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       vcs, vcsa - virtual console memory


       /dev/vcs0  is a character device with major number 7 and minor number 0, usually with mode
       0644 and ownership root:tty.  It refers to the memory of the currently  displayed  virtual
       console terminal.

       /dev/vcs[1-63] are character devices for virtual console terminals, they have major number
       7 and minor number 1 to 63, usually mode 0644 and ownership root:tty.  /dev/vcsa[0-63] are
       the  same,  but  using  unsigned  shorts (in host byte order) that include attributes, and
       prefixed with four bytes giving the screen dimensions and cursor position: lines, columns,
       x, y.  (x = y = 0 at the top left corner of the screen.)

       When  a  512-character font is loaded, the 9th bit position can be fetched by applying the
       ioctl(2) VT_GETHIFONTMASK operation (available since Linux 2.6.18) on /dev/tty[1-63];  the
       value is returned in the unsigned short pointed to by the third ioctl(2) argument.

       These  devices  replace  the  screendump  ioctl(2)  operations of ioctl_console(2), so the
       system administrator can control access using filesystem permissions.

       The devices for the first eight virtual consoles may be created by:

           for x in 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8; do
               mknod -m 644 /dev/vcs$x c 7 $x;
               mknod -m 644 /dev/vcsa$x c 7 $[$x+128];
           chown root:tty /dev/vcs*

       No ioctl(2) requests are supported.




       Introduced with Linux 1.1.92.


       You may do a screendump on vt3 by switching to vt1 and typing

           cat /dev/vcs3 >foo

       Note that the output does not contain  newline  characters,  so  some  processing  may  be
       required, like in

           fold -w 81 /dev/vcs3 | lpr

       or (horrors)

           setterm -dump 3 -file /proc/self/fd/1

       The /dev/vcsa0 device is used for Braille support.

       This  program  displays the character and screen attributes under the cursor of the second
       virtual console, then changes the background color there:

       #include <unistd.h>
       #include <stdlib.h>
       #include <stdio.h>
       #include <fcntl.h>
       #include <sys/ioctl.h>
       #include <linux/vt.h>

           int fd;
           char *device = "/dev/vcsa2";
           char *console = "/dev/tty2";
           struct {unsigned char lines, cols, x, y;} scrn;
           unsigned short s;
           unsigned short mask;
           unsigned char attrib;
           int ch;

           fd = open(console, O_RDWR);
           if (fd < 0) {
           if (ioctl(fd, VT_GETHIFONTMASK, &mask) < 0) {
           (void) close(fd);
           fd = open(device, O_RDWR);
           if (fd < 0) {
           (void) read(fd, &scrn, 4);
           (void) lseek(fd, 4 + 2*(scrn.y*scrn.cols + scrn.x), SEEK_SET);
           (void) read(fd, &s, 2);
           ch = s & 0xff;
           if (s & mask)
               ch |= 0x100;
           attrib = ((s & ~mask) >> 8);
           printf("ch=%#03x attrib=%#02x\n", ch, attrib);
           s ^= 0x1000;
           (void) lseek(fd, -2, SEEK_CUR);
           (void) write(fd, &s, 2);


       ioctl_console(2), tty(4), ttyS(4), gpm(8)