Provided by: dnsviz_0.9.3-1_all bug


       dnsviz-probe - issue diagnostic DNS queries


       dnsviz probe [ options ] [ domain_name... ]


       Perform a series of diagnostic queries of specified names to either recursive (default) or
       authoritative DNS servers, the results of which are  serialized  into  JSON  format.   Its
       output  is  used  to assess the health of DNS deployments, using, e.g., dnsviz-grok(1) and

       Domain names to be processed may be passed either as command-line arguments or in  a  file
       (using  the  -f  option).  When the -r option is used, then the domain names can simply be
       implied using the diagnostic query input.

       Domain names are extracted from the diagnostic query input in  conjunction  with  -r  only
       when  -f  is  not  used  and  no domain names are supplied on the command line.  If the -f
       option is used, then names may not be specified on the command line.

       The domain names passed as input are fully-qualified domain names,  such  as,,,,         or  Because it is implied that specified  domain  names  are  fully
       qualified, no trailing dot is necessary.


       -f, --names-file filename
              Read names from a file (one name per line), instead of from command line.

              If this option is used, then names may not be specified on the command line.

       -d, --debug level
              Set  debug level to a value from 0 to 3, with increasing verbosity.  The default is
              "2" (informational-level output).

       -r, --input-file filename
              Read diagnostic query input from the specified file, instead of  querying  servers.
              Specify "-" to read from standard input.

       -t, --threads threads
              Issue diagnostic queries for different names in parallel using the specified number
              of threads.  The default is to execute diagnostic queries of names serially.

       -4, --ipv4
              Use IPv4 only.

       -6, --ipv6
              Use IPv6 only.

       -b, --source-ip address
              Use the specified source IPv4 or IPv6 address for queries,  rather  than  detecting

              This option can be used more than once to supply both an IPv4 and an IPv6 address.

              The  use of this option is sometimes necessary when using a dual-homed machine, and
              it is desirable to use the non-default interface for queries.

       -u, --looking-glass-url url
              Issue queries through the DNS looking glass at the specified URL (HTTP(S) or  SSH).
              The  queries  will appear to come from the looking glass rather than from the local


                            Issue DNS queries from using the cgi  script  dnsviz-

                            Same, but use HTTP Basic authentication:

                            Issue  DNS  queries  from  on  which DNSViz is also

              Note that a looking glass that uses https  is  only  supported  when  using  python
              version 2.7.9 or greater.

       -k, --insecure
              Do  not  verify the server-side TLS certificate for a HTTPS-based DNS looking glass
              that was specified using -u.

       -a, --ancestor ancestor
              Issue diagnostic queries of each domain name through the specified  ancestor.   The
              default  for  recursive  mode is "." (i.e., issue queries all the way to the root).
              The default for authoritative mode (i.e., with -A) is the domain name itself.

       -R, --rr-types type[,type...]
              Issue diagnostic queries for only the  specified  type(s)  (e.g.,  A,  AAAA).   The
              default is to pick query types based on the nature of the name (e.g., the number of
              labels, whether it is a subdomain of .arpa, labels indicating association  to  TLSA
              or  SRV  records,  etc.)  and  whether there are NS records detected (i.e., it is a

       -s, --recursive-servers server[,server...]
              Query the specified recursive resolver(s), rather than  using  those  specified  in

              Each server specified may either be an address (IPv4 or IPv6), a domain name (which
              will be resolved to an address using the standard  resolution  process),  or  both,
              using  the  syntax  name=address.   Note  that  when both a name and an address are
              specified (name=address), the name is only used for identification purposes, and it
              doesn't  matter  whether the name resolves to the corresponding address (or at all,
              for that matter).  IPv6  addresses  must  be  wrapped  in  square  brackets,  e.g.,

              Each  server  value  may  optionally  be  suffixed with a numeric port on which the
              server should be contacted.  If not specified, the standard DNS port, 53, is used.

              The following are example server values:


              This option cannot be used in conjunction with -A.

       -A, --authoritative-analysis
              Query authoritative servers, rather than (the default) recursive servers.

       -x, --authoritative-servers domain[+]:server[,server...]
              Treat the specified servers as authoritative for a  domain,  rather  than  learning
              authoritative servers by following delegations.  This option dictates which servers
              will be queried for a domain, but the servers specified will not be used  to  check
              NS or glue record consistency with the child; for that behavior, see -N.

