Provided by: rsync_3.2.5-1_amd64

#### NAME

       rsync - a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool



#### SYNOPSIS

       Local:
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

Access via remote shell:
Pull:
rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
Push:
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST

Access via rsync daemon:
Pull:
rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
Push:
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST)

Usages  with  just  one  SRC  arg  and  no  DEST arg will list the source files instead of
copying.

The online version of this manpage (that includes cross-linking of topics) is available at



#### DESCRIPTION

       Rsync  is  a  fast  and extraordinarily versatile file copying tool.  It can copy locally,
to/from another host over any remote shell, or to/from a remote rsync daemon.  It offers a
large number of options that control every aspect of its behavior and permit very flexible
specification of the set of files to be copied.   It  is  famous  for  its  delta-transfer
algorithm,  which  reduces  the  amount  of data sent over the network by sending only the
differences between the source files and the existing files in the destination.  Rsync  is
widely used for backups and mirroring and as an improved copy command for everyday use.

Rsync finds files that need to be transferred using a "quick check" algorithm (by default)
that looks for files that have changed in size or in last-modified time.  Any  changes  in
the  other preserved attributes (as requested by options) are made on the destination file
directly when the quick check indicates that the file's data does not need to be updated.

Some of the additional features of rsync are:

o      support for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permissions

o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

o      a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files that CVS would ignore

o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

o      does not require super-user privileges

o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

o      support for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for mirroring)



#### GENERAL

       Rsync copies files either to or from a remote host, or locally on  the  current  host  (it
does not support copying files between two remote hosts).

There  are  two  different ways for rsync to contact a remote system: using a remote-shell
program as the transport (such as ssh or rsh) or contacting an rsync daemon  directly  via
TCP.   The remote-shell transport is used whenever the source or destination path contains
a single colon (:) separator after a  host  specification.   Contacting  an  rsync  daemon
directly  happens  when  the  source  or  destination  path  contains  a double colon (::)
separator after a host specification, OR when an rsync:// URL is specified (see  also  the
USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION section for an exception to this
latter rule).

As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a  destination,  the  files
are listed in an output format similar to "ls -l".

As  expected,  if  neither  the source or destination path specify a remote host, the copy

Rsync refers to the local side as the client and the remote side  as  the  server.   Don't
confuse  server  with  an  rsync daemon.  A daemon is always a server, but a server can be
either a daemon or a remote-shell spawned process.



#### SETUP

       See the file README.md for installation instructions.

Once installed, you can use rsync to any machine that you can access via  a  remote  shell
(as  well  as  some that you can access using the rsync daemon-mode protocol).  For remote
transfers, a modern rsync uses ssh for its communications, but it may have been configured
to use a different remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

You  can  also  specify  any  remote  shell  you like, either by using the -e command line
option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment variable.

Note that rsync must be installed on both the source and destination machines.



#### USAGE

       You use rsync in the same way you use rcp.  You must specify a source and  a  destination,
one of which may be remote.

Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

rsync -t *.c foo:src/

This  would  transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current directory to the
directory src on the machine foo.  If any of the files already exist on the remote  system
then  the  rsync  remote-update  protocol  is  used to update the file by sending only the
differences in the data.  Note that the expansion of wildcards on the  command-line  (*.c)
into  a list of files is handled by the shell before it runs rsync and not by rsync itself
(exactly the same as all other Posix-style programs).

rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on  the  machine  foo
into  the  /data/tmp/bar  directory  on  the  local machine.  The files are transferred in
archive mode,  which  ensures  that  symbolic  links,  devices,  attributes,  permissions,
ownerships, etc. are preserved in the transfer.  Additionally, compression will be used to
reduce the size of data portions of the transfer.

rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

A trailing slash on the source changes this  behavior  to  avoid  creating  an  additional
directory  level at the destination.  You can think of a trailing / on a source as meaning
"copy the contents of this directory" as opposed to "copy the directory by name",  but  in
both  cases  the  attributes of the containing directory are transferred to the containing
directory on the destination.  In other words, each of the following commands  copies  the
files in the same way, including their setting of the attributes of /dest/foo:

rsync -av /src/foo /dest
rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

Note  also  that  host  and  module  references don't require a trailing slash to copy the
contents of the default directory.  For example, both of these copy the remote directory's
contents into "/dest":

rsync -av host: /dest
rsync -av host::module /dest

You  can  also  use  rsync in local-only mode, where both the source and destination don't
have a ':' in the name.  In this case it behaves like an improved copy command.

Finally, you can list all the (listable) modules available from a particular rsync  daemon
by leaving off the module name:

rsync somehost.mydomain.com::

See the following section for more details.



#### SORTEDTRANSFERORDER

       Rsync  always sorts the specified filenames into its internal transfer list.  This handles
the merging together of the contents of identically named directories, makes  it  easy  to
remove  duplicate  filenames.  It  can,  however,  confuse  someone  when  the  files  are
transferred in a different order than what was given on the command-line.

If you need a particular file to be transferred prior  to  another,  either  separate  the
files  into different rsync calls, or consider using --delay-updates (which doesn't affect
the sorted transfer order, but does make the final file-updating phase  happen  much  more
rapidly).



#### MULTI-HOSTSECURITY

       Rsync  takes  steps  to  ensure  that  the file requests that are shared in a transfer are
protected against various security issues.  Most of the potential problems  arise  on  the
receiving  side where rsync takes steps to ensure that the list of files being transferred
remains within the bounds of what was requested.

Toward this end, rsync 3.1.2 and later have aborted when a file list contains an  absolute
or  relative  path  that  tries to escape out of the top of the transfer.  Also, beginning
with version 3.2.5, rsync does two more safety checks of the file list to (1) ensure  that
no  extra  source  arguments were added into the transfer other than those that the client
requested and (2) ensure that the file list obeys the exclude rules that were sent to  the
sender.

For  those  that  don't  yet  have  a  3.2.5  client rsync (or those that want to be extra
careful), it is safest to do a copy into a dedicated destination directory for the  remote
files  when  you don't trust the remote host.  For example, instead of doing an rsync copy

rsync -aiv host1:dir1 ~

Dedicate a "host1-files" dir to the remote content:

rsync -aiv host1:dir1 ~/host1-files

See the --trust-sender option for additional details.



       The syntax for requesting multiple  files  from  a  remote  host  is  done  by  specifying
additional  remote-host args in the same style as the first, or with the hostname omitted.
For instance, all these work:

rsync -aiv host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
rsync -aiv host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/extra /dest/
rsync -aiv host::modname/first ::modname/extra{1,2} /dest/

Really old versions of rsync (2.6.9 and before) only allowed specifying one  remote-source
arg,  so some people have instead relied on the remote-shell performing space splitting to
break up an arg into multiple paths. Such unintuitive behavior is no longer  supported  by
default (though you can request it, as described below).

Starting in 3.2.4, filenames are passed to a remote shell in such a way as to preserve the
characters you give it. Thus, if you ask for a file with spaces in the name,  that's  what
the remote rsync looks for:

rsync -aiv host:'a simple file.pdf' /dest/

If  you  use  scripts that have been written to manually apply extra quoting to the remote
rsync args (or to require remote arg splitting), you can ask  rsync  to  let  your  script
handle  the  extra  escaping.   This is done by either adding the --old-args option to the
rsync runs in the script (which requires a new rsync) or  exporting  RSYNC_OLD_ARGS=1  and
RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS=0 (which works with old or new rsync versions).



#### CONNECTINGTOANRSYNCDAEMON

       It  is  also  possible to use rsync without a remote shell as the transport.  In this case
you will directly connect to a remote rsync daemon, typically using TCP  port  873.  (This
obviously requires the daemon to be running on the remote system, so refer to the STARTING
AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)

Using rsync in this way is the same as using it with a remote shell except that:

o      you either use a double colon :: instead of a single colon to separate the hostname
from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

o      the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.

o      the remote daemon may print a message of the day when you connect.

o      if  you specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list of accessible paths
on the daemon will be shown.

o      if you specify no local destination then a listing of the specified  files  on  the
remote daemon is provided.

o      you  must  not  specify  the  --rsh  (-e)  option  (since that overrides the daemon
connection to use  ssh --  see  USING  RSYNC-DAEMON  FEATURES  VIA  A  REMOTE-SHELL
CONNECTION below).

An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":

rsync -av host::src /dest

Some  modules  on the remote daemon may require authentication.  If so, you will receive a
password prompt when you connect.  You can  avoid  the  password  prompt  by  setting  the
environment  variable  RSYNC_PASSWORD  to  the  password  you  want  to  use  or using the
--password-file option.  This may be useful when scripting rsync.

WARNING: On some systems environment variables are visible to all users.  On those systems

You  may  establish  the  connection  via  a web proxy by setting the environment variable
RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to  your  web  proxy.   Note  that  your  web
proxy's configuration must support proxy connections to port 873.

You  may  also  establish  a  daemon  connection using a program as a proxy by setting the
environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the commands you wish to run in place of making
a  direct  socket  connection.   The  string  may contain the escape "%H" to represent the
hostname specified in the rsync command (so use "%%" if you need  a  single  "%"  in  your
string).  For example:

export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
rsync -av rsync://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

The command specified above uses ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost, which forwards all
data to port 873 (the rsync daemon) on the targethost (%H).

Note also that if the RSYNC_SHELL environment variable is set, that program will  be  used
to  run  the RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG command instead of using the default shell of the system()
call.



#### USINGRSYNC-DAEMONFEATURESVIAAREMOTE-SHELLCONNECTION

       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such as named  modules)
without  actually  allowing  any  new socket connections into a system (other than what is
already required to allow remote-shell access).  Rsync supports connecting to a host using
a  remote  shell  and  then spawning a single-use "daemon" server that expects to read its
config file in the home dir of the remote user.  This can be useful if you want to encrypt
a  daemon-style  transfer's  data,  but since the daemon is started up fresh by the remote
user, you may not be able to use features such as chroot or change the  uid  used  by  the
daemon.  (For  another  way  to  encrypt a daemon transfer, consider using ssh to tunnel a
local port to a remote machine and configure a normal rsync daemon on that remote host  to
only allow connections from "localhost".)

From  the  user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell connection uses nearly
the same command-line syntax as a normal rsync-daemon transfer, with  the  only  exception
being  that  you must explicitly set the remote shell program on the command-line with the
--rsh=COMMAND option. (Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the environment  will  not  turn  on  this
functionality.) For example:

rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

If  you  need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that the user@ prefix
in front of the host is specifying the rsync-user value (for a module that requires  user-
based  authentication).   This  means  that you must give the '-l user' option to ssh when
specifying the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short version of  the  --rsh
option:

rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

The  "ssh-user"  will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will be used to log-in to
the "module".

In this setup, the daemon is started by the ssh  command  that  is  accessing  the  system
(which  can  be  forced  via  the ~/.ssh/authorized_keys file, if desired).  However, when
accessing a daemon directly, it needs to be started beforehand.



#### STARTINGANRSYNCDAEMONTOACCEPTCONNECTIONS

       In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have a  daemon  already
running  (or it needs to have configured something like inetd to spawn an rsync daemon for
incoming connections on a particular port).  For full information on how to start a daemon
that  will handling incoming socket connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5) manpage -- that is
the config file for the daemon, and it contains the full details for how to run the daemon
(including stand-alone and inetd configurations).

If  you're  using one of the remote-shell transports for the transfer, there is no need to
manually start an rsync daemon.



#### EXAMPLES

       Here are some examples of how rsync can be used.

To backup a home directory, which consists of large MS Word files and mail folders, a per-
user cron job can be used that runs this each day:

rsync -aiz . bkhost:backup/joe/

To move some files from a remote host to the local host, you could run:

rsync -aiv --remove-source-files rhost:/tmp/{file1,file2}.c ~/src/



#### OPTIONSUMMARY

       Here  is  a short summary of the options available in rsync.  Each option also has its own
detailed description later in this manpage.

--verbose, -v            increase verbosity
--info=FLAGS             fine-grained informational verbosity
--debug=FLAGS            fine-grained debug verbosity
--stderr=e|a|c           change stderr output mode (default: errors)
--quiet, -q              suppress non-error messages
--no-motd                suppress daemon-mode MOTD
--checksum, -c           skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
--archive, -a            archive mode is -rlptgoD (no -A,-X,-U,-N,-H)
--no-OPTION              turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
--recursive, -r          recurse into directories
--relative, -R           use relative path names
--no-implied-dirs        don't send implied dirs with --relative
--backup, -b             make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
--backup-dir=DIR         make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
--suffix=SUFFIX          backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
--inplace                update destination files in-place
--append                 append data onto shorter files
--append-verify          --append w/old data in file checksum
--dirs, -d               transfer directories without recursing
--old-dirs, --old-d      works like --dirs when talking to old rsync
--mkpath                 create the destination's path component
--perms, -p              preserve permissions
--executability, -E      preserve executability
--chmod=CHMOD            affect file and/or directory permissions
--acls, -A               preserve ACLs (implies --perms)
--xattrs, -X             preserve extended attributes
--owner, -o              preserve owner (super-user only)
--group, -g              preserve group
--devices                preserve device files (super-user only)
--copy-devices           copy device contents as a regular file
--write-devices          write to devices as files (implies --inplace)
--specials               preserve special files
-D                       same as --devices --specials
--times, -t              preserve modification times
--atimes, -U             preserve access (use) times
--open-noatime           avoid changing the atime on opened files
--crtimes, -N            preserve create times (newness)
--omit-dir-times, -O     omit directories from --times
--fake-super             store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
--sparse, -S             turn sequences of nulls into sparse blocks
--preallocate            allocate dest files before writing them
--dry-run, -n            perform a trial run with no changes made
--whole-file, -W         copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
--checksum-choice=STR    choose the checksum algorithm (aka --cc)
--one-file-system, -x    don't cross filesystem boundaries
--block-size=SIZE, -B    force a fixed checksum block-size
--rsh=COMMAND, -e        specify the remote shell to use
--rsync-path=PROGRAM     specify the rsync to run on remote machine
--existing               skip creating new files on receiver
--ignore-existing        skip updating files that exist on receiver
--remove-source-files    sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
--del                    an alias for --delete-during
--delete                 delete extraneous files from dest dirs
--delete-before          receiver deletes before xfer, not during
--delete-during          receiver deletes during the transfer
--delete-delay           find deletions during, delete after
--delete-after           receiver deletes after transfer, not during
--delete-excluded        also delete excluded files from dest dirs
--ignore-missing-args    ignore missing source args without error
--delete-missing-args    delete missing source args from destination
--ignore-errors          delete even if there are I/O errors
--force                  force deletion of dirs even if not empty
--max-delete=NUM         don't delete more than NUM files
--max-size=SIZE          don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
--min-size=SIZE          don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
--max-alloc=SIZE         change a limit relating to memory alloc
--partial                keep partially transferred files
--partial-dir=DIR        put a partially transferred file into DIR
--delay-updates          put all updated files into place at end
--prune-empty-dirs, -m   prune empty directory chains from file-list
--numeric-ids            don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
--groupmap=STRING        custom groupname mapping
--timeout=SECONDS        set I/O timeout in seconds
--contimeout=SECONDS     set daemon connection timeout in seconds
--ignore-times, -I       don't skip files that match size and time
--size-only              skip files that match in size
--modify-window=NUM, -@  set the accuracy for mod-time comparisons
--temp-dir=DIR, -T       create temporary files in directory DIR
--fuzzy, -y              find similar file for basis if no dest file
--compare-dest=DIR       also compare destination files relative to DIR
--copy-dest=DIR          ... and include copies of unchanged files
--compress, -z           compress file data during the transfer
--compress-choice=STR    choose the compression algorithm (aka --zc)
--compress-level=NUM     explicitly set compression level (aka --zl)
--skip-compress=LIST     skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
--cvs-exclude, -C        auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
--filter=RULE, -f        add a file-filtering RULE
-F                       same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
--exclude=PATTERN        exclude files matching PATTERN
--exclude-from=FILE      read exclude patterns from FILE
--include=PATTERN        don't exclude files matching PATTERN
--include-from=FILE      read include patterns from FILE
--files-from=FILE        read list of source-file names from FILE
--from0, -0              all *-from/filter files are delimited by 0s
--old-args               disable the modern arg-protection idiom
--protect-args, -s       no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
--trust-sender           trust the remote sender's file list
--copy-as=USER[:GROUP]   specify user & optional group for the copy
--port=PORT              specify double-colon alternate port number
--sockopts=OPTIONS       specify custom TCP options
--blocking-io            use blocking I/O for the remote shell
--outbuf=N|L|B           set out buffering to None, Line, or Block
--stats                  give some file-transfer stats
--8-bit-output, -8       leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
--progress               show progress during transfer
-P                       same as --partial --progress
--itemize-changes, -i    output a change-summary for all updates
--remote-option=OPT, -M  send OPTION to the remote side only
--out-format=FORMAT      output updates using the specified FORMAT
--log-file=FILE          log what we're doing to the specified FILE
--log-file-format=FMT    log updates using the specified FMT
--early-input=FILE       use FILE for daemon's early exec input
--list-only              list the files instead of copying them
--bwlimit=RATE           limit socket I/O bandwidth
--stop-after=MINS        Stop rsync after MINS minutes have elapsed
--stop-at=y-m-dTh:m      Stop rsync at the specified point in time
--fsync                  fsync every written file
--write-batch=FILE       write a batched update to FILE
--only-write-batch=FILE  like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
--protocol=NUM           force an older protocol version to be used
--iconv=CONVERT_SPEC     request charset conversion of filenames
--checksum-seed=NUM      set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
--ipv4, -4               prefer IPv4
--ipv6, -6               prefer IPv6
--version, -V            print the version + other info and exit
--help, -h (*)           show this help (* -h is help only on its own)

Rsync can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following options are accepted:

--daemon                 run as an rsync daemon
--bwlimit=RATE           limit socket I/O bandwidth
--config=FILE            specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
--dparam=OVERRIDE, -M    override global daemon config parameter
--no-detach              do not detach from the parent
--port=PORT              listen on alternate port number
--log-file=FILE          override the "log file" setting
--log-file-format=FMT    override the "log format" setting
--sockopts=OPTIONS       specify custom TCP options
--verbose, -v            increase verbosity
--ipv4, -4               prefer IPv4
--ipv6, -6               prefer IPv6
--help, -h               show this help (when used with --daemon)



#### OPTIONS

       Rsync accepts both long (double-dash + word) and short  (single-dash  +  letter)  options.
The full list of the available options are described below.  If an option can be specified
in more than one way, the choices are comma-separated.  Some  options  only  have  a  long
variant, not a short.

If the option takes a parameter, the parameter is only listed after the long variant, even
though it must also be specified for the short.  When  specifying  a  parameter,  you  can
either  use  the  form --option=param, --option param, -o=param, -o param, or -oparam (the
latter choices assume that your option has a short variant).

The parameter may need to be quoted in some manner for it to survive the shell's  command-
line  parsing.  Also keep in mind that a leading tilde (~) in a pathname is substituted by
your shell, so make sure that you separate the option name from the pathname using a space
if you want the local shell to expand it.

--help Print  a  short  help page describing the options available in rsync and exit.  You
can also use -h for --help when it is used without  any  other  options  (since  it

--version, -V
Print the rsync version plus other info and exit.

The  output  includes  the default list of checksum algorithms, the default list of
compression algorithms, a list of compiled-in capabilities, a link to the rsync web

--verbose, -v
This  option increases the amount of information you are given during the transfer.
By default, rsync works silently.  A single -v will give you information about what
files  are  being  transferred and a brief summary at the end.  Two -v options will
give you information on what files are being skipped and slightly more  information
at  the  end.   More  than  two -v options should only be used if you are debugging
rsync.

The end-of-run summary tells you the number of  bytes  sent  to  the  remote  rsync
(which  is  the  receiving side on a local copy), the number of bytes received from
the remote host, and the average bytes per second of the transferred data  computed
over  the  entire length of the rsync run. The second line shows the total size (in
bytes), which is the sum of all the file sizes that rsync considered  transferring.
It also shows a "speedup" value, which is a ratio of the total file size divided by
the sum of the sent and received bytes (which is really just a feel-good bigger-is-
better  number).   Note  that  these  byte values can be made more (or less) human-

In a modern rsync, the -v option is equivalent to the setting of groups  of  --info
and  --debug options.  You can choose to use these newer options in addition to, or
in place of using --verbose, as any  fine-grained  settings  override  the  implied
settings  of -v.  Both --info and --debug have a way to ask for help that tells you
exactly what flags are set for each increase in verbosity.

