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       turbostat - Report processor frequency and idle statistics


       turbostat [Options] command
       turbostat [Options] [--interval seconds]


       turbostat  reports processor topology, frequency, idle power-state statistics, temperature
       and power on X86 processors.  There are two ways to invoke turbostat.  The first method is
       to  supply  a  command,  which  is  forked and statistics are printed in one-shot upon its
       completion.  The second method is to omit the command, and turbostat  displays  statistics
       every  5  seconds  interval.   The  5-second  interval can be changed using the --interval

       Some information is not available on older processors.

       Options can be specified with a single or double '-', and only as much of the option  name
       as  necessary  to  disambiguate  it from others is necessary.  Note that options are case-

       --add attributes add column with counter having specified  'attributes'.   The  'location'
       attribute is required, all others are optional.
            location: {msrDDD | msr0xXXX | /sys/path...}
                 msrDDD is a decimal offset, eg. msr16
                 msr0xXXX is a hex offset, eg. msr0x10
                 /sys/path... is an absolute path to a sysfs attribute

            scope: {cpu | core | package}
                 sample and print the counter for every cpu, core, or package.
                 default: cpu

            size: {u32 | u64 }
                 MSRs are read as 64-bits, u32 truncates the displayed value to 32-bits.
                 default: u64

            format: {raw | delta | percent}
                 'raw' shows the MSR contents in hex.
                 'delta' shows the difference in values during the measurement interval.
                 'percent' shows the delta as a percentage of the cycles elapsed.
                 default: delta

            name: "name_string"
                 Any string that does not match a key-word above is used
                 as the column header.

       --cpu  cpu-set  limit  output to system summary plus the specified cpu-set.  If cpu-set is
       the string "core", then the system summary plus the first CPU in each core are printed  --
       eg.  subsequent  HT siblings are not printed.  Or if cpu-set is the string "package", then
       the system summary plus the first CPU in each package is printed.  Otherwise,  the  system
       summary  plus  the  specified set of CPUs are printed.  The cpu-set is ordered from low to
       high,  comma  delimited  with  ".."  and  "-"   permitted   to   denote   a   range.   eg.

       --hide  column do not show the specified built-in columns.  May be invoked multiple times,
       or with a comma-separated list of column names.

       --enable column show the specified built-in columns,  which  are  otherwise  disabled,  by
       default.    Currently   the  only  built-in  counters  disabled  by  default  are  "usec",
       "Time_Of_Day_Seconds", "APIC" and "X2APIC".  The column name "all" can be used  to  enable
       all disabled-by-default built-in counters.

       --show column show only the specified built-in columns.  May be invoked multiple times, or
       with a comma-separated list of column names.

       --show CATEGORY --hide CATEGORY  Show and hide also accept a single CATEGORY  of  columns:
       "all", "topology", "idle", "frequency", "power", "sysfs", "other".

       --Dump displays the raw counter values.

       --quiet Do not decode and print the system configuration header information.

       --interval seconds overrides the default 5.0 second measurement interval.

       --num_iterations num number of the measurement iterations.

       --out  output_file  turbostat output is written to the specified output_file.  The file is
       truncated if it already exists, and it is created if it does not exist.

       --help displays usage for the most common parameters.

       --Joules displays energy in Joules, rather than dividing Joules by time to print power  in

       --list display column header names available for use by --show and --hide, then exit.

       --Summary limits output to a 1-line System Summary for each interval.

       --TCC  temperature  sets  the Thermal Control Circuit temperature for systems which do not
       export that value.  This is used for making sense of the Digital Thermal  Sensor  outputs,
       as they return degrees Celsius below the TCC activation temperature.

       --version displays the version.

       The  command  parameter forks command, and upon its exit, displays the statistics gathered
       since it was forked.


