Provided by: tree_1.8.0-1_amd64 bug


       tree - list contents of directories in a tree-like format.


       tree  [-acdfghilnpqrstuvxACDFQNSUX] [-L level [-R]] [-H baseHREF] [-T title] [-o filename]
       [--nolinks] [-P pattern] [-I pattern]  [--inodes]  [--device]  [--noreport]  [--dirsfirst]
       [--version]   [--help]   [--filelimit   #]  [--si]  [--prune]  [--du]  [--timefmt  format]
       [--matchdirs] [--fromfile] [--] [directory ...]


       Tree is a recursive directory listing program that produces a depth  indented  listing  of
       files,  which  is colorized ala dircolors if the LS_COLORS environment variable is set and
       output is to tty.  With no arguments, tree lists the files in the current directory.  When
       directory  arguments  are  given, tree lists all the files and/or directories found in the
       given directories each in turn.  Upon completion of listing all  files/directories  found,
       tree returns the total number of files and/or directories listed.

       By default, when a symbolic link is encountered, the path that the symbolic link refers to
       is printed after the name of the link in the format:

           name -> real-path

       If the `-l' option is given and the symbolic link refers to an actual directory, then tree
       will follow the path of the symbolic link as if it were a real directory.


       Tree understands the following command line switches:


       -a     All  files  are  printed.   By  default  tree  does  not  print hidden files (those
              beginning with a dot `.').  In no event does tree print the file system  constructs
              `.' (current directory) and `..' (previous directory).

       -d     List directories only.

       -l     Follows  symbolic  links if they point to directories, as if they were directories.
              Symbolic links that will result in recursion are avoided when detected.

       -f     Prints the full path prefix for each file.

       -x     Stay on the current file-system only.  Ala find -xdev.

       -L level
              Max display depth of the directory tree.

       -R     Recursively cross down the tree each level directories (see -L option), and at each
              of them execute tree again adding `-o 00Tree.html' as a new option.

       -P pattern
              List  only those files that match the wild-card pattern.  Note: you must use the -a
              option to also consider those files beginning with a dot `.'  for matching.   Valid
              wildcard  operators  are  `*'  (any  zero  or  more  characters),  `?'  (any single
              character), `[...]' (any single  character  listed  between  brackets  (optional  -
              (dash)  for  character  range  may  be  used:  ex: [A-Z]), and `[^...]' (any single
              character not listed in brackets) and `|' separates alternate patterns.

       -I pattern
              Do not list those files that match the wild-card pattern.

              If a match pattern is specified by the -P or -I option, this will cause the pattern
              to match without regards to the case of each letter.

              If a match pattern is specified by the -P option, this will cause the pattern to be
              applied to directory names (in addition to filenames).  In the event of a match  on
              the  directory  name,  matching  is  disabled  for the directory's contents. If the
              --prune option is used, empty folders that match the pattern will not be pruned.

              Makes tree prune empty directories from the output, useful when used in conjunction
              with -P or -I.  See BUGS AND NOTES below for more information on this option.

              Omits printing of the file and directory report at the end of the tree listing.

       --charset charset
              Set the character set to use when outputting HTML and for line drawing.

       --filelimit #
              Do not descend directories that contain more than # entries.

       --timefmt format
              Prints  (implies -D) and formats the date according to the format string which uses
              the strftime(3) syntax.

       -o filename
              Send output to filename.


       -q     Print non-printable characters in  filenames  as  question  marks  instead  of  the

       -N     Print non-printable characters as is instead of as escaped octal numbers.

       -Q     Quote the names of files in double quotes.

       -p     Print the file type and permissions for each file (as per ls -l).

       -u     Print the username, or UID # if no username is available, of the file.

       -g     Print the group name, or GID # if no group name is available, of the file.

       -s     Print the size of each file in bytes along with the name.

       -h     Print the size of each file but in a more human readable way, e.g. appending a size
              letter for kilobytes (K), megabytes (M), gigabytes (G),  terabytes  (T),  petabytes
              (P) and exabytes (E).

       --si   Like -h but use SI units (powers of 1000) instead.

       --du   For  each  directory  report its size as the accumulation of sizes of all its files
              and sub-directories (and their files, and so on).  The total amount of  used  space
              is  also given in the final report (like the 'du -c' command.) This option requires
              tree to read the entire directory tree before  emitting  it,  see  BUGS  AND  NOTES
              below.  Implies -s.

