -z undo_file
              Before overwriting a file system block, write the old contents of the block  to  an
              undo  file.   This undo file can be used with e2undo(8) to restore the old contents
              of the file system should something go wrong.  If the empty string is passed as the
              undo_file  argument,  the  undo  file  will  be  written  to  a file named tune2fs-
              device.e2undo in the directory specified  via  the  E2FSPROGS_UNDO_DIR  environment

              WARNING: The undo file cannot be used to recover from a power or system crash.


       We haven't found any bugs yet.  That doesn't mean there aren't any...


       tune2fs  was written by Remy Card <>.  It is currently being maintained
       by Theodore Ts'o  <>.   tune2fs  uses  the  ext2fs  library  written  by
       Theodore Ts'o <>.  This manual page was written by Christian Kuhtz <chk@data-
       hh.Hanse.DE>.  Time-dependent checking was added by Uwe Ohse <>.


       tune2fs   is   part    of    the    e2fsprogs    package    and    is    available    from


       debugfs(8), dumpe2fs(8), e2fsck(8), mke2fs(8), ext4(5)