       The system configuration dump (if --quiet is not used) is  followed  by  statistics.   The
       first  row of the statistics labels the content of each column (below).  The second row of
       statistics is the system summary line.  The system summary line has a '-' in  the  columns
       for  the  Package,  Core, and CPU.  The contents of the system summary line depends on the
       type of column.  Columns that count items (eg. IRQ) show the sum across all  CPUs  in  the
       system.   Columns  that  show a percentage show the average across all CPUs in the system.
       Columns that dump raw MSR values simply show 0 in the summary.  After the  system  summary
       row,  each row describes a specific Package/Core/CPU.  Note that if the --cpu parameter is
       used to limit which specific CPUs are displayed, turbostat will still  collect  statistics
       for  all  CPUs  in  the  system and will still show the system summary for all CPUs in the


       usec For each CPU, the number of microseconds elapsed during counter collection, including thread migration -- if any.  This counter is disabled by default, and is enabled with "--enable usec", or --debug.  On the summary row, usec refers to the total elapsed time to collect the counters on all cpus.
       Time_Of_Day_Seconds For each CPU, the gettimeofday(2) value (seconds.subsec since Epoch) when the counters ending the measurement interval were collected.  This column is disabled by default, and can be enabled with "--enable Time_Of_Day_Seconds" or "--debug".  On the summary row, Time_Of_Day_Seconds refers to the timestamp following collection of counters on the last CPU.
       Core processor core number.  Note that multiple CPUs per core indicate support for Intel(R) Hyper-Threading Technology (HT).
       CPU Linux CPU (logical processor) number.  Yes, it is okay that on many systems the CPUs are not listed in numerical order -- for efficiency reasons, turbostat runs in topology order, so HT siblings appear together.
       Package processor package number -- not present on systems with a single processor package.
       Avg_MHz number of cycles executed divided by time elapsed.  Note that this includes idle-time when 0 instructions are executed.
       Busy% percent of the measurement interval that the CPU executes instructions, aka. % of time in "C0" state.
       Bzy_MHz average clock rate while the CPU was not idle (ie. in "c0" state).
       TSC_MHz average MHz that the TSC ran during the entire interval.
       IRQ The number of interrupts serviced by that CPU during the measurement interval.  The system total line is the sum of interrupts serviced across all CPUs.  turbostat parses /proc/interrupts to generate this summary.
       SMI The number of System Management Interrupts  serviced CPU during the measurement interval.  While this counter is actually per-CPU, SMI are triggered on all processors, so the number should be the same for all CPUs.
       C1, C2, C3... The number times Linux requested the C1, C2, C3 idle state during the measurement interval.  The system summary line shows the sum for all CPUs.  These are C-state names as exported in /sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu*/cpuidle/state*/name.  While their names are generic, their attributes are processor specific. They the system description section of output shows what MWAIT sub-states they are mapped to on each system.
       C1%, C2%, C3% The residency percentage that Linux requested C1, C2, C3....  The system summary is the average of all CPUs in the system.  Note that these are software, reflecting what was requested.  The hardware counters reflect what was actually achieved.
       CPU%c1, CPU%c3, CPU%c6, CPU%c7 show the percentage residency in hardware core idle states.  These numbers are from hardware residency counters.
       CoreTmp Degrees Celsius reported by the per-core Digital Thermal Sensor.
       PkgTmp Degrees Celsius reported by the per-package Package Thermal Monitor.
       GFX%rc6 The percentage of time the GPU is in the "render C6" state, rc6, during the measurement interval. From /sys/class/drm/card0/power/rc6_residency_ms.
       GFXMHz Instantaneous snapshot of what sysfs presents at the end of the measurement interval. From /sys/class/graphics/fb0/device/drm/card0/gt_cur_freq_mhz.
       Pkg%pc2, Pkg%pc3, Pkg%pc6, Pkg%pc7 percentage residency in hardware package idle states.  These numbers are from hardware residency counters.
       PkgWatt Watts consumed by the whole package.
       CorWatt Watts consumed by the core part of the package.
       GFXWatt Watts consumed by the Graphics part of the package -- available only on client processors.
       RAMWatt Watts consumed by the DRAM DIMMS -- available only on server processors.
       PKG_% percent of the interval that RAPL throttling was active on the Package.  Note that the system summary is the sum of the package throttling time, and thus may be higher than 100% on a multi-package system.  Note that the meaning of this field is model specific.  For example, some hardware increments this counter when RAPL responds to thermal limits, but does not increment this counter when RAPL responds to power limits.  Comparing PkgWatt and PkgTmp to system limits is necessary.
       RAM_% percent of the interval that RAPL throttling was active on DRAM.


       By default, turbostat dumps all possible information --  a  system  configuration  header,
       followed by columns for all counters.  This is ideal for remote debugging, use the "--out"
       option to save everything to a text file, and get that file  to  the  expert  helping  you

       When  you  are  not  interested in all that information, and there are several ways to see
       only what you want.  First the "--quiet" option will skip the  configuration  information,
       and turbostat will show only the counter columns.  Second, you can reduce the columns with
       the "--hide" and "--show" options.  If you use the "--show" option,  then  turbostat  will
       show  only  the columns you list.  If you use the "--hide" option, turbostat will show all
       columns, except the ones you list.