However, do keep in mind that a daemon's "max verbosity"  setting  will  limit  how
high  of  a  level the various individual flags can be set on the daemon side.  For
instance, if the max is 2, then any info and/or debug flag that is set to a  higher
value  than  what  would  be  set by -vv will be downgraded to the -vv level in the
daemon's logging.

--info=FLAGS
This option lets you have fine-grained control over the information output you want
to  see.  An individual flag name may be followed by a level number, with 0 meaning
to silence that output, 1 being  the  default  output  level,  and  higher  numbers
increasing  the  output  of  that flag (for those that support higher levels).  Use
--info=help to see all the available flag names, what they output,  and  what  flag
names are added for each increase in the verbose level.  Some examples:

rsync -a --info=progress2 src/ dest/
rsync -avv --info=stats2,misc1,flist0 src/ dest/

Note  that  --info=name's  output  is  affected  by the --out-format and --itemize-
changes (-i) options.  See those options for more information on what is output and
when.

This  option  was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the server side might reject
your attempts at fine-grained control (if one or more flags needed to  be  send  to
the  server  and  the  server  was  too  old  to  understand  them).   See also the
"max verbosity" caveat above when dealing with a daemon.

--debug=FLAGS
This option lets you have fine-grained control over the debug output  you  want  to
see.   An individual flag name may be followed by a level number, with 0 meaning to
silence that  output,  1  being  the  default  output  level,  and  higher  numbers
increasing  the  output  of  that flag (for those that support higher levels).  Use
--debug=help to see all the available flag names, what they output, and  what  flag
names are added for each increase in the verbose level.  Some examples:

rsync -avvv --debug=none src/ dest/
rsync -avA --del --debug=del2,acl src/ dest/

Note  that  some debug messages will only be output when the --stderr=all option is
specified, especially those pertaining to I/O and buffer debugging.

Beginning in 3.2.0, this option is no longer auto-forwarded to the server  side  in
order to allow you to specify different debug values for each side of the transfer,
as well as to specify a new debug option that is only present in one of  the  rsync
versions.   If  you  want  to  duplicate the same option on both sides, using brace
expansion is an easy way to save you some typing.  This works in zsh and bash:

rsync -aiv {-M,}--debug=del2 src/ dest/

--stderr=errors|all|client
This option controls which processes output to stderr and if info messages are also
changed  to  stderr.   The  mode  strings can be abbreviated, so feel free to use a
single letter value.  The 3 possible choices are:

o      errors - (the default) causes all the  rsync  processes  to  send  an  error
directly  to  stderr,  even  if  the  process  is  on the remote side of the
transfer.  Info messages are sent  to  the  client  side  via  the  protocol
stream.   If  stderr  is not available (i.e. when directly connecting with a
daemon via a socket) errors fall back to being sent via the protocol stream.

o      all - causes all rsync messages (info and error) to get written directly  to
stderr  from  all  (possible) processes.  This causes stderr to become line-
buffered (instead of raw) and eliminates the ability to divide up  the  info
and  error  messages  by  file  handle.   For those doing debugging or using
several levels of verbosity, this option can help to avoid clogging  up  the
transfer  stream  (which should prevent any chance of a deadlock bug hanging
things up).  It also  allows  --debug  to  enable  some  extra  I/O  related
messages.

o      client  -  causes  all  rsync messages to be sent to the client side via the
protocol stream.  One client process outputs all messages,  with  errors  on
stderr  and  info  messages  on stdout.  This was the default in older rsync
versions, but can cause error delays when a lot of transfer data is ahead of
the  messages.   If  you're pushing files to an older rsync, you may want to
use --stderr=all since that idiom has been around for several releases.

This option was added in rsync 3.2.3.  This version also began the forwarding of  a
non-default  setting  to the remote side, though rsync uses the backward-compatible
options  --msgs2stderr  and  --no-msgs2stderr  to  represent  the  all  and  client
settings,  respectively.   A newer rsync will continue to accept these older option
names to maintain compatibility.

--quiet, -q
This option decreases the amount of information you are given during the  transfer,
notably  suppressing  information  messages from the remote server.  This option is
useful when invoking rsync from cron.

--no-motd
This option affects the information that is output by the client at the start of  a
daemon  transfer.   This suppresses the message-of-the-day (MOTD) text, but it also
affects the list of modules that the daemon sends in response to the "rsync host::"
request  (due  to  a  limitation in the rsync protocol), so omit this option if you
want to request the list of modules from the daemon.

--ignore-times, -I
Normally rsync will skip any files that are already the same size and have the same
modification timestamp.  This option turns off this "quick check" behavior, causing
all files to be updated.

This option can  be  confusing  compared  to  --ignore-existing  and  --ignore-non-
existing  in  that that they cause rsync to transfer fewer files, while this option
causes rsync to transfer more files.

--size-only
This modifies rsync's "quick check" algorithm for finding files  that  need  to  be
transferred,  changing  it  from  the  default  of transferring files with either a
changed size or a changed last-modified time to just looking for  files  that  have
changed  in  size.   This  is useful when starting to use rsync after using another
mirroring system which may not preserve timestamps exactly.

--modify-window=NUM, -@
When comparing two timestamps, rsync treats the timestamps as being equal  if  they
differ  by  no  more than the modify-window value.  The default is 0, which matches
just integer seconds.  If you specify a negative value  (and  the  receiver  is  at
least  version 3.1.3) then nanoseconds will also be taken into account.  Specifying
1 is useful for copies to/from MS Windows FAT filesystems, because  FAT  represents
times  with a 2-second resolution (allowing times to differ from the original by up
to 1 second).

If you want all your transfers to default to comparing nanoseconds, you can  create
a ~/.popt file and put these lines in it:

rsync alias -a -a@-1
rsync alias -t -t@-1

With  that  as  the  default,  you'd need to specify --modify-window=0 (aka -@0) to
override it and ignore nanoseconds, e.g. if you're copying between ext3  and  ext4,
or if the receiving rsync is older than 3.1.3.

--checksum, -c
This changes the way rsync checks if the files have been changed and are in need of
a transfer.  Without this option, rsync uses a  "quick  check"  that  (by  default)
checks  if  each file's size and time of last modification match between the sender
and receiver.  This option changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for each file
that  has  a  matching  size.   Generating the checksums means that both sides will
expend a lot of disk I/O reading all the data in the files in the transfer, so this
can  slow  things down significantly (and this is prior to any reading that will be
done to transfer changed files)

The sending side generates its checksums while it is  doing  the  file-system  scan
that  builds the list of the available files.  The receiver generates its checksums
when it is scanning for changed files, and will checksum any file that has the same
size  as  the  corresponding  sender's  file: files with either a changed size or a
changed checksum are selected for transfer.

Note  that  rsync  always  verifies  that  each  transferred  file  was   correctly
reconstructed  on  the  receiving  side  by  checking a whole-file checksum that is
generated as  the  file  is  transferred,  but  that  automatic  after-the-transfer
verification  has  nothing  to do with this option's before-the-transfer "Does this
file need to be updated?" check.

The checksum used is auto-negotiated between the client and the server, but can  be
overridden  using  either  the  --checksum-choice  (--cc)  option or an environment
variable that is discussed in that option's section.

--archive, -a
This is equivalent to -rlptgoD.  It is a quick way of saying you want recursion and
want  to  preserve almost everything.  Be aware that it does not include preserving
ACLs (-A), xattrs (-X), atimes (-U), crtimes (-N), nor the finding  and  preserving

The  only  exception to the above equivalence is when --files-from is specified, in
which case -r is not implied.

--no-OPTION
You may turn off one or more implied options by  prefixing  the  option  name  with
"no-".   Not  all positive options have a negated opposite, but a lot do, including
those that can be used to disable an implied option (e.g.  --no-D,  --no-perms)  or
have  different  defaults  in  various  circumstances  (e.g. --no-whole-file, --no-
blocking-io, --no-dirs).  Every valid negated option accepts both the short and the
long option name after the "no-" prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same as --no-relative).

As  an  example,  if  you  want  to use --archive (-a) but don't want --owner (-o),
instead  of  converting  -a  into  -rlptgD,  you   can   specify   -a --no-o   (aka
--archive --no-owner).

The  order  of  the  options  is important: if you specify --no-r -a, the -r option
would end up being turned on, the opposite of -a --no-r.  Note also that the  side-
effects  of  the  --files-from option are NOT positional, as it affects the default
state of several options and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see  the  --files-
from option for more details).

--recursive, -r
This  tells  rsync  to  copy  directories recursively.  See also --dirs (-d) for an
option that allows the scanning of a single directory.

See the --inc-recursive option for a discussion of the  incremental  recursion  for
creating the list of files to transfer.

--inc-recursive, --i-r
This  option  explicitly  enables on incremental recursion when scanning for files,
which is enabled by default when using the --recursive option and both sides of the
transfer are running rsync 3.0.0 or newer.

Incremental  recursion  uses  much  less  memory  than  non-incremental, while also
beginning the transfer more quickly (since it  doesn't  need  to  scan  the  entire
transfer  hierarchy  before  it  starts  transferring  files).   If no recursion is
enabled in the source files, this option has no effect.

Some options require rsync to know the full file list, so these options disable the
incremental recursion mode.  These include:

o      --delete-before (the old default of --delete)

o      --delete-after

o      --prune-empty-dirs

In  order  to make --delete compatible with incremental recursion, rsync 3.0.0 made
--delete-during the default delete mode (which was first added in 2.6.4).

One side-effect of incremental recursion is that any missing sub-directories inside
a  recursively-scanned  directory  are (by default) created prior to recursing into
the  sub-dirs.   This  earlier  creation  point  (compared  to  a   non-incremental
recursion) allows rsync to then set the modify time of the finished directory right
away (without having  to  delay  that  until  a  bunch  of  recursive  copying  has
finished).   However,  these early directories don't yet have their completed mode,
mtime,  or  ownership  set --  they  have  more  restrictive   rights   until   the
subdirectory's  copying actually begins.  This early-creation idiom can be avoiding
by using the --omit-dir-times option.

Incremental recursion can  be  disabled  using  the  --no-inc-recursive  (--no-i-r)
option.

--no-inc-recursive, --no-i-r
Disables  the  new incremental recursion algorithm of the --recursive option.  This
makes rsync scan the full file list before it begins to transfer files.  See --inc-

--relative, -R
Use  relative  paths.  This means that the full path names specified on the command
line are sent to the server rather than just the last parts of the filenames.  This
is  particularly  useful when you want to send several different directories at the
same time.  For example, if you used this command:

rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote  machine.   If  instead  you
used

rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

then  a  file  named  /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c  would  be  created on the remote machine,
preserving  its  full  path.   These  extra  path  elements  are  called   "implied
directories" (i.e. the "foo" and the "foo/bar" directories in the above example).

Beginning  with  rsync  3.0.0, rsync always sends these implied directories as real
directories in the file list, even if a path element is really  a  symlink  on  the
sending side.  This prevents some really unexpected behaviors when copying the full
path of a file that you didn't realize had a symlink in its path.  If you  want  to
duplicate  a  server-side  symlink,  include  both  the  symlink  via its path, and
referent directory via its real path.  If you're dealing with an older rsync on the
sending side, you may need to use the --no-implied-dirs option.

It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that is sent as implied
directories for each path you specify.  With a modern rsync  on  the  sending  side
(beginning with 2.6.7), you can insert a dot and a slash into the source path, like
this:

rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

That would create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote machine. (Note that the dot must  be
followed  by  a  slash,  so  "/foo/."  would  not  be abbreviated.) For older rsync
versions, you would need to use a chdir to limit the  source  path.   For  example,
when pushing files:

(cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

(Note  that  the  parens  put  the  two commands into a sub-shell, so that the "cd"
command doesn't remain in effect for future commands.) If you're pulling files from
an older rsync, use this idiom (but only for a non-daemon transfer):

rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

--no-implied-dirs
This  option  affects  the  default  behavior of the --relative option.  When it is
specified, the attributes of the implied directories from the source names are  not
included  in  the transfer.  This means that the corresponding path elements on the
destination system are left unchanged  if  they  exist,  and  any  missing  implied
directories  are  created  with default attributes.  This even allows these implied
path elements to have big differences, such as being a symlink to  a  directory  on
the receiving side.

For  instance,  if  a command-line arg or a files-from entry told rsync to transfer
the file "path/foo/file", the directories "path" and "path/foo"  are  implied  when
--relative is used.  If "path/foo" is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system,
the receiving rsync would ordinarily delete "path/foo", recreate it as a directory,
and receive the file into the new directory.  With --no-implied-dirs, the receiving
rsync updates "path/foo/file" using the existing path elements,  which  means  that
the  file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another way to accomplish this link
preservation is to use the --keep-dirlinks option (which will also affect  symlinks
to directories in the rest of the transfer).

When  pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may need to use this option
if the sending side has a symlink in the path you request and you wish the  implied
directories to be transferred as normal directories.

--backup, -b
With  this  option,  preexisting  destination  files  are  renamed  as each file is
transferred or deleted.  You can control where the backup file goes  and  what  (if
any) suffix gets appended using the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

If you don't specify --backup-dir:

1.     the --omit-dir-times option will be forced on

2.     the  use  of  --delete  (without  --delete-excluded),  causes rsync to add a
"protect" filter-rule for the backup suffix to the end of all your  existing
filters  that  looks  like  this:  -f "P *~".  This rule prevents previously
backed-up files from being deleted.

Note that if you are supplying your own filter rules,  you  may  need  to  manually
insert your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up in the list so that it has
a high enough priority to be effective (e.g.  if  your  rules  specify  a  trailing
inclusion/exclusion of *, the auto-added rule would never be reached).

--backup-dir=DIR
This  implies  the  --backup  option,  and  tells rsync to store all backups in the
specified directory on the receiving  side.   This  can  be  used  for  incremental
backups.   You  can  additionally specify a backup suffix using the --suffix option
(otherwise the files backed up in the specified directory will keep their  original
filenames).

Note  that if you specify a relative path, the backup directory will be relative to
the destination directory, so you probably want to specify either an absolute  path
or  a  path that starts with "../".  If an rsync daemon is the receiver, the backup
dir cannot go outside the module's path hierarchy, so take extra care not to delete
it or copy into it.

--suffix=SUFFIX
This option allows you to override the default backup suffix used with the --backup
(-b) option.  The default suffix is a ~ if no --backup-dir was specified, otherwise
it is an empty string.

--update, -u
This  forces  rsync  to  skip  any  files which exist on the destination and have a
modified time that is newer than the source file. (If an existing destination  file
has a modification time equal to the source file's, it will be updated if the sizes
are different.)

Note that this does not affect the copying of  dirs,  symlinks,  or  other  special
files.  Also, a difference of file format between the sender and receiver is always
considered to be important enough for an update, no matter  what  date  is  on  the
objects.  In other words, if the source has a directory where the destination has a
file, the transfer would occur regardless of the timestamps.

This option is a TRANSFER RULE, so don't expect any exclude side effects.

A caution for those that choose to combine --inplace with --update: an  interrupted
transfer  will  leave  behind  a partial file on the receiving side that has a very
recent modified time, so re-running the transfer will  probably  not  continue  the
interrupted  file.   As  such,  it  is  usually  best  to avoid combining this with
--inplace unless you have implemented manual steps to handle  any  interrupted  in-
progress files.

--inplace
This  option  changes how rsync transfers a file when its data needs to be updated:
instead of the default method of creating a new copy of the file and moving it into
place  when  it  is complete, rsync instead writes the updated data directly to the
destination file.

This has several effects:

o      Hard links are not broken.  This means the new data will be visible  through
other  hard  links  to  the  destination  file.   Moreover, attempts to copy
differing source files onto a multiply-linked destination file  will  result
in a "tug of war" with the destination data changing back and forth.

o      In-use  binaries  cannot  be  updated  (either the OS will prevent this from
happening, or binaries that attempt to swap-in their data will misbehave  or
crash).

o      The  file's  data  will  be in an inconsistent state during the transfer and
will be left that way if the transfer is interrupted or if an update fails.

o      A file that rsync cannot write to cannot be updated.  While a super user can
update  any file, a normal user needs to be granted write permission for the
open of the file for writing to be successful.

o      The efficiency of rsync's delta-transfer algorithm may be  reduced  if  some
data  in  the  destination  file is overwritten before it can be copied to a
position later in the file.  This does not apply if you use --backup,  since
rsync  is  smart  enough  to  use  the backup file as the basis file for the
transfer.

WARNING: you should not use this option to update files that are being accessed  by
others, so be careful when choosing to use this for a copy.

This  option  is  useful  for  transferring large files with block-based changes or
appended data, and also on systems that are disk bound, not network bound.  It  can
also  help  keep  a  copy-on-write  filesystem  snapshot  from diverging the entire
contents of a file that only has minor changes.

The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer  does  not  delete  the
file),  but conflicts with --partial-dir and --delay-updates.  Prior to rsync 2.6.4
--inplace was also incompatible with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

--append
This special copy mode only works to efficiently update files that are known to  be
growing larger where any existing content on the receiving side is also known to be
the same as the content on the sender.  The use of --append can be dangerous if you
aren't 100% sure that all the files in the transfer are shared, growing files.  You
should thus use filter rules to ensure that you weed out any files that do not  fit
this criteria.

Rsync  updates  these  growing  file in-place without verifying any of the existing
content in the file (it only verifies the content that  it  is  appending).   Rsync
skips  any  files  that  exist  on the receiving side that are not shorter than the
associated file on the sending side (which means that new files  are  transferred).
It also skips any files whose size on the sending side gets shorter during the send
negotiations (rsync warns about a "diminished" file when this happens).

This does not interfere with the updating of a file's non-content attributes  (e.g.
permissions,  ownership,  etc.)  when the file does not need to be transferred, nor
does it affect the updating of any directories or non-regular files.

--append-verify
This special copy mode works like --append except that all the data in the file  is
included   in  the  checksum  verification  (making  it  less  efficient  but  also
potentially safer).  This option can be dangerous if you aren't 100% sure that  all
the  files  in the transfer are shared, growing files.  See the --append option for
more details.

Note: prior to rsync 3.0.0, the --append option worked like --append-verify, so  if
you  are interacting with an older rsync (or the transfer is using a protocol prior
to 30), specifying either append option will initiate an --append-verify transfer.

--dirs, -d
Tell the sending side to include any  directories  that  are  encountered.   Unlike
--recursive,  a  directory's  contents  are  not  copied  unless the directory name
specified is "." or ends with a trailing slash (e.g.  ".", "dir/.", "dir/",  etc.).
Without  this  option or the --recursive option, rsync will skip all directories it
encounters (and output a message to that effect for each one).  If you specify both
--dirs and --recursive, --recursive takes precedence.

The  --dirs  option is implied by the --files-from option or the --list-only option
(including an implied --list-only usage) if --recursive wasn't specified  (so  that
directories are seen in the listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want to
turn this off.

There is also a backward-compatibility helper  option,  --old-dirs  (--old-d)  that
tells  rsync  to  use a hack of -r --exclude='/*/*' to get an older rsync to list a
single directory without recursing.

--mkpath
Create a missing path component of the  destination  arg.   This  allows  rsync  to
create multiple levels of missing destination dirs and to create a path in which to
put a single renamed file.  Keep in mind that you'll  need  to  supply  a  trailing
slash  if  you  want  the entire destination path to be treated as a directory when
copying a single arg (making rsync behave the same way that it would  if  the  path

For  example,  the  following  creates  a  copy  of  file foo as bar in the sub/dir
directory, creating dirs "sub" and "sub/dir" if either do not yet exist:

rsync -ai --mkpath foo sub/dir/bar

If you instead ran the following, it would have created file foo in the sub/dir/bar
directory:

rsync -ai --mkpath foo sub/dir/bar/

regular file" warning for each symlink encountered.  You  can  alternately  silence
the warning by specifying --info=nonreg0.

