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       sysfs - a filesystem for exporting kernel objects


       The  sysfs  filesystem  is  a pseudo-filesystem which provides an interface to kernel data
       structures.  (More precisely, the files and directories in sysfs provide  a  view  of  the
       kobject  structures  defined internally within the kernel.)  The files under sysfs provide
       information about devices, kernel modules, filesystems, and other kernel components.

       The sysfs filesystem is commonly mounted at /sys.  Typically, it is mounted  automatically
       by the system, but it can also be mounted manually using a command such as:

           mount -t sysfs sysfs /sys

       Many  of  the  files  in  the sysfs filesystem are read-only, but some files are writable,
       allowing kernel variables to be changed.  To avoid redundancy, symbolic links are  heavily
       used to connect entries across the filesystem tree.

   Files and directories
       The following list describes some of the files and directories under the /sys hierarchy.

              This  subdirectory  contains  one symbolic link for each block device that has been
              discovered on the system.  The symbolic links point  to  corresponding  directories
              under /sys/devices.

              This  directory  contains one subdirectory for each of the bus types in the kernel.
              Inside each of these directories are two subdirectories:

                     This subdirectory contains symbolic links to entries  in  /sys/devices  that
                     correspond to the devices discovered on this bus.

                     This  subdirectory  contains one subdirectory for each device driver that is
                     loaded on this bus.

              This subdirectory contains a single layer of further subdirectories for each of the
              device  classes  that  have been registered on the system (e.g., terminals, network
              devices, block devices, graphics devices, sound devices, and so on).   Inside  each
              of  these  subdirectories are symbolic links for each of the devices in this class.
              These symbolic links refer to entries in the /sys/devices directory.

              Each of the entries in this directory is a symbolic link representing  one  of  the
              real or virtual networking devices that are visible in the network namespace of the
              process that is accessing the directory.  Each of these symbolic  links  refers  to
              entries in the /sys/devices directory.

              This  directory  contains  two  subdirectories  block/  and  char/,  corresponding,
              respectively, to the block and character devices on the  system.   Inside  each  of
              these  subdirectories  are symbolic links with names of the form major-ID:minor-ID,
              where the ID values correspond to the major and minor  ID  of  a  specific  device.
              Each  symbolic link points to the sysfs directory for a device.  The symbolic links
              inside /sys/dev thus provide an easy way to look up the sysfs interface  using  the
              device IDs returned by a call to stat(2) (or similar).

              The following shell session shows an example from /sys/dev:

                  $ stat -c "%t %T" /dev/null
                  1 3
                  $ readlink /sys/dev/char/1\:3
                  $ ls -Fd /sys/devices/virtual/mem/null
                  $ ls -d1 /sys/devices/virtual/mem/null/*

              This  is a directory that contains a filesystem representation of the kernel device
              tree, which is a hierarchy of device structures within the kernel.

              This subdirectory  contains  interfaces  for  viewing  and  manipulating  firmware-
              specific objects and attributes.

              This  directory  contains  subdirectories  for some filesystems.  A filesystem will
              have a subdirectory here only if it chose to explicitly create the subdirectory.

              This directory conventionally is used as a mount point for  a  tmpfs(5)  filesystem
              containing mount points for cgroups(7) filesystems.

              The  directory  contains  configuration  files  for  the SMACK LSM.  See the kernel
              source file Documentation/admin-guide/LSM/Smack.rst.

              [To be documented]

              This  subdirectory  contains  various  files  and   subdirectories   that   provide
              information about the running kernel.

              For information about the files in this directory, see cgroups(7).

              Mount  point for the tracefs filesystem used by the kernel's ftrace facility.  (For
              information on ftrace, see the kernel source file Documentation/trace/ftrace.txt.)

              This  subdirectory  contains  various  files  and   subdirectories   that   provide
              information about the kernel's memory management subsystem.

              This  subdirectory  contains  one subdirectory for each of the huge page sizes that
              the system supports.  The subdirectory name indicates the  huge  page  size  (e.g.,
              hugepages-2048kB).   Within each of these subdirectories is a set of files that can
              be used to view and (in some cases) change settings associated with that huge  page
              size.   For  further  information,  see the kernel source file Documentation/admin-

              This subdirectory contains one subdirectory for each module that is loaded into the
              kernel.   The  name  of  each  directory is the name of the module.  In each of the
              subdirectories, there may be following files:

                     [to be documented]

                     [to be documented]

                     [to be documented]

              refcnt [to be documented]

                     [to be documented]

              taint  [to be documented]

              uevent [to be documented]

                     [to be documented]

              In each of the subdirectories, there may be following subdirectories:

                     [To be documented]

                     [To be documented]

              notes  [To be documented]

                     This directory contains one file for each module parameter, with  each  file
                     containing  the  value  of the corresponding parameter.  Some of these files
                     are writable, allowing the

                     This subdirectories contains files with information about  module  sections.
                     This information is mainly used for debugging.

              [To be documented]

              [To be documented]


       The sysfs filesystem first appeared in Linux 2.6.0.


       The sysfs filesystem is Linux-specific.


       This  manual  page is incomplete, possibly inaccurate, and is the kind of thing that needs
       to be updated very often.


       proc(5), udev(7)

       P. Mochel. (2005).  The sysfs filesystem.  Proceedings of the 2005 Ottawa Linux Symposium.

       The kernel source file Documentation/filesystems/sysfs.txt  and  various  other  files  in
       Documentation/ABI and Documentation/*/sysfs.txt


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