       To find out what columns are available for --show  and  --hide,  the  "--list"  option  is
       available.   For  convenience,  the special strings "sysfs" can be used to refer to all of
       the sysfs C-state counters at once:
       sudo ./turbostat --show sysfs --quiet sleep 10
       10.003837 sec
            C1   C1E  C3   C6   C7s  C1%  C1E% C3%  C6%  C7s%
            4    21   2    2    459  0.14 0.82 0.00 0.00 98.93
            1    17   2    2    130  0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 99.80
            0    0    0    0    31   0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 99.95
            2    1    0    0    52   1.14 6.49 0.00 0.00 92.21
            1    2    0    0    52   0.00 0.08 0.00 0.00 99.86
            0    0    0    0    71   0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 99.89
            0    0    0    0    25   0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 99.96
            0    0    0    0    74   0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 99.94
            0    1    0    0    24   0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 99.84


       If turbostat is invoked with  a  command,  it  will  fork  that  command  and  output  the
       statistics  gathered  after  the  command  exits.   In this case, turbostat output goes to
       stderr, by default.  Output can instead be saved to a file using  the  --out  option.   In
       this  example,  the  "sleep  10" command is forked, and turbostat waits for it to complete
       before saving all statistics  into  "ts.out".   Note  that  "sleep  10"  is  not  part  of
       turbostat,  but  is  simply an example of a command that turbostat can fork.  The "ts.out"
       file is what you want to edit in a very wide window, paste into a spreadsheet,  or  attach
       to a bugzilla entry.

       [root@hsw]# ./turbostat -o ts.out sleep 10


       Without  a command to fork, turbostat displays statistics ever 5 seconds.  Periodic output
       goes to stdout, by default, unless --out is used to specify an output file.  The  5-second
       interval can be changed with the "-i sec" option.
       sudo ./turbostat --quiet --hide sysfs,IRQ,SMI,CoreTmp,PkgTmp,GFX%rc6,GFXMHz,PkgWatt,CorWatt,GFXWatt
            Core CPU  Avg_MHz   Busy%     Bzy_MHz   TSC_MHz   CPU%c1    CPU%c3    CPU%c6    CPU%c7
            -    -    488  12.52     3900 3498 12.50     0.00 0.00 74.98
            0    0    5    0.13 3900 3498 99.87     0.00 0.00 0.00
            0    4    3897 99.99     3900 3498 0.01
            1    1    0    0.00 3856 3498 0.01 0.00 0.00 99.98
            1    5    0    0.00 3861 3498 0.01
            2    2    1    0.02 3889 3498 0.03 0.00 0.00 99.95
            2    6    0    0.00 3863 3498 0.05
            3    3    0    0.01 3869 3498 0.02 0.00 0.00 99.97
            3    7    0    0.00 3878 3498 0.03
            Core CPU  Avg_MHz   Busy%     Bzy_MHz   TSC_MHz   CPU%c1    CPU%c3    CPU%c6    CPU%c7
            -    -    491  12.59     3900 3498 12.42     0.00 0.00 74.99
            0    0    27   0.69 3900 3498 99.31     0.00 0.00 0.00
            0    4    3898 99.99     3900 3498 0.01
            1    1    0    0.00 3883 3498 0.01 0.00 0.00 99.99
            1    5    0    0.00 3898 3498 0.01
            2    2    0    0.01 3889 3498 0.02 0.00 0.00 99.98
            2    6    0    0.00 3889 3498 0.02
            3    3    0    0.00 3856 3498 0.01 0.00 0.00 99.99
            3    7    0    0.00 3897 3498 0.01
       This  example also shows the use of the --hide option to skip columns that are not wanted.
       Note that cpu4 in this example is 99.99% busy, while the other CPUs are all under 1% busy.
       Notice  that  cpu4's  HT  sibling is cpu0, which is under 1% busy, but can get into CPU%c1
       only, because its cpu4's activity on shared hardware keeps it from entering  a  deeper  C-