The  default  handling of symlinks is to recreate each symlink's unchanged value on
the receiving side.

See the SYMBOLIC LINKS section for multi-option info.

The sender transforms each symlink encountered in the transfer  into  the  referent
item,  following the symlink chain to the file or directory that it references.  If
a symlink chain is broken, an error is output and the  file  is  dropped  from  the
transfer.

This  option  supersedes  any  other  options that affect symlinks in the transfer,
since there are no symlinks left in the transfer.

This option does not change the handling of  existing  symlinks  on  the  receiving
side,  unlike versions of rsync prior to 2.6.3 which had the side-effect of telling
the receiving side to also follow symlinks.  A  modern  rsync  won't  forward  this
option to a remote receiver (since only the sender needs to know about it), so this
caveat should only affect someone using an rsync client older than 2.6.7 (which  is
when -L stopped being forwarded to the receiver).

See  the --keep-dirlinks (-K) if you need a symlink to a directory to be treated as
a real directory on the receiving side.

See the SYMBOLIC LINKS section for multi-option info.

This tells rsync to copy the referent of symbolic  links  that  point  outside  the
copied  tree.   Absolute  symlinks are also treated like ordinary files, and so are
any symlinks in the source path itself when --relative is used.

Note that the cut-off point is the top of the transfer, which is the  part  of  the
path  that rsync isn't mentioning in the verbose output.  If you copy "/src/subdir"
to "/dest/" then the "subdir" directory is a name inside the transfer tree, not the
top of the transfer (which is /src) so it is legal for created relative symlinks to
refer to other names inside the /src and /dest directories.  If  you  instead  copy
"/src/subdir/"  (with  a  trailing  slash)  to  "/dest/subdir" that would not allow
symlinks to any files outside of "subdir".

Note that safe symlinks are only copied if --links was also specified  or  implied.

See the SYMBOLIC LINKS section for multi-option info.

This  tells  the receiving rsync to ignore any symbolic links in the transfer which
point outside the copied tree.  All absolute symlinks are also ignored.

Since this ignoring is happening on the receiving side, it will still be  effective
even when the sending side has munged symlinks (when it is using --munge-links). It
also affects deletions, since the file being present in the transfer  prevents  any
matching  file  on the receiver from being deleted when the symlink is deemed to be
unsafe and is skipped.

This option must be combined with --links (or --archive) to have  any  symlinks  in
the  transfer  to  conditionally ignore. Its effect is superseded by --copy-unsafe-

Using this option in conjunction with --relative may give unexpected results.

See the SYMBOLIC LINKS section for multi-option info.

This option affects just one side of the transfer and tells rsync to munge  symlink
values  when  it  is  receiving  files or unmunge symlink values when it is sending
files.  The munged values make  the  symlinks  unusable  on  disk  but  allows  the
original contents of the symlinks to be recovered.

The  server-side  rsync  often  enables this option without the client's knowledge,
such as in an rsync daemon's configuration file or by an option given to the rrsync
(restricted  rsync)  script.  When specified on the client side, specify the option
normally if it is the client side  that  has/needs  the  munged  symlinks,  or  use
-M--munge-links  to  give  the  option  to  the server when it has/needs the munged
symlinks.  Note that on a local transfer, the client is the sender,  so  specifying
the option directly unmunges symlinks while specifying it as a remote option munges

This option has no effect when sent to a daemon  via  --remote-option  because  the
parameter.

The symlink value is munged/unmunged once it is in the transfer, so any option that
for --safe-links, which is a choice that  the  receiver  makes,  so  it  bases  its
decision  on  the  munged/unmunged  value.   This  does mean that if a receiver has
munging enabled, that using --safe-links will cause  all  symlinks  to  be  ignored
(since they are all absolute).

The method that rsync uses to munge the symlinks is to prefix each one's value with
the string "/rsyncd-munged/".  This prevents the links from being used as  long  as
the  directory  does  not exist.  When this option is enabled, rsync will refuse to
run if that path is a directory or a symlink to a directory (though it only  checks
of the source code for a way to munge/unmunge one or more symlinks in-place.

This option causes the sending side to treat a symlink to a directory as though  it
were  a  real  directory.   This  is  useful  if  you  don't  want symlinks to non-
directories to be affected, as they would be using --copy-links.

Without this option, if the sending side has replaced a directory with a symlink to
a  directory, the receiving side will delete anything that is in the way of the new
symlink, including a directory hierarchy (as long as  --force  or  --delete  is  in
effect).

--copy-dirlinks  applies to all symlinks to directories in the source.  If you want
to follow only a few specified symlinks, a trick you can use is  to  pass  them  as
additional  source  args  with a trailing slash, using --relative to make the paths
match up right.  For example:

rsync -r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/

This works because rsync calls lstat(2)  on  the  source  arg  as  given,  and  the
trailing slash makes lstat(2) follow the symlink, giving rise to a directory in the
file-list which overrides the symlink found during the scan of "src/./".

See the SYMBOLIC LINKS section for multi-option info.

This option causes the receiving side to treat a symlink to a directory  as  though
it  were a real directory, but only if it matches a real directory from the sender.
Without this option, the receiver's symlink would be deleted and  replaced  with  a
real directory.

For  example,  suppose  you transfer a directory "foo" that contains a file "file",
but "foo" is a symlink  to  directory  "bar"  on  the  receiver.   Without  --keep-
the symlink and "file" ends up in "bar".

One note of caution: if you use --keep-dirlinks, you must trust all the symlinks in
the copy or enable the --munge-links option  on  the  receiving  side!   If  it  is
possible  for  an untrusted user to create their own symlink to any real directory,
the user could then (on  a  subsequent  copy)  replace  the  symlink  with  a  real
directory and affect the content of whatever directory the symlink references.  For
backup copies, you are better off using something like a bind mount  instead  of  a

See the SYMBOLIC LINKS section for multi-option info.

This  tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in the source and link together the
corresponding files on the destination.  Without this option, hard-linked files  in
the source are treated as though they were separate files.

This  option  does  NOT  necessarily  ensure  that the pattern of hard links on the
destination exactly matches that on the source.  Cases in which the destination may
end up with extra hard links include the following:

o      If the destination contains extraneous hard-links (more linking than what is
present in the source file list), the copying algorithm will not break  them
explicitly.   However, if one or more of the paths have content differences,
the normal file-update process will break those extra links (unless you  are
using the --inplace option).

of the destination files against the --link-dest files can cause some  paths
associations.

Note that rsync can only detect hard  links  between  files  that  are  inside  the
transfer  set.   If  rsync  updates  a file that has extra hard-link connections to
files outside the transfer, that linkage will be broken.  If you are tempted to use
the --inplace option to avoid this breakage, be very careful that you know how your
files are being updated so that you are certain that no unintended  changes  happen
due to lingering hard links (and see the --inplace option for more caveats).

If  incremental  recursion  is  active  (see --inc-recursive), rsync may transfer a
missing hard-linked file before it finds that another link for that contents exists
elsewhere  in  the  hierarchy.   This  does not affect the accuracy of the transfer
(i.e. which files are hard-linked together), just its efficiency (i.e. copying  the
data  for  a new, early copy of a hard-linked file that could have been found later
in the transfer in another member of the hard-linked set of  files).   One  way  to
avoid  this  inefficiency  is  to disable incremental recursion using the --no-inc-
recursive option.

--perms, -p
This option causes the receiving rsync to set the destination permissions to be the
same  as  the  source permissions. (See also the --chmod option for a way to modify
what rsync considers to be the source permissions.)

When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:

o      Existing files (including updated files) retain their existing  permissions,
though  the  --executability option might change just the execute permission
for the file.

o      New files get their "normal"  permission  bits  set  to  the  source  file's
permissions  masked  with  the  receiving  directory's  default  permissions
(either the receiving process's umask, or the permissions specified via  the
destination  directory's  default  ACL),  and  their special permission bits
disabled except in the case where a new directory inherits a setgid bit from
its parent directory.

Thus,  when  --perms and --executability are both disabled, rsync's behavior is the
same as that of other file-copy utilities, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

In summary: to give destination files (both old and new)  the  source  permissions,
use  --perms.  To give new files the destination-default permissions (while leaving
existing files unchanged), make sure  that  the  --perms  option  is  off  and  use
--chmod=ugo=rwX  (which  ensures  that  all non-masked bits get enabled).  If you'd
care to make this latter behavior easier to type, you could define a popt alias for
it,  such  as  putting  this line in the file ~/.popt (the following defines the -Z
option, and includes --no-g to use the default group of the destination dir):

rsync alias -Z --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

You could then use this new option in a command such as this one:

rsync -avZ src/ dest/

(Caveat: make sure that -a does not follow -Z, or it will re-enable the two  --no-*
options mentioned above.)

The  preservation of the destination's setgid bit on newly-created directories when
--perms is off  was  added  in  rsync  2.6.7.   Older  rsync  versions  erroneously
preserved  the  three  special permission bits for newly-created files when --perms
was off, while overriding the destination's setgid bit setting on  a  newly-created
directory.   Default  ACL observance was added to the ACL patch for rsync 2.6.7, so
older (or non-ACL-enabled) rsyncs use the umask even if default ACLs  are  present.
(Keep  in  mind  that  it  is the version of the receiving rsync that affects these
behaviors.)

--executability, -E
This option causes rsync to preserve the executability  (or  non-executability)  of
regular  files  when  --perms  is  not enabled.  A regular file is considered to be
executable if at least one 'x' is turned on in its permissions.  When  an  existing
destination  file's  executability  differs  from  that of the corresponding source
file, rsync modifies the destination file's permissions as follows:

o      To make a file non-executable, rsync turns off all its 'x' permissions.

o      To make a file executable, rsync turns on each 'x'  permission  that  has  a
corresponding 'r' permission enabled.

If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

--acls, -A
This  option  causes  rsync  to  update  the destination ACLs to be the same as the
source ACLs.  The option also implies --perms.

The source and destination systems must have compatible ACL entries for this option
to work properly.  See the --fake-super option for a way to backup and restore ACLs
that are not compatible.

--xattrs, -X
This option causes rsync to update the destination extended attributes  to  be  the
same as the source ones.

For  systems  that  support  extended-attribute  namespaces, a copy being done by a
super-user copies all namespaces except system.*.  A normal user  only  copies  the
user.* namespace.  To be able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as a normal
user, see the --fake-super option.

The above name filtering can be overridden by using one or more filter options with
the  x  modifier.   When you specify an xattr-affecting filter rule, rsync requires
that you do your own system/user filtering, as well as any additional filtering for
what xattr names are copied and what names are allowed to be deleted.  For example,
to skip the system namespace, you could specify:

--filter='-x system.*'

To skip all namespaces except the user namespace, you could specify a  negated-user
match:

--filter='-x! user.*'

To  prevent  any  attributes  from being deleted, you could specify a receiver-only
rule that excludes all names:

--filter='-xr *'

Note that the -X option does not copy rsync's special  xattr  values  (e.g.   those
used  by  --fake-super)  unless  you  repeat the option (e.g. -XX).  This "copy all
xattrs" mode cannot be used with --fake-super.

--chmod=CHMOD
This option tells rsync to apply one or more comma-separated "chmod" modes  to  the
permission  of the files in the transfer.  The resulting value is treated as though
it were the permissions that the sending side supplied for the  file,  which  means
that  this  option  can  seem to have no effect on existing files if --perms is not
enabled.

In addition to the normal parsing rules specified in the chmod(1) manpage, you  can
specify  an  item that should only apply to a directory by prefixing it with a 'D',
or specify an item that should only apply to a file by prefixing  it  with  a  'F'.
For  example,  the  following  will ensure that all directories get marked set-gid,
that no files are other-writable, that both are user-writable  and  group-writable,
and that both have consistent executability across all bits:

--chmod=Dg+s,ug+w,Fo-w,+X

Using octal mode numbers is also allowed:

--chmod=D2775,F664

It  is also legal to specify multiple --chmod options, as each additional option is
just appended to the list of changes to make.

See the --perms and --executability options for how the resulting permission  value
can be applied to the files in the transfer.

--owner, -o
This option causes rsync to set the owner of the destination file to be the same as
the source file, but only if the receiving rsync is being  run  as  the  super-user
(see also the --super and --fake-super options).  Without this option, the owner of
new and/or transferred files are set to the invoking user on the receiving side.

The preservation of ownership will associate matching names  by  default,  but  may
fall  back to using the ID number in some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids
option for a full discussion).

--group, -g
This option causes rsync to set the group of the destination file to be the same as
the  source file.  If the receiving program is not running as the super-user (or if
--no-super was specified), only groups that the invoking user on the receiving side
is  a  member  of  will be preserved.  Without this option, the group is set to the
default group of the invoking user on the receiving side.

The preservation of group information will associate matching names by default, but
may fall back to using the ID number in some circumstances (see also the --numeric-
ids option for a full discussion).

--devices
This option causes rsync to transfer character and block device files to the remote
system  to  recreate these devices.  If the receiving rsync is not being run as the
super-user, rsync silently skips creating the device files (see  also  the  --super
and --fake-super options).

By  default,  rsync  generates  a  "non-regular  file" warning for each device file
encountered when this option is not set.  You can silence the warning by specifying
--info=nonreg0.

--specials
This  option  causes  rsync  to  transfer  special files, such as named sockets and
fifos.  If the receiving rsync is not being run as the super-user,  rsync  silently
skips creating the special files (see also the --super and --fake-super options).

By  default,  rsync  generates  a  "non-regular file" warning for each special file
encountered when this option is not set.  You can silence the warning by specifying
--info=nonreg0.

-D     The -D option is equivalent to "--devices --specials".

--copy-devices
This  tells rsync to treat a device on the sending side as a regular file, allowing
it to be copied to a normal destination file (or another device if  --write-devices
was also specified).

This option is refused by default by an rsync daemon.

--write-devices
This  tells  rsync  to  treat  a  device  on  the receiving side as a regular file,
allowing the writing of file data into a device.

This option implies the --inplace option.

Be careful using this, as you should know what devices are present on the receiving
side of the transfer, especially when running rsync as root.

This option is refused by default by an rsync daemon.

--times, -t
This  tells  rsync  to  transfer modification times along with the files and update
them on the remote system.  Note that if this option is not used, the  optimization
that  excludes  files  that  have  not  been modified cannot be effective; in other
words, a missing -t (or -a) will cause the next transfer to behave as  if  it  used
--ignore-times (-I), causing all files to be updated (though rsync's delta-transfer
algorithm will make the update fairly  efficient  if  the  files  haven't  actually
changed, you're much better off using -t).

--atimes, -U
This tells rsync to set the access (use) times of the destination files to the same
value as the source files.

If repeated, it also sets the --open-noatime option, which can help you to make the
sending  and  receiving systems have the same access times on the transferred files
without needing to run rsync an extra time after a file is transferred.

Note that some older rsync versions (prior to 3.2.0) may have  been  built  with  a
pre-release  --atimes  patch that does not imply --open-noatime when this option is
repeated.

--open-noatime
This tells rsync to open files with the O_NOATIME flag (on systems that support it)
to avoid changing the access time of the files that are being transferred.  If your
OS does not support the O_NOATIME flag then rsync will silently ignore this option.
Note  also  that  some  filesystems are mounted to avoid updating the atime on read
access even without the O_NOATIME flag being set.

--crtimes, -N,
This tells rsync to set the create times (newness) of the destination files to  the
same value as the source files.

--omit-dir-times, -O
This  tells  rsync  to omit directories when it is preserving modification, access,
and create times.  If NFS is sharing the directories on the receiving side, it is a
good idea to use -O.  This option is inferred if you use --backup without --backup-
dir.

This option also has the side-effect of avoiding early  creation  of  missing  sub-
directories  when  incremental  recursion  is  enabled,  as discussed in the --inc-
recursive section.

This tells rsync to omit symlinks when it is preserving modification,  access,  and
create times.

--super
This  tells  the  receiving  side  to  attempt  super-user  activities  even if the
receiving rsync wasn't run by the super-user.  These activities include: preserving
users  via  the  --owner option, preserving all groups (not just the current user's
groups) via the --group option, and copying devices via the --devices option.  This
is  useful for systems that allow such activities without being the super-user, and
also for ensuring that you will get errors if the receiving side isn't being run as
the  super-user.   To  turn off super-user activities, the super-user can use --no-
super.

--fake-super
When  this  option  is  enabled,   rsync   simulates   super-user   activities   by
saving/restoring the privileged attributes via special extended attributes that are
attached to each file (as needed).  This includes the file's owner and group (if it
is  not the default), the file's device info (device & special files are created as
empty text files), and any permission bits that we won't allow to  be  set  on  the
real  file (e.g. the real file gets u-s,g-s,o-t for safety) or that would limit the
owner's access (since the real super-user can  always  access/change  a  file,  the
files  we create can always be accessed/changed by the creating user).  This option
also handles ACLs (if --acls was specified) and non-user  extended  attributes  (if
--xattrs was specified).

This  is  a  good  way to backup data without using a super-user, and to store ACLs
from incompatible systems.

The --fake-super option only affects the side where the option is used.  To  affect
the remote side of a remote-shell connection, use the --remote-option (-M) option:

rsync -av -M--fake-super /src/ host:/dest/

For  a local copy, this option affects both the source and the destination.  If you
wish a local copy to enable this option just for  the  destination  files,  specify
-M--fake-super.  If you wish a local copy to enable this option just for the source
files, combine --fake-super with -M--super.

This option is overridden by both --super and --no-super.

--sparse, -S
Try to handle  sparse  files  efficiently  so  they  take  up  less  space  on  the
destination.   If  combined  with  --inplace the file created might not end up with
sparse blocks with some combinations of kernel version and/or filesystem type.   If
--whole-file  is in effect (e.g. for a local copy) then it will always work because
rsync truncates the file prior to writing out the updated version.

Note that versions of rsync  older  than  3.1.3  will  reject  the  combination  of
--sparse and --inplace.

--preallocate
This  tells  the  receiver  to  allocate each destination file to its eventual size
before writing data to the file.  Rsync will only  use  the  real  filesystem-level
preallocation  support  provided  by  Linux's  fallocate(2) system call or Cygwin's
posix_fallocate(3), not the slow glibc implementation that writes a null byte  into
each block.

Without this option, larger files may not be entirely contiguous on the filesystem,
but with this option rsync will probably copy more slowly.  If the  destination  is
not  an  extent-supporting  filesystem (such as ext4, xfs, NTFS, etc.), this option
may have no positive effect at all.

If combined with --sparse, the file will only have sparse  blocks  (as  opposed  to
allocated  sequences  of  null  bytes)  if  the  kernel version and filesystem type
support creating holes in the allocated data.

--dry-run, -n
This makes rsync perform a trial run that doesn't make any  changes  (and  produces
mostly  the  same  output  as a real run).  It is most commonly used in combination
with the --verbose (-v) and/or --itemize-changes (-i) options to see what an  rsync
command is going to do before one actually runs it.

The output of --itemize-changes is supposed to be exactly the same on a dry run and
a subsequent real run (barring intentional trickery and system call  failures);  if
it isn't, that's a bug.  Other output should be mostly unchanged, but may differ in
some areas.  Notably, a dry run does not send the actual data for  file  transfers,
so  --progress  has  no effect, the "bytes sent", "bytes received", "literal data",
and "matched data" statistics are too small, and the "speedup" value is  equivalent
to a run where no file transfers were needed.

--whole-file, -W
This option disables rsync's delta-transfer algorithm, which causes all transferred
files to be sent whole.  The transfer may be faster if this option is used when the
bandwidth  between the source and destination machines is higher than the bandwidth
to disk (especially when the "disk" is actually a networked filesystem).   This  is
the  default when both the source and destination are specified as local paths, but
only if no batch-writing option is in effect.

--no-whole-file, --no-W
Disable whole-file updating when it is enabled by default  for  a  local  transfer.
This  usually  slows rsync down, but it can be useful if you are trying to minimize
the writes to the destination file (if combined with --inplace) or for testing  the
checksum-based update algorithm.

--checksum-choice=STR, --cc=STR
This option overrides the checksum algorithms.  If one algorithm name is specified,
it is used for both the transfer checksums and (assuming --checksum  is  specified)
the  pre-transfer  checksums.  If two comma-separated names are supplied, the first
name affects the transfer checksums, and the second name affects  the  pre-transfer
checksums (-c).