              The  default  behavior is to identify and query servers authoritative for ancestors
              of the specified domain, if other options so dictate.  However, if the domain  ends
              in  "+",  then queries aren't issued for servers authoritative for ancestor domains
              of the domain.  For example, with the following command:

                     dnsviz probe -A -x

              the com servers will be queried for DS records for   However,  if  the
              following is used:

                     dnsviz probe -A -x

              no  queries  are  performed  at  com  servers  or  above,  including DS records for

              See -s for the syntax used for designating servers.  However, unlike the -s option,
              a zone file may be specified in lieu of a server name and/or address, in which case
              an instance of named(8) is started, the zone is  served  from  that  instance,  and
              queries  for the domain are directed to the local instance of named(8) serving that
              zone.  For example, if is a file containing the  contents  of  the
     zone, the following command could be used to specify that the zone file
              should be used:

                     dnsviz probe -A -x

              This option may be used multiple times on the command line.

              This option can only be used in conjunction with -A.

       -N, --delegation-information domain:server[,server...]
              Use the specified delegation information for  a  domain,  i.e.,  the  NS  and  glue
              records for the domain, which would be served by the domain's parent.  This is used
              for testing new delegations or testing a potential change to a delegation.

              This option has similar usage to that of the -x option.  The  major  difference  is
              that  the  server  names  supplied  comprise  the  NS record set, and the addresses
              supplied represent glue records.  Thus  if  there  are  discrepancies  between  the
              authoritative  responses  for  the  NS  RRset  and glue and what is supplied on the
              command line, an error will be reported when the output is  subsequently  assessed,
              e.g., using dnsviz-grok(1).

              In  lieu  of  specifying  the record data itself on the command line, a file may be
              specified, which contains the delegation NS and glue records for the domain.

       -D, --ds domain:ds[,ds...]
              Use the specified delegation signer (DS) records for a domain.   This  is  used  in
              conjunction  with  the  -N  option  for  testing  the  introduction or change of DS

              The DS records themselves are specified using the  the  textual  representation  of
              their record data.  For example the following DS records for

                     31589 8 1 3490A6806D47F17A34C29E2CE80E8A999FFBE4BE
                     31589 8 2 CDE0D742D6998AA554A92D890F8184C698CFAC8A26FA59875A990C03 E576343C

              would be specified by passing this value to -D:

                     "31589 8 1 3490A6806D47F17A34C29E2CE80E8A999FFBE4BE,
                        31589    8   2   CDE0D742D6998AA554A92D890F8184C698CFAC8A26FA59875A990C03

              In lieu of specifying the record data itself on the command line,  a  file  may  be
              specified, which contains the DS records.  For example:

                     dnsviz probe -D

              This option must be used in conjunction with the -N option.

       -n, --nsid
              Use the NSID EDNS option with every DNS query issued.

       -e, --client-subnet subnet[:prefix_len]
              Use  the EDNS Client Subnet option with every DNS query issued, using the specified
              subnet and prefix_len as values.  If prefix is not specified,  the  prefix  is  the
              length of the entire address.

       -c, --cookie cookie
              Send  the  specified  DNS  client  cookie  with  every DNS query issued.  The value
              specified is for a client cookie only and thus should be exactly 64 bits long.  The
              value   for  the  cookie  is  specified  using  hexadecimal  representation,  e.g.,

              If the -c option is not used, the default behavior is for a DNS client cookie to be
              generated  randomly to be sent with queries.  If an empty string is specified, then
              DNS cookies are disabled.

       -E, --edns
              Issue queries to check EDNS compatibility of servers.

              If this option is used, each server probed  will  be  queried  with  "future"  EDNS
              settings,  the  respective  responses  can  later  be assessed for proper behavior.
              These settings include future EDNS versions  (i.e.,  >  0),  unknown  options,  and
              unknown flags.

       -o, --output-file filename
              Write  the output to the specified file instead of to standard output, which is the

       -p, --pretty-output
              Output "pretty" instead  of  minimal  JSON  output,  i.e.,  using  indentation  and
              newlines.  Note that this is the default when the output is a TTY.

       -h     Display the usage and exit.


       The exit codes are:

       0      Program terminated normally.

       1      Incorrect usage.

       2      The network was unavailable for diagnostic queries.

       3      There was an error processing the input or saving the output.

       4      Program execution was interrupted, or an unknown error occurred.


       dnsviz(1), dnsviz-grok(1), dnsviz-graph(1), dnsviz-print(1), dnsviz-query(1)