       By  default,  turbostat  always  dumps  system  configuration  information  before  taking
       measurements.  In the example above, "--quiet" is used to suppress that output.   Here  is
       an example of the configuration information:
       turbostat version 2017.02.15 - Len Brown <>
       CPUID(0): GenuineIntel 13 CPUID levels; family:model:stepping 0x6:3c:3 (6:60:3)
       CPUID(6): APERF, TURBO, DTS, PTM, No-HWP, No-HWPnotify, No-HWPwindow, No-HWPepp, No-HWPpkg, EPB
       CPUID(7): No-SGX
       cpu4: MSR_MISC_PWR_MGMT: 0x00400000 (ENable-EIST_Coordination DISable-EPB DISable-OOB)
       RAPL: 3121 sec. Joule Counter Range, at 84 Watts
       cpu4: MSR_PLATFORM_INFO: 0x80838f3012300
       8 * 100.0 = 800.0 MHz max efficiency frequency
       35 * 100.0 = 3500.0 MHz base frequency
       cpu4: MSR_IA32_POWER_CTL: 0x0004005d (C1E auto-promotion: DISabled)
       cpu4: MSR_TURBO_RATIO_LIMIT: 0x25262727
       37 * 100.0 = 3700.0 MHz max turbo 4 active cores
       38 * 100.0 = 3800.0 MHz max turbo 3 active cores
       39 * 100.0 = 3900.0 MHz max turbo 2 active cores
       39 * 100.0 = 3900.0 MHz max turbo 1 active cores
       cpu4: MSR_CONFIG_TDP_NOMINAL: 0x00000023 (base_ratio=35)
       cpu4: MSR_CONFIG_TDP_LEVEL_1: 0x00000000 ()
       cpu4: MSR_CONFIG_TDP_LEVEL_2: 0x00000000 ()
       cpu4: MSR_CONFIG_TDP_CONTROL: 0x80000000 ( lock=1)
       cpu4: MSR_TURBO_ACTIVATION_RATIO: 0x00000000 (MAX_NON_TURBO_RATIO=0 lock=0)
       cpu4: MSR_PKG_CST_CONFIG_CONTROL: 0x1e000400 (UNdemote-C3, UNdemote-C1, demote-C3, demote-C1, UNlocked: pkg-cstate-limit=0: pc0)
       cpu4: C1: MWAIT 0x00
       cpu4: C1E: MWAIT 0x01
       cpu4: C3: MWAIT 0x10
       cpu4: C6: MWAIT 0x20
       cpu4: C7s: MWAIT 0x32
       cpu4: MSR_MISC_FEATURE_CONTROL: 0x00000000 (L2-Prefetch L2-Prefetch-pair L1-Prefetch L1-IP-Prefetch)
       cpu0: MSR_IA32_ENERGY_PERF_BIAS: 0x00000006 (balanced)
       cpu0: MSR_CORE_PERF_LIMIT_REASONS, 0x31200000 (Active: ) (Logged: Transitions, MultiCoreTurbo, Amps, Auto-HWP, )
       cpu0: MSR_GFX_PERF_LIMIT_REASONS, 0x00000000 (Active: ) (Logged: )
       cpu0: MSR_RING_PERF_LIMIT_REASONS, 0x0d000000 (Active: ) (Logged: Amps, PkgPwrL1, PkgPwrL2, )
       cpu0: MSR_RAPL_POWER_UNIT: 0x000a0e03 (0.125000 Watts, 0.000061 Joules, 0.000977 sec.)
       cpu0: MSR_PKG_POWER_INFO: 0x000002a0 (84 W TDP, RAPL 0 - 0 W, 0.000000 sec.)
       cpu0: MSR_PKG_POWER_LIMIT: 0x428348001a82a0 (UNlocked)
       cpu0: PKG Limit #1: ENabled (84.000000 Watts, 8.000000 sec, clamp DISabled)
       cpu0: PKG Limit #2: ENabled (105.000000 Watts, 0.002441* sec, clamp DISabled)
       cpu0: MSR_PP0_POLICY: 0
       cpu0: MSR_PP0_POWER_LIMIT: 0x00000000 (UNlocked)
       cpu0: Cores Limit: DISabled (0.000000 Watts, 0.000977 sec, clamp DISabled)
       cpu0: MSR_PP1_POLICY: 0
       cpu0: MSR_PP1_POWER_LIMIT: 0x00000000 (UNlocked)
       cpu0: GFX Limit: DISabled (0.000000 Watts, 0.000977 sec, clamp DISabled)
       cpu0: MSR_IA32_TEMPERATURE_TARGET: 0x00641400 (100 C)
       cpu0: MSR_IA32_PACKAGE_THERM_STATUS: 0x884c0800 (24 C)
       cpu0: MSR_IA32_THERM_STATUS: 0x884c0000 (24 C +/- 1)
       cpu1: MSR_IA32_THERM_STATUS: 0x88510000 (19 C +/- 1)
       cpu2: MSR_IA32_THERM_STATUS: 0x884e0000 (22 C +/- 1)
       cpu3: MSR_IA32_THERM_STATUS: 0x88510000 (19 C +/- 1)
       cpu4: MSR_PKGC3_IRTL: 0x00008842 (valid, 67584 ns)
       cpu4: MSR_PKGC6_IRTL: 0x00008873 (valid, 117760 ns)
       cpu4: MSR_PKGC7_IRTL: 0x00008891 (valid, 148480 ns)
       The max efficiency frequency, a.k.a. Low Frequency Mode, is the frequency available at the
       minimum package voltage.  The TSC frequency is the base frequency of the processor -- this
       should match the brand string in /proc/cpuinfo.  This base frequency should be sustainable
       on all CPUs indefinitely, given nominal power and cooling.  The remaining rows  show  what
       maximum  turbo frequency is possible depending on the number of idle cores.  Note that not
       all information is available on all processors.