The checksum options that you may be able to use are:

o      auto (the default automatic choice)

o      xxh128

o      xxh3

o      xxh64 (aka xxhash)

o      md5

o      md4

o      none

Run  rsync --version  to  see  the default checksum list compiled into your version
(which may differ from the list above).

If "none" is specified for the first (or only) name,  the  --whole-file  option  is
forced  on  and  no checksum verification is performed on the transferred data.  If
"none" is specified for the second (or only) name, the --checksum option cannot  be
used.

The  "auto"  option  is  the  default,  where rsync bases its algorithm choice on a
negotiation between the client and the server as follows:

When both sides of the transfer  are  at  least  3.2.0,  rsync  chooses  the  first
algorithm  in  the  client's  list  of choices that is also in the server's list of
choices.  If no common checksum choice is found, rsync exits with an error.  If the
remote rsync is too old to support checksum negotiation, a value is chosen based on
the protocol version (which chooses between MD5 and various flavors of MD4 based on
protocol age).

The   default   order  can  be  customized  by  setting  the  environment  variable
RSYNC_CHECKSUM_LIST to a space-separated list of acceptable checksum names.  If the
string  contains  a "&" character, it is separated into the "client string & server
string", otherwise the same string applies to  both.   If  the  string  (or  string
portion)  contains no non-whitespace characters, the default checksum list is used.
This method does not allow you to specify the transfer checksum separately from the
pre-transfer  checksum,  and  it discards "auto" and all unknown checksum names.  A
list with only invalid names results in a failed negotiation.

The use of the --checksum-choice option overrides this environment list.

--one-file-system, -x
This tells rsync to avoid crossing a filesystem boundary when recursing.  This does
not  limit  the  user's ability to specify items to copy from multiple filesystems,
just rsync's recursion through the  hierarchy  of  each  directory  that  the  user
specified,  and also the analogous recursion on the receiving side during deletion.
Also keep in mind that rsync treats a "bind" mount to the same device as  being  on
the same filesystem.

If  this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point directories from the copy.
Otherwise, it includes an empty directory at each mount-point it encounters  (using
the attributes of the mounted directory because those of the underlying mount-point
directory are inaccessible).

If rsync has been told to collapse symlinks  (via  --copy-links  or  --copy-unsafe-
links),  a  symlink to a directory on another device is treated like a mount-point.
Symlinks to non-directories are unaffected by this option.

--ignore-non-existing, --existing
This tells rsync to skip creating files (including directories) that do  not  exist
yet  on  the  destination.   If  this option is combined with the --ignore-existing
option, no files will be updated (which can be useful if all  you  want  to  do  is
delete extraneous files).

This option is a TRANSFER RULE, so don't expect any exclude side effects.

--ignore-existing
This tells rsync to skip updating files that already exist on the destination (this
does not ignore existing  directories,  or  nothing  would  get  done).   See  also
--ignore-non-existing.

This option is a TRANSFER RULE, so don't expect any exclude side effects.

This option can be useful for those doing backups using the --link-dest option when
they need to continue a backup run that got interrupted.  Since a  --link-dest  run
is  copied  into  a  new  directory  hierarchy  (when  it  is used properly), using
[--ignore-existing will ensure that the already-handled  files  don't  get  tweaked
(which  avoids  a  change in permissions on the hard-linked files).  This does mean
that this option is only looking at the existing files in the destination hierarchy
itself.

When --info=skip2 is used rsync will output "FILENAME exists (INFO)" messages where
the INFO indicates one of "type change", "sum change" (requires -c), "file  change"
(based  on  the  quick  check),  "attr  change", or "uptodate".  Using --info=skip1
(which is also implied by 2 -v options) outputs the exists message without the INFO
suffix.

--remove-source-files
This  tells  rsync  to  remove  from  the  sending  side  the  files  (meaning non-
directories) that are a part of the transfer and have been successfully  duplicated
on the receiving side.

Note  that  you should only use this option on source files that are quiescent.  If
you are using this to move files that show up in a  particular  directory  over  to
another  host,  make  sure  that  the  finished  files  get renamed into the source
directory, not directly written into it, so that rsync can't  possibly  transfer  a
file  that  is  not  yet  fully written.  If you can't first write the files into a
different  directory,  you  should  use  a  naming  idiom  that  lets  rsync  avoid
transferring  files that are not yet finished (e.g. name the file "foo.new" when it
is written, rename  it  to  "foo"  when  it  is  done,  and  then  use  the  option
--exclude='*.new' for the rsync transfer).

Starting  with 3.1.0, rsync will skip the sender-side removal (and output an error)
if the file's size or modify time has not stayed unchanged.

--delete
This tells rsync to delete extraneous files from  the  receiving  side  (ones  that
aren't  on  the  sending  side),  but  only  for  the  directories  that  are being
synchronized.  You must have asked rsync to send the whole directory (e.g. "dir" or
"dir/")  without using a wildcard for the directory's contents (e.g. "dir/*") since
the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus gets  a  request  to  transfer
individual  files,  not  the files' parent directory.  Files that are excluded from
the transfer are also excluded from being deleted  unless  you  use  the  --delete-
excluded  option  or  mark  the rules as only matching on the sending side (see the
include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

Prior to rsync 2.6.7, this option would  have  no  effect  unless  --recursive  was
enabled.   Beginning  with  2.6.7,  deletions  will  also occur when --dirs (-d) is
enabled, but only for directories whose contents are being copied.

This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly! It is a very good idea  to  first
try  a  run  using  the  --dry-run  (-n)  option  to see what files are going to be
deleted.

If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of any files  at  the
destination   will  be  automatically  disabled.   This  is  to  prevent  temporary
filesystem failures (such as NFS errors) on the sending side from causing a massive
deletion  of  files  on  the destination.  You can override this with the --ignore-
errors option.

The --delete option may be combined with one of the --delete-WHEN  options  without
conflict,  as  well  as  --delete-excluded.   However, if none of the --delete-WHEN
options are specified, rsync will choose the --delete-during algorithm when talking
to  rsync 3.0.0 or newer, or the --delete-before algorithm when talking to an older

--delete-before
Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done before  the  transfer
starts.  See --delete (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.

Deleting  before  the  transfer is helpful if the filesystem is tight for space and
removing extraneous files would help to make the transfer  possible.   However,  it
does introduce a delay before the start of the transfer, and this delay might cause
the transfer to timeout (if --timeout was specified).  It also forces rsync to  use
the  old,  non-incremental  recursion algorithm that requires rsync to scan all the
files in the transfer into memory at once (see --recursive).

--delete-during, --del
Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done incrementally as  the
transfer  happens.   The  per-directory  delete  scan  is  done  right  before each
directory is checked for updates, so it behaves like  a  more  efficient  --delete-
before, including doing the deletions prior to any per-directory filter files being
updated.  This option was first added in rsync version 2.6.4.  See --delete  (which
is implied) for more details on file-deletion.

--delete-delay
Request  that  the  file-deletions  on  the  receiving  side be computed during the
transfer (like --delete-during), and then removed  after  the  transfer  completes.
This  is  useful  when  combined  with  --delay-updates and/or --fuzzy, and is more
efficient than using --delete-after (but can behave  differently,  since  --delete-
after  computes  the  deletions in a separate pass after all updates are done).  If
the number of removed files overflows an internal buffer, a temporary file will  be
created  on  the receiving side to hold the names (it is removed while open, so you
shouldn't see it during the transfer).  If  the  creation  of  the  temporary  file
fails,  rsync  will try to fall back to using --delete-after (which it cannot do if
--recursive is doing an incremental scan).  See --delete  (which  is  implied)  for
more details on file-deletion.

--delete-after
Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be done after the transfer
has completed.  This is useful if you are sending new per-directory merge files  as
a  part of the transfer and you want their exclusions to take effect for the delete
phase of the current  transfer.   It  also  forces  rsync  to  use  the  old,  non-
incremental  recursion  algorithm  that requires rsync to scan all the files in the
transfer into memory at once (see --recursive). See --delete (which is implied) for
more details on file-deletion.

See  also  the  --delete-delay  option that might be a faster choice for those that
just want the deletions to occur at the end of the transfer.

--delete-excluded
This option turns any unqualified exclude/include rules into server-side rules that
do not affect the receiver's deletions.

By  default,  an  exclude  or  include has both a server-side effect (to "hide" and
"show" files when building the server's file list) and a receiver-side  effect  (to
"protect"  and  "risk"  files  when  deletions are occuring).  Any rule that has no
modifier to specify what sides it is executed on will be instead treated as  if  it
were a server-side rule only, avoiding any "protect" effects of the rules.

A rule can still apply to both sides even with this option specified if the rule is
given both the sender & receiver modifer letters  (e.g.,  -f'-sr foo').   Receiver-
side  protect/risk  rules  can also be explicitly specified to limit the deletions.
This saves you from having to edit a bunch of -f'- foo' rules into -f'-s foo'  (aka
-f'H foo') rules (not to mention the corresponding includes).

See the FILTER RULES section for more information.  See --delete (which is implied)
for more details on deletion.

--ignore-missing-args
When rsync  is  first  processing  the  explicitly  requested  source  files  (e.g.
command-line  arguments  or  --files-from  entries), it is normally an error if the
file cannot be found.  This option suppresses that  error,  and  does  not  try  to
transfer  the file.  This does not affect subsequent vanished-file errors if a file
was initially found to be present and later is no longer there.

--delete-missing-args
This option takes the behavior of the (implied) --ignore-missing-args option a step
farther:  each  missing  arg  will  become  a deletion request of the corresponding
destination file on the receiving side (should it exist).  If the destination  file
is  a  non-empty  directory,  it  will  only  be successfully deleted if --force or
--delete are in effect.  Other than that, this option is independent of  any  other
type of delete processing.

The missing source files are represented by special file-list entries which display
as a "*missing" entry in the --list-only output.

--ignore-errors
Tells --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there are I/O errors.

--force
This option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when it is to  be  replaced
by  a  non-directory.   This  is  only  relevant  if  deletions are not active (see
--delete for details).

Note for older rsync versions:  --force  used  to  still  be  required  when  using
--delete-after,  and it used to be non-functional unless the --recursive option was
also enabled.

--max-delete=NUM
This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM files or directories.  If  that  limit
is exceeded, all further deletions are skipped through the end of the transfer.  At
the end, rsync outputs a warning (including a count of the skipped  deletions)  and
exits  with  an  error  code of 25 (unless some more important error condition also
occurred).

Beginning with version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0 to be warned about any
extraneous  files  in  the destination without removing any of them.  Older clients
interpreted this as "unlimited", so if you don't know what version the  client  is,
you  can  use  the  less  obvious  --max-delete=-1  as a backward-compatible way to
specify that no deletions be allowed (though really old versions didn't  warn  when
the limit was exceeded).

--max-size=SIZE
This  tells  rsync to avoid transferring any file that is larger than the specified
SIZE.  A numeric value can be suffixed with a string to indicate the numeric  units
or  left  unqualified  to specify bytes.  Feel free to use a fractional value along
with the units, such as --max-size=1.5m.

This option is a TRANSFER RULE, so don't expect any exclude side effects.

The first letter of a units string can be B (bytes), K (kilo), M (mega), G  (giga),
T  (tera),  or  P  (peta).   If the string is a single char or has "ib" added to it
(e.g. "G" or "GiB") then the units are multiples of 1024.  If you use a  two-letter
suffix  that  ends  with a "B" (e.g. "kb") then you get units that are multiples of
1000.  The string's letters can be any mix of upper and lower-case that you want to
use.

Finally,  if  the string ends with either "+1" or "-1", it is offset by one byte in
the indicated direction.  The largest possible value is usually 8192P-1.

Examples: --max-size=1.5mb-1 is 1499999 bytes, and  --max-size=2g+1  is  2147483649
bytes.

Note that rsync versions prior to 3.1.0 did not allow --max-size=0.

--min-size=SIZE
This  tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is smaller than the specified
SIZE, which can help in not transferring small, junk  files.   See  the  --max-size
option for a description of SIZE and other info.

Note that rsync versions prior to 3.1.0 did not allow --min-size=0.

--max-alloc=SIZE
By  default  rsync  limits  an individual malloc/realloc to about 1GB in size.  For
most people this limit works just fine and prevents a protocol error causing  rsync
to  request massive amounts of memory.  However, if you have many millions of files
in a transfer, a large amount of server memory, and you don't want to split up your
transfer  into  multiple  parts,  you  can  increase  the  per-allocation  limit to
something larger and rsync will consume more memory.

Keep in mind that this is not a limit on the total size of allocated memory.  It is
a sanity-check value for each individual allocation.

See  the  --max-size  option  for  a description of how SIZE can be specified.  The
default suffix if none is given is bytes.

Beginning in 3.2.3, a value of 0 specifies no limit.

You can set a default value using the environment  variable  RSYNC_MAX_ALLOC  using
the  same  SIZE  values  as  supported by this option.  If the remote rsync doesn't
understand the --max-alloc option, you  can  override  an  environmental  value  by
specifying  --max-alloc=1g,  which  will make rsync avoid sending the option to the
remote side (because "1G" is the default).

--block-size=SIZE, -B
This forces the block size used in rsync's  delta-transfer  algorithm  to  a  fixed
value.   It is normally selected based on the size of each file being updated.  See
the technical report for details.

Beginning in 3.2.3 the SIZE can be specified with  a  suffix  as  detailed  in  the
--max-size option.  Older versions only accepted a byte count.

--rsh=COMMAND, -e
This  option  allows  you  to choose an alternative remote shell program to use for
communication between the local and remote copies of rsync.   Typically,  rsync  is
configured to use ssh by default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.

If this option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the remote shell COMMAND
will be used to run an rsync daemon on the  remote  host,  and  all  data  will  be
transmitted  through  that  remote  shell  connection, rather than through a direct
socket connection to a running rsync daemon on the  remote  host.   See  the  USING
RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION section above.

Beginning  with rsync 3.2.0, the RSYNC_PORT environment variable will be set when a
daemon connection is being made via a remote-shell connection.  It is set to  0  if
the  default  daemon  port is being assumed, or it is set to the value of the rsync
port that was specified via either the --port option or a non-empty port  value  in
an  rsync:// URL.  This allows the script to discern if a non-default port is being
requested, allowing for things such as an SSL or stunnel helper script  to  connect
to a default or alternate port.

Command-line  arguments are permitted in COMMAND provided that COMMAND is presented
to rsync as a single argument.  You must use spaces (not tabs or other  whitespace)
to  separate  the  command and args from each other, and you can use single- and/or
double-quotes to preserve spaces in an argument (but not backslashes).   Note  that
doubling  a  single-quote  inside  a single-quoted string gives you a single-quote;
likewise for double-quotes (though you need to pay attention to which  quotes  your
shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing).  Some examples:

-e 'ssh -p 2234'
-e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"'

(Note  that  ssh  users  can alternately customize site-specific connect options in
their .ssh/config file.)

You can also choose the  remote  shell  program  using  the  RSYNC_RSH  environment
variable, which accepts the same range of values as -e.

--rsync-path=PROGRAM
Use  this  to  specify  what program is to be run on the remote machine to start-up
rsync.  Often used when rsync is not  in  the  default  remote-shell's  path  (e.g.
--rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).   Note  that  PROGRAM is run with the help of a
shell, so it can be any program, script, or command sequence you'd care to run,  so
long  as  it does not corrupt the standard-in & standard-out that rsync is using to
communicate.

One tricky example is to set a different default directory on  the  remote  machine
for use with the --relative option.  For instance:

rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

--remote-option=OPTION, -M
This  option is used for more advanced situations where you want certain effects to
be limited to one side of the transfer only.  For instance, if  you  want  to  pass
--log-file=FILE and --fake-super to the remote system, specify it like this:

rsync -av -M --log-file=foo -M--fake-super src/ dest/

If  you  want  to  have  an option affect only the local side of a transfer when it
normally affects both sides, send its negation to the remote side.  Like this:

rsync -av -x -M--no-x src/ dest/

Be cautious using this, as it is possible to toggle an option that will cause rsync
to  have  a different idea about what data to expect next over the socket, and that
will make it fail in a cryptic fashion.

Note that you should use a separate -M option for each remote option  you  want  to
pass.  On older rsync versions, the presence of any spaces in the remote-option arg
could cause it to be split into separate remote args, but this requires the use  of
--old-args in a modern rsync.

When  performing  a local transfer, the "local" side is the sender and the "remote"

Note some versions of the popt option-parsing library  have  a  bug  in  them  that
prevents  you from using an adjacent arg with an equal in it next to a short option
letter (e.g. -M--log-file=/tmp/foo).  If this bug affects your version of popt, you
can use the version of popt that is included with rsync.

--cvs-exclude, -C
This  is  a  useful  shorthand  for excluding a broad range of files that you often
don't want to transfer between systems.  It uses a  similar  algorithm  to  CVS  to
determine if a file should be ignored.

The exclude list is initialized to exclude the following items (these initial items
are marked as perishable -- see the FILTER RULES section):

RCS SCCS CVS CVS.adm RCSLOG cvslog.*  tags TAGS .make.state .nse_depinfo *~  #*
.#*  ,*  _$* *$ *.old *.bak *.BAK *.orig *.rej .del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so
*.exe *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/ .git/ .hg/ .bzr/