       -D     Print  the  date  of  the  last modification time or if -c is used, the last status
              change time for the file listed.

       -F     Append a `/' for directories, a `=' for socket files, a `*' for executable files, a
              `>' for doors (Solaris) and a `|' for FIFO's, as per ls -F

              Prints the inode number of the file or directory

              Prints the device number to which the file or directory belongs


       -v     Sort the output by version.

       -t     Sort the output by last modification time instead of alphabetically.

       -c     Sort  the  output by last status change instead of alphabetically.  Modifies the -D
              option (if used) to print the last status change instead of modification time.

       -U     Do not sort.  Lists files in directory order. Disables --dirsfirst.

       -r     Sort the output in reverse order.  This is a meta-sort that alter the above  sorts.
              This option is disabled when -U is used.

              List  directories  before  files.  This is a meta-sort that alters the above sorts.
              This option is disabled when -U is used.

              Sort the output by type instead of name. Possible values  are:  ctime  (-c),  mtime
              (-t), size, or version (-v).


       -i     Makes  tree  not  print the indentation lines, useful when used in conjunction with
              the -f option.  Also removes as much whitespace as possible when used with  the  -J
              or -x options.

       -A     Turn on ANSI line graphics hack when printing the indentation lines.

       -S     Turn  on  CP437  line  graphics  (useful when using Linux console mode fonts). This
              option is now equivalent to `--charset=IBM437' and may eventually be depreciated.

       -n     Turn colorization off always, over-ridden by the -C option.

       -C     Turn colorization on always, using built-in color  defaults  if  the  LS_COLORS  or
              TREE_COLORS  environment  variables  are  not  set.  Useful to colorize output to a


       -X     Turn on XML output. Outputs the directory tree as an XML formatted file.

       -J     Turn on JSON output. Outputs the directory tree as an JSON formatted array.

       -H baseHREF
              Turn on HTML output, including HTTP references. Useful  for  ftp  sites.   baseHREF
              gives  the  base  ftp location when using HTML output. That is, the local directory
              may    be    `/local/ftp/pub',     but     it     must     be     referenced     as
              `ftp://hostname.organization.domain/pub'         (baseHREF         should        be
              `ftp://hostname.organization.domain'). Hint: don't use ANSI lines with this option,
              and  don't  give  more than one directory in the directory list. If you wish to use
              colors via CSS style-sheet, use the -C option in addition to this option  to  force
              color output.

       -T title
              Sets the title and H1 header string in HTML output mode.

              Turns off hyperlinks in HTML output.


       --fromfile  Reads  a  directory  listing  from  a file rather than the file-system.  Paths
       provided on the command line are files to read from rather  than  directories  to  search.
       The dot (.) directory indicates that tree should read paths from standard input.


       --help Outputs a verbose usage listing.

              Outputs the version of tree.

       --     Option processing terminator.  No further options will be processed after this.


       /etc/DIR_COLORS          System color database.
       ~/.dircolors        Users color database.


       LS_COLORS      Color information created by dircolors
       TREE_COLORS    Uses this for color information over LS_COLORS if it is set.
       TREE_CHARSET   Character set for tree to use in HTML mode.
       CLICOLOR       Enables colorization even if TREE_COLORS or LS_COLORS is not set.
       CLICOLOR_FORCE Always enables colorization (effectively -C)
       LC_CTYPE       Locale for filename output.
       LC_TIME        Locale for timefmt output, see strftime(3).
       TZ        Timezone for timefmt output, see strftime(3).


       Steve Baker (
       HTML output hacked by Francesc Rocher (
       Charsets and OS/2 support by Kyosuke Tokoro (


       Tree  does  not  prune "empty" directories when the -P and -I options are used by default.
       Use the --prune option.

       The -h and --si options round to the nearest whole number unlike  the  ls  implementations
       which rounds up always.

       Pruning  files  and  directories  with  the  -I,  -P  and --filelimit options will lead to
       incorrect file/directory count reports.

       The --prune and --du options cause tree to accumulate the entire  tree  in  memory  before
       emitting  it.  For  large directory trees this can cause a significant delay in output and
       the use of large amounts of memory.

       The timefmt expansion buffer is limited to a ridiculously large 255 characters.  Output of
       time  strings  longer  than  this  will be undefined, but are guaranteed to not exceed 255

       XML/JSON trees are not colored, which is a bit of a shame.

       Probably more.


       dircolors(1), ls(1), find(1), du(1), strftime(3)