       Here we limit turbostat to showing just the CPU number for cpu0 - cpu3.  We add a  counter
       showing the 32-bit raw value of MSR 0x199 (MSR_IA32_PERF_CTL), labeling it with the column
       header, "PRF_CTRL", and display it only once, afte the conclusion of a 0.1 second sleep.
       sudo ./turbostat --quiet --cpu 0-3 --show CPU --add msr0x199,u32,raw,PRF_CTRL sleep .1
       0.101604 sec
       CPU    PRF_CTRL
       -    0x00000000
       0    0x00000c00
       1    0x00000800
       2    0x00000a00
       3    0x00000800


       For interval-mode, turbostat will immediately end the current  interval  when  it  sees  a
       newline  on  standard input.  turbostat will then start the next interval.  Control-C will
       be send a SIGINT to turbostat, which will immediately abort the program  with  no  further


       SIGINT  will  interrupt  interval-mode.   The  end-of-interval  data will be collected and
       displayed before turbostat exits.

       SIGUSR1 will end current interval, end-of-interval data will be  collected  and  displayed
       before turbostat starts a new interval.


       turbostat  must  be  run  as  root.   Alternatively,  non-root users can be enabled to run
       turbostat this way:

       # setcap cap_sys_rawio=ep ./turbostat

       # chmod +r /dev/cpu/*/msr

       # chmod +r /dev/cpu_dma_latency

       turbostat reads hardware counters, but doesn't write them.  So it will not interfere  with
       the OS or other programs, including multiple invocations of itself.

       turbostat  may  work  poorly  on Linux-2.6.20 through 2.6.29, as acpi-cpufreq periodically
       cleared the APERF and MPERF MSRs in those kernels.

       AVG_MHz = APERF_delta/measurement_interval.  This is the actual number of  elapsed  cycles
       divided  by the entire sample interval -- including idle time.  Note that this calculation
       is resilient to systems lacking a non-stop TSC.

       TSC_MHz = TSC_delta/measurement_interval.  On a system with an invariant TSC,  this  value
       will be constant and will closely match the base frequency value shown in the brand string
       in /proc/cpuinfo.  On a system where the TSC stops in idle, TSC_MHz will  drop  below  the
       processor's base frequency.

       Busy% = MPERF_delta/TSC_delta

       Bzy_MHz = TSC_delta/APERF_delta/MPERF_delta/measurement_interval

       Note  that  these  calculations  depend  on  TSC_delta,  so  they  are not reliable during
       intervals when TSC_MHz is not running at the base frequency.

       Turbostat data collection is not atomic.  Extremely short measurement intervals (much less
       than  1  second), or system activity that prevents turbostat from being able to run on all
       CPUS to quickly collect data, will result in inconsistent results.

       The APERF, MPERF MSRs are  defined  to  count  non-halted  cycles.   Although  it  is  not
       guaranteed  by  the  architecture, turbostat assumes that they count at TSC rate, which is
       true on all processors tested to date.


       Volume 3B: System Programming Guide"




       msr(4), vmstat(8)


       Written by Len Brown <>