then, files listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list and any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment variable (all cvsignore names are delimited by whitespace). Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same directory as a .cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns listed therein. Unlike rsync's filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on whitespace. See the cvs(1) manual for more information. If you're combining -C with your own --filter rules, you should note that these CVS excludes are appended at the end of your own rules, regardless of where the -C was placed on the command-line. This makes them a lower priority than any rules you specified explicitly. If you want to control where these CVS excludes get inserted into your filter rules, you should omit the -C as a command-line option and use a combination of --filter=:C and --filter=-C (either on your command-line or by putting the ":C" and "-C" rules into a filter file with your other rules). The first option turns on the per-directory scanning for the .cvsignore file. The second option does a one-time import of the CVS excludes mentioned above. --filter=RULE, -f This option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude certain files from the list of files to be transferred. This is most useful in combination with a recursive transfer. You may use as many --filter options on the command line as you like to build up the list of files to exclude. If the filter contains whitespace, be sure to quote it so that the shell gives the rule to rsync as a single argument. The text below also mentions that you can use an underscore to replace the space that separates a rule from its arg. See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option. -F The -F option is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to your command. The first time it is used is a shorthand for this rule: --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter' This tells rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files that have been sprinkled through the hierarchy and use their rules to filter the files in the transfer. If -F is repeated, it is a shorthand for this rule: --filter='exclude .rsync-filter' This filters out the .rsync-filter files themselves from the transfer. See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on how these options work. --exclude=PATTERN This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that specifies an exclude rule and does not allow the full rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules. This is equivalent to specifying -f'- PATTERN'. See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option. --exclude-from=FILE This option is related to the --exclude option, but it specifies a FILE that contains exclude patterns (one per line). Blank lines in the file are ignored, as are whole-line comments that start with ';' or '#' (filename rules that contain those characters are unaffected). If a line begins with "- " (dash, space) or "+ " (plus, space), then the type of rule is being explicitly specified as an exclude or an include (respectively). Any rules without such a prefix are taken to be an exclude. If a line consists of just "!", then the current filter rules are cleared before adding any further rules. If FILE is '-', the list will be read from standard input. --include=PATTERN This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that specifies an include rule and does not allow the full rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules. This is equivalent to specifying -f'+ PATTERN'. See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option. --include-from=FILE This option is related to the --include option, but it specifies a FILE that contains include patterns (one per line). Blank lines in the file are ignored, as are whole-line comments that start with ';' or '#' (filename rules that contain those characters are unaffected). If a line begins with "- " (dash, space) or "+ " (plus, space), then the type of rule is being explicitly specified as an exclude or an include (respectively). Any rules without such a prefix are taken to be an include. If a line consists of just "!", then the current filter rules are cleared before adding any further rules. If FILE is '-', the list will be read from standard input. --files-from=FILE Using this option allows you to specify the exact list of files to transfer (as read from the specified FILE or '-' for standard input). It also tweaks the default behavior of rsync to make transferring just the specified files and directories easier: o The --relative (-R) option is implied, which preserves the path information that is specified for each item in the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn that off). o The --dirs (-d) option is implied, which will create directories specified in the list on the destination rather than noisily skipping them (use --no- dirs or --no-d if you want to turn that off). o The --archive (-a) option's behavior does not imply --recursive (-r), so specify it explicitly, if you want it. o These side-effects change the default state of rsync, so the position of the --files-from option on the command-line has no bearing on how other options are parsed (e.g. -a works the same before or after --files-from, as does --no-R and all other options). The filenames that are read from the FILE are all relative to the source dir -- any leading slashes are removed and no ".." references are allowed to go higher than the source dir. For example, take this command: rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup If /tmp/foo contains the string "bin" (or even "/bin"), the /usr/bin directory will be created as /backup/bin on the remote host. If it contains "bin/" (note the trailing slash), the immediate contents of the directory would also be sent (without needing to be explicitly mentioned in the file -- this began in version 2.6.4). In both cases, if the -r option was enabled, that dir's entire hierarchy would also be transferred (keep in mind that -r needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from, since it is not implied by -a. Also note that the effect of the (enabled by default) -r option is to duplicate only the path info that is read from the file -- it does not force the duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case). In addition, the --files-from file can be read from the remote host instead of the local host if you specify a "host:" in front of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer). As a short-cut, you can specify just a prefix of ":" to mean "use the remote end of the transfer". For example: rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy This would copy all the files specified in the /path/file-list file that was located on the remote "src" host. If the --iconv and --protect-args options are specified and the --files-from filenames are being sent from one host to another, the filenames will be translated from the sending host's charset to the receiving host's charset. NOTE: sorting the list of files in the --files-from input helps rsync to be more efficient, as it will avoid re-visiting the path elements that are shared between adjacent entries. If the input is not sorted, some path elements (implied directories) may end up being scanned multiple times, and rsync will eventually unduplicate them after they get turned into file-list elements. --from0, -0 This tells rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from a file are terminated by a null ('\0') character, not a NL, CR, or CR+LF. This affects --exclude-from, --include-from, --files-from, and any merged files specified in a --filter rule. It does not affect --cvs-exclude (since all names read from a .cvsignore file are split on whitespace). --old-args This option tells rsync to stop trying to protect the arg values on the remote side from unintended word-splitting or other misinterpretation. The default in a modern rsync is for "shell-active" characters (including spaces) to be backslash-escaped in the args that are sent to the remote shell. The wildcard characters *, ?, [, & ] are not escaped in filename args (allowing them to expand into multiple filenames) while being protected in option args, such as --usermap. If you have a script that wants to use old-style arg splitting in its filenames, specify this option once. If the remote shell has a problem with any backslash escapes at all, specify this option twice. You may also control this setting via the RSYNC_OLD_ARGS environment variable. If it has the value "1", rsync will default to a single-option setting. If it has the value "2" (or more), rsync will default to a repeated-option setting. If it is "0", you'll get the default escaping behavior. The environment is always overridden by manually specified positive or negative options (the negative is --no-old-args). Note that this option also disables the extra safety check added in 3.2.5 that ensures that a remote sender isn't including extra top-level items in the file-list that you didn't request. This side-effect is necessary because we can't know for sure what names to expect when the remote shell is interpreting the args. This option conflicts with the --protect-args option. --protect-args, -s This option sends all filenames and most options to the remote rsync without allowing the remote shell to interpret them. Wildcards are expanded on the remote host by rsync instead of the shell doing it. This is similar to the new-style backslash-escaping of args that was added in 3.2.4, but supports some extra features and doesn't rely on backslash escaping in the remote shell. If you use this option with --iconv, the args related to the remote side will also be translated from the local to the remote character-set. The translation happens before wild-cards are expanded. See also the --files-from option. You may also control this setting via the RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS environment variable. If it has a non-zero value, this setting will be enabled by default, otherwise it will be disabled by default. Either state is overridden by a manually specified positive or negative version of this option (note that --no-s and --no-protect-args are the negative versions). This environment variable is also superseded by a non- zero RSYNC_OLD_ARGS export. You may need to disable this option when interacting with an older rsync (one prior to 3.0.0). This option conflicts with the --old-args option. Note that this option is incompatible with the use of the restricted rsync script (rrsync) since it hides options from the script's inspection. --trust-sender This option disables two extra validation checks that a local client performs on the file list generated by a remote sender. This option should only be used if you trust the sender to not put something malicious in the file list (something that could possibly be done via a modified rsync, a modified shell, or some other similar manipulation). Normally, the rsync client (as of version 3.2.5) runs two extra validation checks when pulling files from a remote rsync: o It verifies that additional arg items didn't get added at the top of the transfer. o It verifies that none of the items in the file list are names that should have been excluded (if filter rules were specified). Note that various options can turn off one or both of these checks if the option interferes with the validation. For instance: o Using a per-directory filter file reads filter rules that only the server knows about, so the filter checking is disabled. o Using the --old-args option allows the sender to manipulate the requested args, so the arg checking is disabled. o Reading the files-from list from the server side means that the client doesn't know the arg list, so the arg checking is disabled. o Using --read-batch disables both checks since the batch file's contents will have been verified when it was created. This option may help an under-powered client server if the extra pattern matching is slowing things down on a huge transfer. It can also be used to work around a currently-unknown bug in the verification logic for a transfer from a trusted sender. When using this option it is a good idea to specify a dedicated destination directory, as discussed in the MULTI-HOST SECURITY section. --copy-as=USER[:GROUP] This option instructs rsync to use the USER and (if specified after a colon) the GROUP for the copy operations. This only works if the user that is running rsync has the ability to change users. If the group is not specified then the user's default groups are used. This option can help to reduce the risk of an rsync being run as root into or out of a directory that might have live changes happening to it and you want to make sure that root-level read or write actions of system files are not possible. While you could alternatively run all of rsync as the specified user, sometimes you need the root-level host-access credentials to be used, so this allows rsync to drop root for the copying part of the operation after the remote-shell or daemon connection is established. The option only affects one side of the transfer unless the transfer is local, in which case it affects both sides. Use the --remote-option to affect the remote side, such as -M--copy-as=joe. For a local transfer, the lsh (or lsh.sh) support file provides a local-shell helper script that can be used to allow a "localhost:" or "lh:" host-spec to be specified without needing to setup any remote shells, allowing you to specify remote options that affect the side of the transfer that is using the host-spec (and using hostname "lh" avoids the overriding of the remote directory to the user's home dir). For example, the following rsync writes the local files as user "joe": sudo rsync -aiv --copy-as=joe host1:backups/joe/ /home/joe/ This makes all files owned by user "joe", limits the groups to those that are available to that user, and makes it impossible for the joe user to do a timed exploit of the path to induce a change to a file that the joe user has no permissions to change. The following command does a local copy into the "dest/" dir as user "joe" (assuming you've installed support/lsh into a dir on your$PATH):

sudo rsync -aive lsh -M--copy-as=joe src/ lh:dest/

--temp-dir=DIR, -T
This option instructs rsync to  use  DIR  as  a  scratch  directory  when  creating
temporary  copies  of  the  files  transferred  on the receiving side.  The default
behavior is to create each temporary file in the same directory as  the  associated
destination  file.   Beginning  with  rsync  3.1.1,  the temp-file names inside the
specified DIR will not be prefixed with an extra dot (though they will still have a

This  option  is  most  often  used when the receiving disk partition does not have
enough free space to hold a copy of the largest file in the transfer.  In this case
(i.e.  when the scratch directory is on a different disk partition), rsync will not
be able to rename each received temporary file  over  the  top  of  the  associated
destination  file, but instead must copy it into place.  Rsync does this by copying
the file over the top of the destination file, which  means  that  the  destination
file  will contain truncated data during this copy.  If this were not done this way
(even if the destination file were first removed, the  data  locally  copied  to  a
temporary  file in the destination directory, and then renamed into place) it would
be possible for the old file to continue taking up disk space (if  someone  had  it
open),  and  thus there might not be enough room to fit the new version on the disk
at the same time.

If you are using this option for reasons other than a shortage of disk  space,  you
may  wish to combine it with the --delay-updates option, which will ensure that all
copied files get put into subdirectories in the destination hierarchy, awaiting the
end  of  the transfer.  If you don't have enough room to duplicate all the arriving
files on the destination partition, another way  to  tell  rsync  that  you  aren't
overly  concerned  about  disk  space  is  to  use  the --partial-dir option with a
relative path; because this tells rsync that it is OK to stash  off  a  copy  of  a
single  file  in a subdir in the destination hierarchy, rsync will use the partial-
dir as a staging area to bring over the copied file, and then rename it into  place
from  there.  (Specifying  a --partial-dir with an absolute path does not have this
side-effect.)

--fuzzy, -y
This option tells rsync that it should look for a basis file  for  any  destination
file  that  is  missing.   The current algorithm looks in the same directory as the
destination file for either a file that has an identical size and modified-time, or
a  similarly-named file.  If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file to try to speed
up the transfer.

If the option is repeated, the fuzzy  scan  will  also  be  done  in  any  matching
alternate  destination  directories  that are specified via --compare-dest, --copy-

Note that the use of the --delete option might get rid of any potential fuzzy-match
files, so either use --delete-after or specify some filename exclusions if you need
to prevent this.

--compare-dest=DIR
This option instructs rsync to use DIR on the destination machine as an  additional
hierarchy  to  compare  destination files against doing transfers (if the files are
missing in the destination directory).  If a file is found in DIR that is identical
to  the  sender's  file,  the  file  will  NOT  be  transferred  to the destination
directory.  This is useful for creating a sparse backup of  just  files  that  have
changed  from  an  earlier  backup.   This option is typically used to copy into an
empty (or newly created) directory.

Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories  may  be  provided,
which  will  cause  rsync  to  search  the list in the order specified for an exact
match.  If a match is found that differs only in attributes, a local copy  is  made
and  the attributes updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from one of the
DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.   See  also

NOTE:  beginning  with  version  3.1.0,  rsync  will remove a file from a non-empty
destination hierarchy if an exact  match  is  found  in  one  of  the  compare-dest
hierarchies (making the end result more closely match a fresh copy).

--copy-dest=DIR
This  option  behaves like --compare-dest, but rsync will also copy unchanged files
found in DIR to the destination directory using a local copy.  This is  useful  for
doing  transfers to a new destination while leaving existing files intact, and then
doing a flash-cutover when all files have been successfully transferred.

Multiple --copy-dest directories may be provided, which will cause rsync to  search
the  list in the order specified for an unchanged file.  If a match is not found, a
basis file from one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.   See  also

This  option behaves like --copy-dest, but unchanged files are hard linked from DIR
to the destination directory.   The  files  must  be  identical  in  all  preserved
attributes  (e.g.  permissions,  possibly  ownership)  in order for the files to be

rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/ If files aren't linking, double-check their attributes. Also check if some attributes are getting forced outside of rsync's control, such a mount option that squishes root to a single user, or mounts a removable drive with generic ownership (such as OS X's "Ignore ownership on this volume" option). Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may be provided, which will cause rsync to search the list in the order specified for an exact match (there is a limit of 20 such directories). If a match is found that differs only in attributes, a local copy is made and the attributes updated. If a match is not found, a basis file from one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer. This option works best when copying into an empty destination hierarchy, as existing files may get their attributes tweaked, and that can affect alternate destination files via hard-links. Also, itemizing of changes can get a bit muddled. Note that prior to version 3.1.0, an alternate-directory exact match would never be found (nor linked into the destination) when a destination file already exists. Note that if you combine this option with --ignore-times, rsync will not link any files together because it only links identical files together as a substitute for transferring the file, never as an additional check after the file is updated. If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory. See also --compare-dest and --copy-dest. Note that rsync versions prior to 2.6.1 had a bug that could prevent --link-dest from working properly for a non-super-user when --owner (-o) was specified (or implied). You can work-around this bug by avoiding the -o option (or using --no-o) when sending to an old rsync. --compress, -z With this option, rsync compresses the file data as it is sent to the destination machine, which reduces the amount of data being transmitted -- something that is useful over a slow connection. Rsync supports multiple compression methods and will choose one for you unless you force the choice using the --compress-choice (--zc) option. Run rsync --version to see the default compress list compiled into your version. When both sides of the transfer are at least 3.2.0, rsync chooses the first algorithm in the client's list of choices that is also in the server's list of choices. If no common compress choice is found, rsync exits with an error. If the remote rsync is too old to support checksum negotiation, its list is assumed to be "zlib". The default order can be customized by setting the environment variable RSYNC_COMPRESS_LIST to a space-separated list of acceptable compression names. If the string contains a "&" character, it is separated into the "client string & server string", otherwise the same string applies to both. If the string (or string portion) contains no non-whitespace characters, the default compress list is used. Any unknown compression names are discarded from the list, but a list with only invalid names results in a failed negotiation. There are some older rsync versions that were configured to reject a -z option and require the use of -zz because their compression library was not compatible with the default zlib compression method. You can usually ignore this weirdness unless the rsync server complains and tells you to specify -zz. --compress-choice=STR, --zc=STR This option can be used to override the automatic negotiation of the compression algorithm that occurs when --compress is used. The option implies --compress unless "none" was specified, which instead implies --no-compress. The compression options that you may be able to use are: o zstd o lz4 o zlibx o zlib o none Run rsync --version to see the default compress list compiled into your version (which may differ from the list above). Note that if you see an error about an option named --old-compress or --new- compress, this is rsync trying to send the --compress-choice=zlib or --compress- choice=zlibx option in a backward-compatible manner that more rsync versions understand. This error indicates that the older rsync version on the server will not allow you to force the compression type. Note that the "zlibx" compression algorithm is just the "zlib" algorithm with matched data excluded from the compression stream (to try to make it more compatible with an external zlib implementation). --compress-level=NUM, --zl=NUM Explicitly set the compression level to use (see --compress, -z) instead of letting it default. The --compress option is implied as long as the level chosen is not a "don't compress" level for the compression algorithm that is in effect (e.g. zlib compression treats level 0 as "off"). The level values vary depending on the checksum in effect. Because rsync will negotiate a checksum choice by default (when the remote rsync is new enough), it can be good to combine this option with a --compress-choice (--zc) option unless you're sure of the choice in effect. For example: rsync -aiv --zc=zstd --zl=22 host:src/ dest/ For zlib & zlibx compression the valid values are from 1 to 9 with 6 being the default. Specifying --zl=0 turns compression off, and specifying --zl=-1 chooses the default level of 6. For zstd compression the valid values are from -131072 to 22 with 3 being the default. Specifying 0 chooses the default of 3. For lz4 compression there are no levels, so the value is always 0. If you specify a too-large or too-small value, the number is silently limited to a valid value. This allows you to specify something like --zl=999999999 and be assured that you'll end up with the maximum compression level no matter what algorithm was chosen. If you want to know the compression level that is in effect, specify --debug=nstr to see the "negotiated string" results. This will report something like "Client compress: zstd (level 3)" (along with the checksum choice in effect). --skip-compress=LIST NOTE: no compression method currently supports per-file compression changes, so this option has no effect. Override the list of file suffixes that will be compressed as little as possible. Rsync sets the compression level on a per-file basis based on the file's suffix. If the compression algorithm has an "off" level, then no compression occurs for those files. Other algorithms that support changing the streaming level on-the-fly will have the level minimized to reduces the CPU usage as much as possible for a matching file. The LIST should be one or more file suffixes (without the dot) separated by slashes (/). You may specify an empty string to indicate that no files should be skipped. Simple character-class matching is supported: each must consist of a list of letters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special classes, such as "[:alpha:]", are supported, and '-' has no special meaning). The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?) have no special meaning. Here's an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1 of the 5 rules matches 2 suffixes): --skip-compress=gz/jpg/mp[34]/7z/bz2 The default file suffixes in the skip-compress list in this version of rsync are: 3g2 3gp 7z aac ace apk avi bz2 deb dmg ear f4v flac flv gpg gz iso jar jpeg jpg lrz lz lz4 lzma lzo m1a m1v m2a m2ts m2v m4a m4b m4p m4r m4v mka mkv mov mp1 mp2 mp3 mp4 mpa mpeg mpg mpv mts odb odf odg odi odm odp ods odt oga ogg ogm ogv ogx opus otg oth otp ots ott oxt png qt rar rpm rz rzip spx squashfs sxc sxd sxg sxm sxw sz tbz tbz2 tgz tlz ts txz tzo vob war webm webp xz z zip zst This list will be replaced by your --skip-compress list in all but one situation: a copy from a daemon rsync will add your skipped suffixes to its list of non- compressing files (and its list may be configured to a different default). --numeric-ids With this option rsync will transfer numeric group and user IDs rather than using user and group names and mapping them at both ends. By default rsync will use the username and groupname to determine what ownership to give files. The special uid 0 and the special group 0 are never mapped via user/group names even if the --numeric-ids option is not specified. If a user or group has no name on the source system or it has no match on the destination system, then the numeric ID from the source system is used instead. See also the use chroot setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for some comments on how the chroot setting affects rsync's ability to look up the names of the users and groups and what you can do about it. --usermap=STRING, --groupmap=STRING These options allow you to specify users and groups that should be mapped to other values by the receiving side. The STRING is one or more FROM:TO pairs of values separated by commas. Any matching FROM value from the sender is replaced with a TO value from the receiver. You may specify usernames or user IDs for the FROM and TO values, and the FROM value may also be a wild-card string, which will be matched against the sender's names (wild-cards do NOT match against ID numbers, though see below for why a '*' matches everything). You may instead specify a range of ID numbers via an inclusive range: LOW-HIGH. For example: --usermap=0-99:nobody,wayne:admin,*:normal --groupmap=usr:1,1:usr The first match in the list is the one that is used. You should specify all your user mappings using a single --usermap option, and/or all your group mappings using a single --groupmap option. Note that the sender's name for the 0 user and group are not transmitted to the receiver, so you should either match these values using a 0, or use the names in effect on the receiving side (typically "root"). All other FROM names match those in use on the sending side. All TO names match those in use on the receiving side. Any IDs that do not have a name on the sending side are treated as having an empty name for the purpose of matching. This allows them to be matched via a "*" or using an empty name. For instance: --usermap=:nobody --groupmap=*:nobody When the --numeric-ids option is used, the sender does not send any names, so all the IDs are treated as having an empty name. This means that you will need to specify numeric FROM values if you want to map these nameless IDs to different values. For the --usermap option to work, the receiver will need to be running as a super- user (see also the --super and --fake-super options). For the --groupmap option to work, the receiver will need to have permissions to set that group. Starting with rsync 3.2.4, the --usermap option implies the --owner (-o) option while the --groupmap option implies the --group (-g) option (since rsync needs to have those options enabled for the mapping options to work). An older rsync client may need to use --protect-args (-s) to avoid a complaint about wildcard characters, but a modern rsync handles this automatically. --chown=USER:GROUP This option forces all files to be owned by USER with group GROUP. This is a simpler interface than using --usermap & --groupmap directly, but it is implemented using those options internally so they cannot be mixed. If either the USER or GROUP is empty, no mapping for the omitted user/group will occur. If GROUP is empty, the trailing colon may be omitted, but if USER is empty, a leading colon must be supplied. If you specify "--chown=foo:bar", this is exactly the same as specifying "--usermap=*:foo --groupmap=*:bar", only easier (and with the same implied --owner and/or --group options). An older rsync client may need to use --protect-args (-s) to avoid a complaint about wildcard characters, but a modern rsync handles this automatically. --timeout=SECONDS This option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in seconds. If no data is transferred for the specified time then rsync will exit. The default is 0, which means no timeout. --contimeout=SECONDS This option allows you to set the amount of time that rsync will wait for its connection to an rsync daemon to succeed. If the timeout is reached, rsync exits with an error. --address=ADDRESS By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when connecting to an rsync daemon. The --address option allows you to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to. See also the daemon version of the --address option. --port=PORT This specifies an alternate TCP port number to use rather than the default of 873. This is only needed if you are using the double-colon (::) syntax to connect with an rsync daemon (since the URL syntax has a way to specify the port as a part of the URL). See also the daemon version of the --port option. --sockopts=OPTIONS This option can provide endless fun for people who like to tune their systems to the utmost degree. You can set all sorts of socket options which may make transfers faster (or slower!). Read the manpage for the setsockopt() system call for details on some of the options you may be able to set. By default no special socket options are set. This only affects direct socket connections to a remote rsync daemon. See also the daemon version of the --sockopts option. --blocking-io This tells rsync to use blocking I/O when launching a remote shell transport. If the remote shell is either rsh or remsh, rsync defaults to using blocking I/O, otherwise it defaults to using non-blocking I/O. (Note that ssh prefers non- blocking I/O.) --outbuf=MODE This sets the output buffering mode. The mode can be None (aka Unbuffered), Line, or Block (aka Full). You may specify as little as a single letter for the mode, and use upper or lower case. The main use of this option is to change Full buffering to Line buffering when rsync's output is going to a file or pipe. --itemize-changes, -i Requests a simple itemized list of the changes that are being made to each file, including attribute changes. This is exactly the same as specifying --out- format='%i %n%L'. If you repeat the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only if the receiving rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv with older versions of rsync, but that also turns on the output of other verbose messages). The "%i" escape has a cryptic output that is 11 letters long. The general format is like the string YXcstpoguax, where Y is replaced by the type of update being done, X is replaced by the file-type, and the other letters represent attributes that may be output if they are being modified. The update types that replace the Y are as follows: o A < means that a file is being transferred to the remote host (sent). o A > means that a file is being transferred to the local host (received). o A c means that a local change/creation is occurring for the item (such as the creation of a directory or the changing of a symlink, etc.). o A h means that the item is a hard link to another item (requires --hard- links). o A . means that the item is not being updated (though it might have attributes that are being modified). o A * means that the rest of the itemized-output area contains a message (e.g. "deleting"). The file-types that replace the X are: f for a file, a d for a directory, an L for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S for a special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos). The other letters in the string indicate if some attributes of the file have changed, as follows: o "." - the attribute is unchanged. o "+" - the file is newly created. o " " - all the attributes are unchanged (all dots turn to spaces). o "?" - the change is unknown (when the remote rsync is old). o A letter indicates an attribute is being updated. The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows: o A c means either that a regular file has a different checksum (requires --checksum) or that a symlink, device, or special file has a changed value. Note that if you are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this change flag will be present only for checksum-differing regular files. o A s means the size of a regular file is different and will be updated by the file transfer. o A t means the modification time is different and is being updated to the sender's value (requires --times). An alternate value of T means that the modification time will be set to the transfer time, which happens when a file/symlink/device is updated without --times and when a symlink is changed and the receiver can't set its time. (Note: when using an rsync 3.0.0 client, you might see the s flag combined with t instead of the proper T flag for this time-setting failure.) o A p means the permissions are different and are being updated to the sender's value (requires --perms). o An o means the owner is different and is being updated to the sender's value (requires --owner and super-user privileges). o A g means the group is different and is being updated to the sender's value (requires --group and the authority to set the group). o o A u|n|b indicates the following information: u means the access (use) time is different and is being updated to the sender's value (requires --atimes) o n means the create time (newness) is different and is being updated to the sender's value (requires --crtimes) o b means that both the access and create times are being updated o The a means that the ACL information is being changed. o The x means that the extended attribute information is being changed. One other output is possible: when deleting files, the "%i" will output the string "*deleting" for each item that is being removed (assuming that you are talking to a recent enough rsync that it logs deletions instead of outputting them as a verbose message). --out-format=FORMAT This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync client outputs to the user on a per-update basis. The format is a text string containing embedded single-character escape sequences prefixed with a percent (%) character. A default format of "%n%L" is assumed if either --info=name or -v is specified (this tells you just the name of the file and, if the item is a link, where it points). For a full list of the possible escape characters, see the log format setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage. Specifying the --out-format option implies the --info=name option, which will mention each file, dir, etc. that gets updated in a significant way (a transferred file, a recreated symlink/device, or a touched directory). In addition, if the itemize-changes escape (%i) is included in the string (e.g. if the --itemize- changes option was used), the logging of names increases to mention any item that is changed in any way (as long as the receiving side is at least 2.6.4). See the --itemize-changes option for a description of the output of "%i". Rsync will output the out-format string prior to a file's transfer unless one of the transfer-statistic escapes is requested, in which case the logging is done at the end of the file's transfer. When this late logging is in effect and --progress is also specified, rsync will also output the name of the file being transferred prior to its progress information (followed, of course, by the out-format output). --log-file=FILE This option causes rsync to log what it is doing to a file. This is similar to the logging that a daemon does, but can be requested for the client side and/or the server side of a non-daemon transfer. If specified as a client option, transfer logging will be enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L". See the --log-file- format option if you wish to override this. Here's an example command that requests the remote side to log what is happening: rsync -av --remote-option=--log-file=/tmp/rlog src/ dest/ This is very useful if you need to debug why a connection is closing unexpectedly. See also the daemon version of the --log-file option. --log-file-format=FORMAT This allows you to specify exactly what per-update logging is put into the file specified by the --log-file option (which must also be specified for this option to have any effect). If you specify an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned in the log file. For a list of the possible escape characters, see the log format setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage. The default FORMAT used if --log-file is specified and this option is not is '%i %n%L'. See also the daemon version of the --log-file-format option. --stats This tells rsync to print a verbose set of statistics on the file transfer, allowing you to tell how effective rsync's delta-transfer algorithm is for your data. This option is equivalent to --info=stats2 if combined with 0 or 1 -v options, or --info=stats3 if combined with 2 or more -v options. The current statistics are as follows: o Number of files is the count of all "files" (in the generic sense), which includes directories, symlinks, etc. The total count will be followed by a list of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero). For example: "(reg: 5, dir: 3, link: 2, dev: 1, special: 1)" lists the totals for regular files, directories, symlinks, devices, and special files. If any of value is 0, it is completely omitted from the list. o Number of created files is the count of how many "files" (generic sense) were created (as opposed to updated). The total count will be followed by a list of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero). o Number of deleted files is the count of how many "files" (generic sense) were deleted. The total count will be followed by a list of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero). Note that this line is only output if deletions are in effect, and only if protocol 31 is being used (the default for rsync 3.1.x). o Number of regular files transferred is the count of normal files that were updated via rsync's delta-transfer algorithm, which does not include dirs, symlinks, etc. Note that rsync 3.1.0 added the word "regular" into this heading. o Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes in the transfer. This does not count any size for directories or special files, but does include the size of symlinks. o Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files sizes for just the transferred files. o Literal data is how much unmatched file-update data we had to send to the receiver for it to recreate the updated files. o Matched data is how much data the receiver got locally when recreating the updated files. o File list size is how big the file-list data was when the sender sent it to the receiver. This is smaller than the in-memory size for the file list due to some compressing of duplicated data when rsync sends the list. o File list generation time is the number of seconds that the sender spent creating the file list. This requires a modern rsync on the sending side for this to be present. o File list transfer time is the number of seconds that the sender spent sending the file list to the receiver. o Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync sent from the client side to the server side. o Total bytes received is the count of all non-message bytes that rsync received by the client side from the server side. "Non-message" bytes means that we don't count the bytes for a verbose message that the server sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent. --8-bit-output, -8 This tells rsync to leave all high-bit characters unescaped in the output instead of trying to test them to see if they're valid in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones. All control characters (but never tabs) are always escaped, regardless of this option's setting. The escape idiom that started in 2.6.7 is to output a literal backslash (\) and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3 octal digits. For example, a newline would output as "\#012". A literal backslash that is in a filename is not escaped unless it is followed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9). --human-readable, -h Output numbers in a more human-readable format. There are 3 possible levels: 1. output numbers with a separator between each set of 3 digits (either a comma or a period, depending on if the decimal point is represented by a period or a comma). 2. output numbers in units of 1000 (with a character suffix for larger units -- see below). 3. output numbers in units of 1024. The default is human-readable level 1. Each -h option increases the level by one. You can take the level down to 0 (to output numbers as pure digits) by specifying the --no-human-readable (--no-h) option. The unit letters that are appended in levels 2 and 3 are: K (kilo), M (mega), G (giga), T (tera), or P (peta). For example, a 1234567-byte file would output as 1.23M in level-2 (assuming that a period is your local decimal point). Backward compatibility note: versions of rsync prior to 3.1.0 do not support human- readable level 1, and they default to level 0. Thus, specifying one or two -h options will behave in a comparable manner in old and new versions as long as you didn't specify a --no-h option prior to one or more -h options. See the --list- only option for one difference. --partial By default, rsync will delete any partially transferred file if the transfer is interrupted. In some circumstances it is more desirable to keep partially transferred files. Using the --partial option tells rsync to keep the partial file which should make a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much faster. --partial-dir=DIR This option modifies the behavior of the --partial option while also implying that it be enabled. This enhanced partial-file method puts any partially transferred files into the specified DIR instead of writing the partial file out to the destination file. On the next transfer, rsync will use a file found in this dir as data to speed up the resumption of the transfer and then delete it after it has served its purpose. Note that if --whole-file is specified (or implied), any partial-dir files that are found for a file that is being updated will simply be removed (since rsync is sending files without using rsync's delta-transfer algorithm). Rsync will create the DIR if it is missing, but just the last dir -- not the whole path. This makes it easy to use a relative path (such as "--partial-dir=.rsync- partial") to have rsync create the partial-directory in the destination file's directory when it is needed, and then remove it again when the partial file is deleted. Note that this directory removal is only done for a relative pathname, as it is expected that an absolute path is to a directory that is reserved for partial-dir work. If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add an exclude rule at the end of all your existing excludes. This will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files that may exist on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion of partial-dir items on the receiving side. An example: the above --partial-dir option would add the equivalent of this "perishable" exclude at the end of any other filter rules: -f '-p .rsync-partial/' If you are supplying your own exclude rules, you may need to add your own exclude/hide/protect rule for the partial-dir because: 1. the auto-added rule may be ineffective at the end of your other rules, or 2. you may wish to override rsync's exclude choice. For instance, if you want to make rsync clean-up any left-over partial-dirs that may be lying around, you should specify --delete-after and add a "risk" filter rule, e.g. -f 'R .rsync-partial/'. Avoid using --delete-before or --delete-during unless you don't need rsync to use any of the left-over partial-dir data during the current run. IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not be writable by other users or it is a security risk! E.g. AVOID "/tmp"! You can also set the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR environment variable. Setting this in the environment does not force --partial to be enabled, but rather it affects where partial files go when --partial is specified. For instance, instead of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp along with --progress, you could set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in your environment and then use the -P option to turn on the use of the .rsync-tmp dir for partial transfers. The only times that the --partial option does not look for this environment value are: 1. when --inplace was specified (since --inplace conflicts with --partial-dir), and 2. when --delay-updates was specified (see below). When a modern rsync resumes the transfer of a file in the partial-dir, that partial file is now updated in-place instead of creating yet another tmp-file copy (so it maxes out at dest + tmp instead of dest + partial + tmp). This requires both ends of the transfer to be at least version 3.2.0. For the purposes of the daemon-config's "refuse options" setting, --partial-dir does not imply --partial. This is so that a refusal of the --partial option can be used to disallow the overwriting of destination files with a partial transfer, while still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir. --delay-updates This option puts the temporary file from each updated file into a holding directory until the end of the transfer, at which time all the files are renamed into place in rapid succession. This attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic. By default the files are placed into a directory named .~tmp~ in each file's destination directory, but if you've specified the --partial-dir option, that directory will be used instead. See the comments in the --partial-dir section for a discussion of how this .~tmp~ dir will be excluded from the transfer, and what you can do if you want rsync to cleanup old .~tmp~ dirs that might be lying around. Conflicts with --inplace and --append. This option implies --no-inc-recursive since it needs the full file list in memory in order to be able to iterate over it at the end. This option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit per file transferred) and also requires enough free disk space on the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated files. Note also that you should not use an absolute path to --partial-dir unless: 1. there is no chance of any of the files in the transfer having the same name (since all the updated files will be put into a single directory if the path is absolute), and 2. there are no mount points in the hierarchy (since the delayed updates will fail if they can't be renamed into place). See also the "atomic-rsync" python script in the "support" subdir for an update algorithm that is even more atomic (it uses --link-dest and a parallel hierarchy of files). --prune-empty-dirs, -m This option tells the receiving rsync to get rid of empty directories from the file-list, including nested directories that have no non-directory children. This is useful for avoiding the creation of a bunch of useless directories when the sending rsync is recursively scanning a hierarchy of files using include/exclude/filter rules. This option can still leave empty directories on the receiving side if you make use of TRANSFER_RULES. Because the file-list is actually being pruned, this option also affects what directories get deleted when a delete is active. However, keep in mind that excluded files and directories can prevent existing items from being deleted due to an exclude both hiding source files and protecting destination files. See the perishable filter-rule option for how to avoid this. You can prevent the pruning of certain empty directories from the file-list by using a global "protect" filter. For instance, this option would ensure that the directory "emptydir" was kept in the file-list: --filter 'protect emptydir/' Here's an example that copies all .pdf files in a hierarchy, only creating the necessary destination directories to hold the .pdf files, and ensures that any superfluous files and directories in the destination are removed (note the hide filter of non-directories being used instead of an exclude): rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */' src/ dest If you didn't want to remove superfluous destination files, the more time-honored options of --include='*/' --exclude='*' would work fine in place of the hide-filter (if that is more natural to you). --progress This option tells rsync to print information showing the progress of the transfer. This gives a bored user something to watch. With a modern rsync this is the same as specifying --info=flist2,name,progress, but any user-supplied settings for those info flags takes precedence (e.g. --info=flist0 --progress). While rsync is transferring a regular file, it updates a progress line that looks like this: 782448 63% 110.64kB/s 0:00:04 In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes or 63% of the sender's file, which is being reconstructed at a rate of 110.64 kilobytes per second, and the transfer will finish in 4 seconds if the current rate is maintained until the end. These statistics can be misleading if rsync's delta-transfer algorithm is in use. For example, if the sender's file consists of the basis file followed by additional data, the reported rate will probably drop dramatically when the receiver gets to the literal data, and the transfer will probably take much longer to finish than the receiver estimated as it was finishing the matched part of the file. When the file transfer finishes, rsync replaces the progress line with a summary line that looks like this: 1,238,099 100% 146.38kB/s 0:00:08 (xfr#5, to-chk=169/396) In this example, the file was 1,238,099 bytes long in total, the average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes per second over the 8 seconds that it took to complete, it was the 5th transfer of a regular file during the current rsync session, and there are 169 more files for the receiver to check (to see if they are up-to-date or not) remaining out of the 396 total files in the file-list. In an incremental recursion scan, rsync won't know the total number of files in the file-list until it reaches the ends of the scan, but since it starts to transfer files during the scan, it will display a line with the text "ir-chk" (for incremental recursion check) instead of "to-chk" until the point that it knows the full size of the list, at which point it will switch to using "to-chk". Thus, seeing "ir-chk" lets you know that the total count of files in the file list is still going to increase (and each time it does, the count of files left to check will increase by the number of the files added to the list). -P The -P option is equivalent to "--partial --progress". Its purpose is to make it much easier to specify these two options for a long transfer that may be interrupted. There is also a --info=progress2 option that outputs statistics based on the whole transfer, rather than individual files. Use this flag without outputting a filename (e.g. avoid -v or specify --info=name0) if you want to see how the transfer is doing without scrolling the screen with a lot of names. (You don't need to specify the --progress option in order to use --info=progress2.) Finally, you can get an instant progress report by sending rsync a signal of either SIGINFO or SIGVTALRM. On BSD systems, a SIGINFO is generated by typing a Ctrl+T (Linux doesn't currently support a SIGINFO signal). When the client-side process receives one of those signals, it sets a flag to output a single progress report which is output when the current file transfer finishes (so it may take a little time if a big file is being handled when the signal arrives). A filename is output (if needed) followed by the --info=progress2 format of progress info. If you don't know which of the 3 rsync processes is the client process, it's OK to signal all of them (since the non-client processes ignore the signal). CAUTION: sending SIGVTALRM to an older rsync (pre-3.2.0) will kill it. --password-file=FILE This option allows you to provide a password for accessing an rsync daemon via a file or via standard input if FILE is -. The file should contain just the password on the first line (all other lines are ignored). Rsync will exit with an error if FILE is world readable or if a root-run rsync command finds a non-root-owned file. This option does not supply a password to a remote shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to do that, consult the remote shell's documentation. When accessing an rsync daemon using a remote shell as the transport, this option only comes into effect after the remote shell finishes its authentication (i.e. if you have also specified a password in the daemon's config file). --early-input=FILE This option allows rsync to send up to 5K of data to the "early exec" script on its stdin. One possible use of this data is to give the script a secret that can be used to mount an encrypted filesystem (which you should unmount in the the "post- xfer exec" script). The daemon must be at least version 3.2.1. --list-only This option will cause the source files to be listed instead of transferred. This option is inferred if there is a single source arg and no destination specified, so its main uses are: 1. to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg into a file-listing command, or 2. to be able to specify more than one source arg. Note: be sure to include the destination. CAUTION: keep in mind that a source arg with a wild-card is expanded by the shell into multiple args, so it is never safe to try to specify a single wild-card arg to try to infer this option. A safe example is: rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/ Starting with rsync 3.1.0, the sizes output by --list-only are affected by the --human-readable option. By default they will contain digit separators, but higher levels of readability will output the sizes with unit suffixes. Note also that the column width for the size output has increased from 11 to 14 characters for all human-readable levels. Use --no-h if you want just digits in the sizes, and the old column width of 11 characters. Compatibility note: when requesting a remote listing of files from an rsync that is version 2.6.3 or older, you may encounter an error if you ask for a non-recursive listing. This is because a file listing implies the --dirs option w/o --recursive, and older rsyncs don't have that option. To avoid this problem, either specify the --no-dirs option (if you don't need to expand a directory's content), or turn on recursion and exclude the content of subdirectories: -r --exclude='/*/*'. --bwlimit=RATE This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for the data sent over the socket, specified in units per second. The RATE value can be suffixed with a string to indicate a size multiplier, and may be a fractional value (e.g. --bwlimit=1.5m). If no suffix is specified, the value will be assumed to be in units of 1024 bytes (as if "K" or "KiB" had been appended). See the --max-size option for a description of all the available suffixes. A value of 0 specifies no limit. For backward-compatibility reasons, the rate limit will be rounded to the nearest KiB unit, so no rate smaller than 1024 bytes per second is possible. Rsync writes data over the socket in blocks, and this option both limits the size of the blocks that rsync writes, and tries to keep the average transfer rate at the requested limit. Some burstiness may be seen where rsync writes out a block of data and then sleeps to bring the average rate into compliance. Due to the internal buffering of data, the --progress option may not be an accurate reflection on how fast the data is being sent. This is because some files can show up as being rapidly sent when the data is quickly buffered, while other can show up as very slow when the flushing of the output buffer occurs. This may be fixed in a future version. See also the daemon version of the --bwlimit option. --stop-after=MINS, (--time-limit=MINS) This option tells rsync to stop copying when the specified number of minutes has elapsed. For maximal flexibility, rsync does not communicate this option to the remote rsync since it is usually enough that one side of the connection quits as specified. This allows the option's use even when only one side of the connection supports it. You can tell the remote side about the time limit using --remote-option (-M), should the need arise. The --time-limit version of this option is deprecated. --stop-at=y-m-dTh:m This option tells rsync to stop copying when the specified point in time has been reached. The date & time can be fully specified in a numeric format of year-month- dayThour:minute (e.g. 2000-12-31T23:59) in the local timezone. You may choose to separate the date numbers using slashes instead of dashes. The value can also be abbreviated in a variety of ways, such as specifying a 2-digit year and/or leaving off various values. In all cases, the value will be taken to be the next possible point in time where the supplied information matches. If the value specifies the current time or a past time, rsync exits with an error. For example, "1-30" specifies the next January 30th (at midnight local time), "14:00" specifies the next 2 P.M., "1" specifies the next 1st of the month at midnight, "31" specifies the next month where we can stop on its 31st day, and ":59" specifies the next 59th minute after the hour. For maximal flexibility, rsync does not communicate this option to the remote rsync since it is usually enough that one side of the connection quits as specified. This allows the option's use even when only one side of the connection supports it. You can tell the remote side about the time limit using --remote-option (-M), should the need arise. Do keep in mind that the remote host may have a different default timezone than your local host. --fsync Cause the receiving side to fsync each finished file. This may slow down the transfer, but can help to provide peace of mind when updating critical files. --write-batch=FILE Record a file that can later be applied to another identical destination with --read-batch. See the "BATCH MODE" section for details, and also the --only-write- batch option. This option overrides the negotiated checksum & compress lists and always negotiates a choice based on old-school md5/md4/zlib choices. If you want a more modern choice, use the --checksum-choice (--cc) and/or --compress-choice (--zc) options. --only-write-batch=FILE Works like --write-batch, except that no updates are made on the destination system when creating the batch. This lets you transport the changes to the destination system via some other means and then apply the changes via --read-batch. Note that you can feel free to write the batch directly to some portable media: if this media fills to capacity before the end of the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer to the destination and repeat the whole process to get the rest of the changes (as long as you don't mind a partially updated destination system while the multi-update cycle is happening). Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a remote system because this allows the batched data to be diverted from the sender into the batch file without having to flow over the wire to the receiver (when pulling, the sender is remote, and thus can't write the batch). --read-batch=FILE Apply all of the changes stored in FILE, a file previously generated by --write- batch. If FILE is -, the batch data will be read from standard input. See the "BATCH MODE" section for details. --protocol=NUM Force an older protocol version to be used. This is useful for creating a batch file that is compatible with an older version of rsync. For instance, if rsync 2.6.4 is being used with the --write-batch option, but rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when creating the batch file to force the older protocol version to be used in the batch file (assuming you can't upgrade the rsync on the reading system). --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC Rsync can convert filenames between character sets using this option. Using a CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells rsync to look up the default character-set via the locale setting. Alternately, you can fully specify what conversion to do by giving a local and a remote charset separated by a comma in the order --iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE, e.g. --iconv=utf8,iso88591. This order ensures that the option will stay the same whether you're pushing or pulling files. Finally, you can specify either --no- iconv or a CONVERT_SPEC of "-" to turn off any conversion. The default setting of this option is site-specific, and can also be affected via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable. For a list of what charset names your local iconv library supports, you can run "iconv --list". If you specify the --protect-args (-s) option, rsync will translate the filenames you specify on the command-line that are being sent to the remote host. See also the --files-from option. Note that rsync does not do any conversion of names in filter files (including include/exclude files). It is up to you to ensure that you're specifying matching rules that can match on both sides of the transfer. For instance, you can specify extra include/exclude rules if there are filename differences on the two sides that need to be accounted for. When you pass an --iconv option to an rsync daemon that allows it, the daemon uses the charset specified in its "charset" configuration parameter regardless of the remote charset you actually pass. Thus, you may feel free to specify just the local charset for a daemon transfer (e.g. --iconv=utf8). --ipv4, -4 or --ipv6, -6 Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating sockets or running ssh. This affects sockets that rsync has direct control over, such as the outgoing socket when directly contacting an rsync daemon, as well as the forwarding of the -4 or -6 option to ssh when rsync can deduce that ssh is being used as the remote shell. For other remote shells you'll need to specify the "--rsh SHELL -4" option directly (or whatever IPv4/IPv6 hint options it uses). See also the daemon version of these options. If rsync was compiled without support for IPv6, the --ipv6 option will have no effect. The rsync --version output will contain "no IPv6" if is the case. --checksum-seed=NUM Set the checksum seed to the integer NUM. This 4 byte checksum seed is included in each block and MD4 file checksum calculation (the more modern MD5 file checksums don't use a seed). By default the checksum seed is generated by the server and defaults to the current time(). This option is used to set a specific checksum seed, which is useful for applications that want repeatable block checksums, or in the case where the user wants a more random checksum seed. Setting NUM to 0 causes rsync to use the default of time() for checksum seed.  #### DAEMONOPTIONS  The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows: --daemon This tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon. The daemon you start running may be accessed using an rsync client using the host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax. If standard input is a socket then rsync will assume that it is being run via inetd, otherwise it will detach from the current terminal and become a background daemon. The daemon will read the config file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by a client and respond to requests accordingly. See the rsyncd.conf(5) manpage for more details. --address=ADDRESS By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when run as a daemon with the --daemon option. The --address option allows you to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to. This makes virtual hosting possible in conjunction with the --config option. See also the address global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage and the client version of the --address option. --bwlimit=RATE This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for the data the daemon sends over the socket. The client can still specify a smaller --bwlimit value, but no larger value will be allowed. See the client version of the --bwlimit option for some extra details. --config=FILE This specifies an alternate config file than the default. This is only relevant when --daemon is specified. The default is /etc/rsyncd.conf unless the daemon is running over a remote shell program and the remote user is not the super-user; in that case the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory (typically$HOME).

--dparam=OVERRIDE, -M
This  option can be used to set a daemon-config parameter when starting up rsync in
daemon mode.  It is equivalent to adding the parameter at the  end  of  the  global
settings  prior  to  the  first  module's  definition.   The parameter names can be
specified without spaces, if you so desire.  For instance:

rsync --daemon -M pidfile=/path/rsync.pid

--no-detach
When running as a daemon, this option instructs rsync  to  not  detach  itself  and
become  a background process.  This option is required when running as a service on
Cygwin, and may also be useful when rsync  is  supervised  by  a  program  such  as
daemontools  or  AIX's System Resource Controller.  --no-detach is also recommended
when rsync is run under a debugger.  This option has no effect if rsync is run from
inetd or sshd.

--port=PORT
This specifies an alternate TCP port number for the daemon to listen on rather than
the default of 873.

See also the client version of the --port option and the port global setting in the
rsyncd.conf manpage.

--log-file=FILE
This  option tells the rsync daemon to use the given log-file name instead of using
the "log file" setting in the config file.

--log-file-format=FORMAT
This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given FORMAT string instead of  using
the  "log format"  setting  in the config file.  It also enables "transfer logging"
unless the string is empty, in which case transfer logging is turned off.

--sockopts
This overrides the socket options setting in the rsyncd.conf file and has the  same
syntax.

--verbose, -v
This  option increases the amount of information the daemon logs during its startup
phase.  After the client connects, the daemon's verbosity level will be  controlled
by the options that the client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's
config section.

--ipv4, -4 or --ipv6, -6
Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the incoming sockets that  the  rsync
daemon will use to listen for connections.  One of these options may be required in
older versions of Linux to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel  (if  you  see  an
"address  already in use" error when nothing else is using the port, try specifying
--ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting the daemon).

If rsync was compiled without support for IPv6, the  --ipv6  option  will  have  no
effect.  The rsync --version output will contain "no IPv6" if is the case.

--help, -h
When  specified  after  --daemon,  print  a  short help page describing the options
available for starting an rsync daemon.



#### FILTERRULES

       The filter rules allow for custom control of several aspects of how files are handled:

o      Control which files the sending side puts into the file  list  that  describes  the
transfer hierarchy

o      Control  which files the receiving side protects from deletion when the file is not
in the sender's file list

o      Control which extended attribute names are skipped when copying xattrs

The rules are either directly specified via option arguments or they can be read  in  from
one  or  more  files.   The filter-rule files can even be a part of the hierarchy of files
being copied, affecting different parts of the tree in different ways.

SIMPLE INCLUDE/EXCLUDE RULES
We will first cover the basics of how include  &  exclude  rules  affect  what  files  are
transferred,  ignoring any deletion side-effects.  Filter rules mainly affect the contents
of directories that rsync is "recursing" into, but they can also affect a  top-level  item
in the transfer that was specified as a argument.

The  default  for  any  unmatched file/dir is for it to be included in the transfer, which
puts the file/dir into the sender's file list.  The use of an exclude rule causes  one  or
more matching files/dirs to be left out of the sender's file list.  An include rule can be
used to limit the effect of an exclude rule that is matching too many files.

The order of the rules is important because the first rule that matches is  the  one  that
takes effect.  Thus, if an early rule excludes a file, no include rule that comes after it
can have any effect. This means that you must place any include overrides somewhere  prior
to the exclude that it is intended to limit.

When  a  directory  is excluded, all its contents and sub-contents are also excluded.  The
sender doesn't scan through any of it at all, which can save a lot of time  when  skipping
large unneeded sub-trees.

It  is  also  important  to understand that the include/exclude rules are applied to every
file and directory that the sender is recursing into. Thus, if you want a particular  deep
file  to  be  included,  you  have  to make sure that none of the directories that must be
traversed on the way down to that file are  excluded  or  else  the  file  will  never  be
discovered  to  be  included.  As  an  example,  if  the directory "a/path" was given as a
transfer argument and you want to ensure that the file "a/path/down/deep/wanted.txt" is  a
part  of  the  transfer,  then  the  sender  must  not  exclude  the directories "a/path",
"a/path/down", or "a/path/down/deep" as it makes it way scanning through the file tree.

When you are working on the rules, it can be helpful to ask rsync  to  tell  you  what  is
being  excluded/included  and  why.   Specifying  --debug=FILTER  or  (when pulling files)
-M--debug=FILTER turns on level 1 of the FILTER  debug  information  that  will  output  a
message  any  time  that  a  file  or  directory is included or excluded and which rule it
matched.  Beginning in 3.2.4 it will also warn if a filter rule has  trailing  whitespace,
since an exclude of "foo " (with a trailing space) will not exclude a file named "foo".

Exclude  and  include  rules can specify wildcard PATTERN MATCHING RULES (similar to shell
wildcards) that allow you to match things like a file suffix or a portion of a filename.

A rule can be limited to only affecting a directory by putting a trailing slash  onto  the
filename.

SIMPLE INCLUDE/EXCLUDE EXAMPLE
With the following file tree created on the sending side:

mkdir x/
touch x/file.txt
mkdir x/y/
touch x/y/file.txt
touch x/y/zzz.txt
mkdir x/z/
touch x/z/file.txt

Then the following rsync command will transfer the file "x/y/file.txt" and the directories
needed to hold it, resulting in the path "/tmp/x/y/file.txt" existing on the remote host:

rsync -ai -f'+ x/' -f'+ x/y/' -f'+ x/y/file.txt' -f'- *' x host:/tmp/

Aside: this copy could also have been accomplished using  the  -R  option  (though  the  2
commands behave differently if deletions are enabled):

rsync -aiR x/y/file.txt host:/tmp/

The  following  command  does not need an include of the "x" directory because it is not a
part of the transfer (note the traililng slash).  Running this  command  would  copy  just
"/tmp/x/file.txt" because the "y" and "z" dirs get excluded:

rsync -ai -f'+ file.txt' -f'- *' x/ host:/tmp/x/

This  command  would  omit  the  zzz.txt  file  while  copying  "x" and everything else it
contains:

rsync -ai -f'- zzz.txt' x host:/tmp/

FILTER RULES WHEN DELETING
By default the include & exclude filter rules affect both the sender (as  it  creates  its
file  list) and the receiver (as it creates its file lists for calculating deletions).  If
no delete option is in effect, the receiver skips creating the delete-related file  lists.
This  two-sided  default can be manually overridden so that you are only specifying sender
rules or receiver rules, as described in the FILTER RULES IN DEPTH section.

When deleting, an exclude protects a file from being removed on the receiving  side  while
an  include  overrides that protection (putting the file at risk of deletion). The default
is for a file to be at risk -- its safety depends on it matching a corresponding file from
the sender.

An  example  of  the  two-sided  exclude  effect  can be illustrated by the copying of a C
development directory between 2 systems.  When doing a touch-up copy, you  might  want  to
skip  copying  the  built  executable and the .o files (sender hide) so that the receiving
side can build their own and not lose any object files that are already correct  (receiver
protect).  For instance:

rsync -ai --del -f'- *.o' -f'- cmd' src host:/dest/

Note  that  using  -f'-p *.o'  is even better than -f'- *.o' if there is a chance that the
directory structure may have changed.  The  "p"  modifier  is  discussed  in  FILTER  RULE
MODIFIERS.

One  final  note,  if your shell doesn't mind unexpanded wildcards, you could simplify the
typing of the filter options by using an underscore in place of the space and leaving  off
the  quotes.   For  instance, -f -_*.o -f -_cmd (and similar) could be used instead of the
filter options above.

FILTER RULES IN DEPTH
Rsync supports old-style include/exclude rules and  new-style  filter  rules.   The  older
rules  are  specified  using  --include  and  --exclude  as well as the --include-from and
--exclude-from. These are limited in behavior but they don't require a "-" or "+"  prefix.
An old-style exclude rule is turned into a "- name" filter rule (with no modifiers) and an
old-style include rule is turned into a "+ name" filter rule (with no modifiers).

Rsync builds an ordered list of filter rules as specified on the command-line and/or read-
in from files.  New style filter rules have the following syntax:

RULE [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME]
RULE,MODIFIERS [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME]

You have your choice of using either short or long RULE names, as described below.  If you
use a short-named rule, the ',' separating the RULE from the MODIFIERS is  optional.   The
PATTERN  or  FILENAME that follows (when present) must come after either a single space or
an underscore (_). Any additional spaces and/or underscores are considered to be a part of
the pattern name.  Here are the available rule prefixes:

exclude, '-'
specifies an exclude pattern that (by default) is both a hide and a protect.

include, '+'
specifies an include pattern that (by default) is both a show and a risk.

merge, '.'
specifies a merge-file on the client side to read for more rules.

dir-merge, ':'
specifies a per-directory merge-file.  Using this kind of filter rule requires that
you trust the sending side's filter checking, so it has the  side-effect  mentioned
under the --trust-sender option.

hide, 'H'
specifies  a  pattern  for hiding files from the transfer.  Equivalent to a sender-
only exclude, so -f'H foo' could also be specified as -f'-s foo'.

show, 'S'
files that match the pattern are not hidden. Equivalent to a  sender-only  include,
so -f'S foo' could also be specified as -f'+s foo'.

protect, 'P'
specifies  a pattern for protecting files from deletion.  Equivalent to a receiver-
only exclude, so -f'P foo' could also be specified as -f'-r foo'.

risk, 'R'
files that match the pattern are  not  protected.  Equivalent  to  a  receiver-only
include, so -f'R foo' could also be specified as -f'+r foo'.

clear, '!'
clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

When rules are being read from a file (using merge or dir-merge), empty lines are ignored,
character are unaffected).

Note  also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take one rule/pattern each.
To add multiple ones, you can repeat the options on the command-line, use  the  merge-file
syntax of the --filter option, or the --include-from / --exclude-from options.

PATTERN MATCHING RULES
Most  of  the  rules  mentioned above take an argument that specifies what the rule should
match.  If rsync is recursing through a  directory  hierarchy,  keep  in  mind  that  each
pattern  is matched against the name of every directory in the descent path as rsync finds
the filenames to send.

The matching rules for the pattern argument take several forms:

o      If a pattern contains a / (not counting a trailing slash)  or  a  "**"  (which  can
match  a  slash),  then the pattern is matched against the full pathname, including
any leading directories within the transfer.  If  the  pattern  doesn't  contain  a
(non-trailing)  / or a "**", then it is matched only against the final component of
the filename or pathname. For example, foo means that the final path component must
be "foo" while foo/bar would match the last 2 elements of the path (as long as both
elements are within the transfer).

o      A pattern that ends with a / only matches a directory, not a regular file, symlink,
or device.

o      A  pattern  that  starts  with  a  /  is anchored to the start of the transfer path
instead of the end.   For  example,  /foo/**  or  /foo/bar/**  match  only  leading
elements  in  the  path.  If the rule is read from a per-directory filter file, the
transfer path being matched will begin at the level of the filter file  instead  of
the top of the transfer.  See the section on ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for
a full discussion of how to specify a pattern that  matches  at  the  root  of  the
transfer.

Rsync chooses between doing a simple string match and wildcard matching by checking if the
pattern contains one of these three wildcard characters: '*', '?', and '[' :

o      a '?' matches any single character except a slash (/).

o      a '*' matches zero or more non-slash characters.

o      a '**' matches zero or more characters, including slashes.

o      a '[' introduces a character class, such as [a-z] or [[:alpha:]], that  must  match
one character.

o      a  trailing  *** in the pattern is a shorthand that allows you to match a directory
and all its contents using a single rule.  For example,  specifying  "dir_name/***"
will match both the "dir_name" directory (as if "dir_name/" had been specified) and
everything in the directory (as if "dir_name/**" had been specified).

o      a backslash can be used to escape a wildcard character, but it is only  interpreted
as  an  escape character if at least one wildcard character is present in the match
pattern.  For  instance,  the  pattern  "foo\bar"  matches  that  single  backslash
literally,  while the pattern "foo\bar*" would need to be changed to "foo\\bar*" to
avoid the "\b" becoming just "b".

Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:

o      Option -f'- *.o' would exclude all filenames ending with .o

o      Option -f'- /foo' would exclude a file (or directory) named foo  in  the  transfer-
root directory

o      Option -f'- foo/' would exclude any directory named foo

o      Option  -f'- foo/*/bar' would exclude any file/dir named bar which is at two levels
below a directory named foo (if foo is in the transfer)

o      Option -f'- /foo/**/bar' would exclude any file/dir named bar that was two or  more
levels below a top-level directory named foo (note that /foo/bar is not excluded by
this)

o      Options -f'+ */' -f'+ *.c' -f'- *' would include  all  directories  and  .c  source
files but nothing else

o      Options -f'+ foo/' -f'+ foo/bar.c' -f'- *' would include only the foo directory and
foo/bar.c (the foo directory must be explicitly included or it would be excluded by
the "- *")

FILTER RULE MODIFIERS
The following modifiers are accepted after an include (+) or exclude (-) rule:

o      A  / specifies that the include/exclude rule should be matched against the absolute
pathname of the current item.  For example, -f'-/ /etc/passwd'  would  exclude  the
passwd  file any time the transfer was sending files from the "/etc" directory, and
"-/ subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is in a dir named "subdir", even
if "foo" is at the root of the current transfer.

o      A  !  specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if the pattern fails to
match.  For instance, -f'-! */' would exclude all non-directories.

o      A C is used to indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules should be inserted as
excludes in place of the "-C".  No arg should follow.

o      An  s  is  used to indicate that the rule applies to the sending side.  When a rule
affects the sending side, it affects what files are  put  into  the  sender's  file
list.   The default is for a rule to affect both sides unless --delete-excluded was
specified, in which case default rules become sender-side only.  See also the  hide
(H)  and  show  (S)  rules,  which  are  an  alternate  way to specify sending-side
includes/excludes.

o      An r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the receiving side.  When a  rule
affects  the  receiving  side,  it  prevents  files  from being deleted.  See the s
alternate way to specify receiver-side includes/excludes.

o      A  p indicates that a rule is perishable, meaning that it is ignored in directories
that are being deleted.  For instance,  the  --cvs-exclude  (-C)  option's  default
rules  that  exclude things like "CVS" and "*.o" are marked as perishable, and will
not prevent a directory that was removed on the source from being  deleted  on  the
destination.

o      An x indicates that a rule affects xattr names in xattr copy/delete operations (and
is thus ignored when matching file/dir names).   If  no  xattr-matching  rules  are
specified, a default xattr filtering rule is used (see the --xattrs option).

MERGE-FILE FILTER RULES
You  can  merge  whole  files into your filter rules by specifying either a merge (.) or a
dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).

There are two kinds of merged files -- single-instance ('.') and per-directory  (':').   A
single-instance  merge  file  is  read  one  time, and its rules are incorporated into the
filter list in the place of the "." rule.  For per-directory merge files, rsync will  scan
every  directory  that it traverses for the named file, merging its contents when the file
exists into the current list of inherited rules.  These per-directory rule files  must  be
created  on  the sending side because it is the sending side that is being scanned for the
available files to transfer.  These rule files may also need  to  be  transferred  to  the
receiving  side if you want them to affect what files don't get deleted (see PER-DIRECTORY
RULES AND DELETE below).

Some examples:

merge /etc/rsync/default.rules
. /etc/rsync/default.rules
dir-merge .per-dir-filter
dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
:n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

o      A - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude patterns, with no  other

o      A  + specifies that the file should consist of only include patterns, with no other

o      A C is a way to specify that the file should be read in  a  CVS-compatible  manner.
This  turns on 'n', 'w', and '-', but also allows the list-clearing token (!) to be
specified.  If no filename is provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed.

o      A e will exclude the merge-file name from the transfer; e.g.  "dir-merge,e  .rules"
is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules".

o      An n specifies that the rules are not inherited by subdirectories.

o      A  w  specifies  that  the rules are word-split on whitespace instead of the normal
line-splitting.  This also turns off comments.  Note: the space that separates  the
prefix  from the rule is treated specially, so "- foo + bar" is parsed as two rules
(assuming that prefix-parsing wasn't also disabled).

o      You may also specify any of the modifiers for the "+" or "-" rules (above) in order
to  have  the  rules that are read in from the file default to having that modifier
set (except for the  !  modifier,  which  would  not  be  useful).   For  instance,
"merge,-/ .excl" would treat the contents of .excl as absolute-path excludes, while
"dir-merge,s .filt" and ":sC" would each make all their per-directory  rules  apply
only  on  the sending side.  If the merge rule specifies sides to affect (via the s
or r modifier or both), then the rules in the file must not specify  sides  (via  a
modifier or a rule prefix such as hide).

Per-directory  rules are inherited in all subdirectories of the directory where the merge-
file was found unless the 'n' modifier was used.  Each subdirectory's rules  are  prefixed
to  the  inherited  per-directory  rules  from its parents, which gives the newest rules a
higher priority than the inherited rules.  The entire set of dir-merge rules  are  grouped
together  in  the  spot  where the merge-file was specified, so it is possible to override
dir-merge rules via a rule that got specified earlier in the list of global  rules.   When
the  list-clearing  rule  ("!")  is  read  from  a  per-directory file, it only clears the
inherited rules for the current merge file.

Another way to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file  from  being  inherited  is  to
anchor it with a leading slash.  Anchored rules in a per-directory merge-file are relative
to the merge-file's directory, so a pattern "/foo" would only match the file "foo" in  the
directory where the dir-merge filter file was found.

Here's an example filter file which you'd specify via --filter=". file":

merge /home/user/.global-filter
- *.gz
dir-merge .rules
+ *.[ch]
- *.o
- foo*

This  will  merge  the  contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at the start of the
list and also turns the ".rules" filename into a per-directory  filter  file.   All  rules
read in prior to the start of the directory scan follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a
leading slash matches at the root of the transfer).

If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent directory  of  the
first  transfer directory, rsync will scan all the parent dirs from that starting point to
the transfer directory for the indicated per-directory file.   For  instance,  here  is  a
common filter (see -F):

--filter=': /.rsync-filter'

That  rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all directories from the root
down through the parent directory of the  transfer  prior  to  the  start  of  the  normal
directory  scan  of  the  file in the directories that are sent as a part of the transfer.
(Note: for an rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module's "path".)

Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir

The first two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and  "/src"  before  the
normal  scan  begins looking for the file in "/src/path" and its subdirectories.  The last
command avoids the parent-dir scan and only looks for the ".rsync-filter"  files  in  each
directory that is a part of the transfer.

If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns, you should use the
rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge  of  the  .cvsignore  file,  but  parsed  in  a  CVS-
compatible  manner.   You  can  use  this  to affect where the --cvs-exclude (-C) option's
inclusion of the per-directory .cvsignore file gets placed into your rules by putting  the
":C"  wherever you like in your filter rules.  Without this, rsync would add the dir-merge
rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of  all  your  other  rules  (giving  it  a  lower
priority than your command-line rules).  For example:

cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b
+ foo.o
:C
- *.old
EOT
rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b

Both of the above rsync commands are identical.  Each one will merge all the per-directory
.cvsignore rules in the middle of the list rather than at the end.  This allows their dir-
specific  rules  to supersede the rules that follow the :C instead of being subservient to
all your rules.  To affect  the  other  CVS  exclude  rules  (i.e.  the  default  list  of
exclusions, the contents of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of$CVSIGNORE) you should omit
the -C command-line option and instead insert a "-C" rule into  your  filter  rules;  e.g.
"--filter=-C".

LIST-CLEARING FILTER RULE
You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!" filter rule (as introduced
in the FILTER RULES section above).  The "current" list is either the global list of rules
(if  the  rule  is encountered while parsing the filter options) or a set of per-directory
rules (which are inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdirectory can use this to  clear
out the parent's rules).

ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS
As  mentioned  earlier,  global  include/exclude patterns are anchored at the "root of the
transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which are anchored  at  the  merge-file's
directory).   If  you think of the transfer as a subtree of names that are being sent from
sender to receiver, the transfer-root is where the tree starts to  be  duplicated  in  the
destination directory.  This root governs where patterns that start with a / match.

Because  the  matching  is relative to the transfer-root, changing the trailing slash on a
source path or changing your use of the --relative option affects the path you need to use
in  your  matching (in addition to changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on the
destination host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

Let's say that we  want  to  match  two  source  files,  one  with  an  absolute  path  of
"/home/me/foo/bar",  and  one with a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".  Here is how the various
command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
+/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
+/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
+/- pattern: /foo/bar               (note missing "me")
+/- pattern: /bar/baz               (note missing "you")
Target file: /dest/foo/bar
Target file: /dest/bar/baz

Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
+/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar       (note full path)
+/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz      (ditto)
Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz

Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest
+/- pattern: /me/foo/bar      (starts at specified path)
+/- pattern: /you/bar/baz     (ditto)
Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

The easiest way to see what name you should filter is to just  look  at  the  output  when
using  --verbose  and put a / in front of the name (use the --dry-run option if you're not
yet ready to copy any files).

PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE
Without a delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant on the sending side, so you
can  feel  free  to exclude the merge files themselves without affecting the transfer.  To
make this easy, the 'e' modifier  adds  this  exclude  for  you,  as  seen  in  these  two
equivalent commands:

rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest
rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest

However,  if  you  want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you want some files to be
excluded from being deleted, you'll need to be sure that the  receiving  side  knows  what
files  to  exclude.   The  easiest  way is to include the per-directory merge files in the
transfer and use --delete-after, because this ensures that the receiving side gets all the
same exclude rules as the sending side before it tries to delete anything:

rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest

However,  if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need to either specify
some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the command line), or you'll need to maintain
your own per-directory merge files on the receiving side.  An example of the first is this
(assume that the remote .rules files exclude themselves):

rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
--delete host:src/dir /dest

In the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of the transfer,  but  (on
the  sending  side)  the  rules  are subservient to the rules merged from the .rules files
because they were specified after the per-directory merge rule.

In one final example, the remote side  is  excluding  the  .rsync-filter  files  from  the
transfer,  but  we want to use our own .rsync-filter files to control what gets deleted on
the receiving side.  To do this we must specifically exclude the per-directory merge files
(so  that  they don't get deleted) and then put rules into the local files to control what
else should not get deleted.  Like one of these commands:

rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
host:src/dir /dest
rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest



#### TRANSFERRULES

       In addition to the FILTER RULES that affect the recursive file  scans  that  generate  the
file  list  on  the sending and (when deleting) receiving sides, there are transfer rules.
These rules affect which files the generator decides need to be  transferred  without  the
side  effects  of  an  exclude  filter  rule.   Transfer rules affect only files and never
directories.

Because a transfer rule does not affect what goes into the sender's (and receiver's)  file
list,  it  cannot  have  any effect on which files get deleted on the receiving side.  For
example, if the file "foo" is present in the sender's list but its size is such that it is
omitted  due  to  a transfer rule, the receiving side does not request the file.  However,
its presence in the file list means that a delete pass will not  remove  a  matching  file
named "foo" on the receiving side.  On the other hand, a server-side exclude (hide) of the
file "foo" leaves the file out of the server's  file  list,  and  absent  a  receiver-side
exclude  (protect)  the  receiver will remove a matching file named "foo" if deletions are
requested.

Given that the files are still in the sender's file list,  the  --prune-empty-dirs  option
will not judge a directory as being empty even if it contains only files that the transfer
rules omitted.

Similarly, a transfer rule does not have any extra effect on which files  are  deleted  on
the  receiving  side, so setting a maximum file size for the transfer does not prevent big
files from being deleted.

Examples of transfer rules include the default "quick  check"  algorithm  (which  compares
size & modify time), the --update option, the --max-size option, the --ignore-non-existing
option, and a few others.



#### BATCHMODE

       Batch mode can be used to apply the  same  set  of  updates  to  many  identical  systems.
Suppose one has a tree which is replicated on a number of hosts.  Now suppose some changes
have been made to this source tree and those changes need to be propagated  to  the  other
hosts.   In order to do this using batch mode, rsync is run with the write-batch option to
apply the changes made to the source tree to one of the  destination  trees.   The  write-
batch option causes the rsync client to store in a "batch file" all the information needed
to repeat this operation against other, identical destination trees.

Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status, checksum, and data
block  generation  more  than  once  when  updating multiple destination trees.  Multicast
transport protocols can be used to transfer the batch update files  in  parallel  to  many
hosts at once, instead of sending the same data to every host individually.

To  apply  the recorded changes to another destination tree, run rsync with the read-batch
option, specifying the name of the same batch  file,  and  the  destination  tree.   Rsync
updates the destination tree using the information stored in the batch file.

For  your  convenience, a script file is also created when the write-batch option is used:
it will be named the same as the  batch  file  with  ".sh"  appended.   This  script  file
contains  a  command-line  suitable  for  updating a destination tree using the associated
batch file.  It can be executed using a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell, optionally  passing
in  an  alternate  destination  tree  pathname  which is then used instead of the original
destination path.  This is useful when the destination  tree  path  on  the  current  host
differs from the one used to create the batch file.

Examples:

$rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/$ scp foo* remote:
$ssh remote ./foo.sh /bdest/dir/$ rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/
\$ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo

In  these  examples,  rsync  is  used  to  update  /adest/dir/  from  /source/dir/ and the
information to repeat this operation is stored in "foo" and "foo.sh".  The  host  "remote"
is  then  updated  with  the  batched  data  going  into  the  directory  /bdest/dir.  The
differences between the two examples reveals some of the flexibility you have in  how  you
deal with batches:

o      The  first  example shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be local -- you can
push or pull data to/from a remote host using either  the  remote-shell  syntax  or
rsync daemon syntax, as desired.

o      The  first  example  uses  the created "foo.sh" file to get the right rsync options
when running the read-batch command on the remote host.

o      The second example reads the batch data via standard input so that the  batch  file
doesn't  need  to  be  copied to the remote machine first.  This example avoids the
foo.sh script because it needed to use a  modified  --read-batch  option,  but  you
could  edit  the  script file if you wished to make use of it (just be sure that no
other option is trying to use standard input, such as the --exclude-from=- option).

Caveats:

The read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is updating to be identical  to
the  destination tree that was used to create the batch update fileset.  When a difference
between the destination trees is encountered the update might be discarded with a  warning
(if  the  file  appears  to be up-to-date already) or the file-update may be attempted and
then, if the file fails to verify, the update discarded with an error.  This means that it
should  be  safe  to re-run a read-batch operation if the command got interrupted.  If you
wish to force the batched-update to always be attempted regardless of the file's size  and
date,  use  the  -I  option (when reading the batch).  If an error occurs, the destination
tree will probably be in a partially updated state.  In that case, rsync can  be  used  in
its regular (non-batch) mode of operation to fix up the destination tree.

The  rsync  version  used  on  all destinations must be at least as new as the one used to
generate the batch file.  Rsync will die with an error if  the  protocol  version  in  the
option for a way to have the creating rsync generate a batch file that an older rsync  can
understand.   (Note  that  batch files changed format in version 2.6.3, so mixing versions
older than that with newer versions will not work.)

When reading a batch file, rsync will force the value of certain options to match the data
in  the batch file if you didn't set them to the same as the batch-writing command.  Other
options can (and should) be changed.  For instance --write-batch changes to  --read-batch,
--files-from  is  dropped, and the --filter / --include / --exclude options are not needed
unless one of the --delete options is specified.

The code that creates the BATCH.sh file transforms any filter/include/exclude options into
a single list that is appended as a "here" document to the shell script file.  An advanced
user can use this to modify the exclude list if a change in what gets deleted by  --delete
is desired.  A normal user can ignore this detail and just use the shell script as an easy
way to run the appropriate --read-batch command for the batched data.

The original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the latest version uses a  new
implementation.



       Three  basic  behaviors  are  possible when rsync encounters a symbolic link in the source
directory.

By default, symbolic links are not transferred at all.  A message  "skipping  non-regular"
file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

ignored), and the default handling is to  recreate  them  with  the  same  target  on  the
destination.  Note that --archive implies --links.

If  --copy-links  is  specified,  then symlinks are "collapsed" by copying their referent,

Rsync can also distinguish "safe" and "unsafe" symbolic  links.   An  example  where  this
might  be  used  is  a web site mirror that wishes to ensure that the rsync module that is
copied does not include symbolic links to /etc/passwd in the public section of  the  site.
Using  --copy-unsafe-links  will cause any links to be copied as the file they point to on
the destination.  Using --safe-links  will  cause  unsafe  links  to  be  omitted  by  the
effect.)

or if they contain enough ".." components to ascend from the top of the transfer.

Here's  a  summary  of  how  the symlink options are interpreted.  The list is in order of
precedence, so if your combination of options isn't mentioned, use the first line that  is
a complete subset of your options:

Turn  all  symlinks  into  normal files and directories (leaving no symlinks in the
transfer for any other options to affect).

Turn just symlinks to directories into real directories, leaving all other symlinks
to be handled as described below.

The  receiver  skips creating unsafe symlinks found in the transfer and creates the
safe ones.

For the effect of --munge-links, see the discussion in that option's section.

affects  how  rsync  treats  a symlink to a directory that already exists on the receiving
side.  See that option's section for a warning.



#### DIAGNOSTICS

       Rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem a little cryptic.  The  one  that
seems to cause the most confusion is "protocol version mismatch -- is your shell clean?".

This  message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote shell facility producing
unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync is using for its transport.  The way to diagnose
this problem is to run your remote shell like this:

ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

then  look  at  out.dat.  If everything is working correctly then out.dat should be a zero
length file.  If you are getting the above error from rsync then you  will  probably  find
that out.dat contains some text or data.  Look at the contents and try to work out what is
producing it.  The most common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup scripts (such
as .cshrc or .profile) that contain output statements for non-interactive logins.

If  you  are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try specifying the -vv option.
At this level of verbosity rsync will  show  why  each  individual  file  is  included  or
excluded.



#### EXITVALUES

       o      0 - Success

o      1 - Syntax or usage error

o      2 - Protocol incompatibility

o      3 - Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

o

o      4 - Requested action not supported. Either:

an  attempt  was  made  to manipulate 64-bit files on a platform that cannot
support them

o      an option was specified that is supported by  the  client  and  not  by  the
server

o      5 - Error starting client-server protocol

o      6 - Daemon unable to append to log-file

o      10 - Error in socket I/O

o      11 - Error in file I/O

o      12 - Error in rsync protocol data stream

o      13 - Errors with program diagnostics

o      14 - Error in IPC code

o      20 - Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

o      21 - Some error returned by waitpid()

o      22 - Error allocating core memory buffers

o      23 - Partial transfer due to error

o      24 - Partial transfer due to vanished source files

o      25 - The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

o      30 - Timeout in data send/receive

o      35 - Timeout waiting for daemon connection



#### ENVIRONMENTVARIABLES

       CVSIGNORE
The  CVSIGNORE  environment  variable supplements any ignore patterns in .cvsignore
files.  See the --cvs-exclude option for more details.

RSYNC_ICONV
Specify a default --iconv setting using this environment variable. First  supported
in 3.0.0.

RSYNC_OLD_ARGS
Specify a "1" if you want the --old-args option to be enabled by default, a "2" (or
more) if you want it to be enabled in the repeated-option state, or a "0"  to  make
sure  that  it  is  disabled by default. When this environment variable is set to a
non-zero value, it supersedes the RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS variable.

This variable  is  ignored  if  --old-args,  --no-old-args,  or  --protect-args  is
specified on the command line.

First supported in 3.2.4.

RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS
Specify  a  non-zero  numeric  value  if  you  want the --protect-args option to be
enabled by default, or a zero value to make sure that it is disabled by default.

This variable is ignored if --protect-args,  --no-protect-args,  or  --old-args  is
specified on the command line.

First  supported  in  3.1.0.   Starting  in  3.2.4,  this  variable  is  ignored if
RSYNC_OLD_ARGS is set to a non-zero value.

RSYNC_RSH
This environment variable allows you to override the  default  shell  used  as  the
transport  for  rsync.   Command line options are permitted after the command name,
just as in the --rsh (-e) option.

RSYNC_PROXY
This environment variable allows you to redirect your rsync client  to  use  a  web
proxy  when  connecting  to  an  rsync  daemon.   You  should  set RSYNC_PROXY to a
hostname:port pair.

This environment variable allows you to  set  the  password  for  an  rsync  daemon
connection,  which  avoids  the  password prompt.  Note that this does not supply a
password to a remote shell transport such as ssh (consult its documentation for how
to do that).

USER or LOGNAME
The  USER  or  LOGNAME  environment  variables  are  used  to determine the default
username sent to an rsync daemon.  If neither is  set,  the  username  defaults  to
"nobody".  If both are set, USER takes precedence.

RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR
This  environment  variable specifies the directory to use for a --partial transfer
without implying that partial transfers be enabled.  See the  --partial-dir  option
for full details.

RSYNC_COMPRESS_LIST
This   environment  variable  allows  you  to  customize  the  negotiation  of  the
compression algorithm by specifying an alternate order or a reduced list of  names.
Use  the  command  rsync --version to see the available compression names.  See the
--compress option for full details.

RSYNC_CHECKSUM_LIST
This environment variable allows you to customize the negotiation of  the  checksum
algorithm  by  specifying  an  alternate order or a reduced list of names.  Use the
command rsync --version to see the available checksum names.  See  the  --checksum-
choice option for full details.

RSYNC_MAX_ALLOC
This  environment variable sets an allocation maximum as if you had used the --max-
alloc option.

RSYNC_PORT
This environment variable is not read by rsync, but is  instead  set  in  its  sub-
environment  when  rsync  is  running the remote shell in combination with a daemon
connection.  This allows a script such as rsync-ssl to be able  to  know  the  port
number that the user specified on the command line.

HOME   This environment variable is used to find the user's default .cvsignore file.

RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG
This  environment variable is mainly used in debug setups to set the program to use
when making a daemon connection.  See  CONNECTING  TO  AN  RSYNC  DAEMON  for  full
details.

RSYNC_SHELL
This  environment variable is mainly used in debug setups to set the program to use
to run the program specified by RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG.  See  CONNECTING  TO  AN  RSYNC
DAEMON for full details.



#### FILES

       /etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf



#### SEEALSO

       rsync-ssl(1), rsyncd.conf(5), rrsync(1)



#### BUGS

       o      Times are transferred as *nix time_t values.

o      When  transferring  to FAT filesystems rsync may re-sync unmodified files.  See the

o      File permissions, devices, etc. are transferred as native numerical values.

Please report bugs! See the web site at https://rsync.samba.org/.



#### VERSION

       This manpage is current for version 3.2.5 of rsync.



#### INTERNALOPTIONS

       The options --server and --sender are used internally by rsync, and should never be  typed
by  a  user  under normal circumstances.  Some awareness of these options may be needed in
certain scenarios, such as when setting up a login that can only  run  an  rsync  command.
For  instance, the support directory of the rsync distribution has an example script named
rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used with a restricted ssh login.



#### CREDITS

       Rsync is distributed under the GNU General Public  License.   See  the  file  COPYING  for
details.

An  rsync  web site is available at https://rsync.samba.org/.  The site includes an FAQ-O-
Matic which may cover questions unanswered by this manual page.

The rsync github project is https://github.com/WayneD/rsync.

We would be delighted to hear from you if you  like  this  program.   Please  contact  the
mailing-list at rsync@lists.samba.org.

This  program  uses the excellent zlib compression library written by Jean-loup Gailly and



#### THANKS

       Special thanks go out to: John Van  Essen,  Matt  McCutchen,  Wesley  W.  Terpstra,  David
Dykstra,  Jos  Backus,  Sebastian  Krahmer,  Martin  Pool,  and our gone-but-not-forgotten

       Rsync  was  originally  written  by  Andrew Tridgell and Paul Mackerras.  Many people have