Provided by: htop_3.3.0-4build1_amd64 bug


       htop, pcp-htop - interactive process viewer


       htop [-dCFhpustvH]
       pcp htop [-dCFhpustvH] [--host/-h host]


       htop is a cross-platform ncurses-based process viewer.

       It  is  similar to top, but allows you to scroll vertically and horizontally, and interact
       using a pointing device (mouse).  You can observe all processes  running  on  the  system,
       along  with  their  command  line arguments, as well as view them in a tree format, select
       multiple processes and act on them all at once.

       Tasks related to processes (killing, renicing) can be done without entering their PIDs.

       pcp-htop is a version of htop built using the Performance Co-Pilot (PCP) Metrics API  (see
       PCPIntro(1),  PMAPI(3)), allowing to extend htop to display values from arbitrary metrics.
       See the section below titled CONFIG FILES for further details.


       Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

       -d --delay=DELAY
              Delay between updates, in tenths of a second. If the delay value is less than 1, it
              is  increased to 1, i.e. 1/10 second. If the delay value is greater than 100, it is
              decreased to 100, i.e. 10 seconds.

       -C --no-color --no-colour
              Start htop in monochrome mode

       -F --filter=FILTER
              Filter processes by terms matching  the  commands.  The  terms  are  matched  case-
              insensitive and as fixed strings (not regexs). You can separate multiple terms with

       -h --help
              Display a help message and exit

       -p --pid=PID,PID...
              Show only the given PIDs

       -s --sort-key COLUMN
              Sort by this column (use --sort-key help for a column list).   This  will  force  a
              list view unless you specify -t at the same time.

       -u --user=USERNAME|UID
              Show only the processes of a given user

       -U --no-unicode
              Do not use unicode but ASCII characters for graph meters

       -M --no-mouse
              Disable support of mouse control

              Disable all system and process changing features

       -V --version
              Output version information and exit

       -t --tree
              Show  processes in tree view. This can be used to force a tree view when requesting
              a sort order with -s.

       -H --highlight-changes=DELAY
              Highlight new and old processes

              Linux only; requires libcap support.
              Drop unneeded Linux capabilities.  In strict mode features like  killing,  changing
              process priorities, and reading process delay accounting information will not work,
              due to less capabilities held.


       The following commands are supported while in htop:

       Tab, Shift-Tab
            Select the next / the previous screen tab to display.  You  can  enable  showing  the
            screen tab names in the Setup screen (F2).

       Up, Alt-k
            Select  (highlight)  the  previous  process  in  the process list. Scroll the list if

       Down, Alt-j
            Select (highlight) the  next  process  in  the  process  list.  Scroll  the  list  if

       Left, Alt-h
            Scroll the process list left.

       Right, Alt-l
            Scroll the process list right.

       PgUp, PgDn
            Scroll the process list up or down one window.

       Home Scroll to the top of the process list and select the first process.

       End  Scroll to the bottom of the process list and select the last process.

       Ctrl-A, ^
            Scroll left to the beginning of the process entry (i.e. beginning of line).

       Ctrl-E, $
            Scroll right to the end of the process entry (i.e. end of line).

            Tag or untag a process. Commands that can operate on multiple processes, like "kill",
            will then apply  over  the  list  of  tagged  processes,  instead  of  the  currently
            highlighted one.

       c    Tag  the  current  process  and  its  children. Commands that can operate on multiple
            processes, like "kill", will then apply over the list of tagged processes, instead of
            the currently highlighted one.

       U    Untag all processes (remove all tags added with the Space or c keys).

       s    Trace  process system calls: if strace(1) is installed, pressing this key will attach
            it to the currently selected process, presenting a live update of system calls issued
            by the process.

       l    Display  open  files  for  a process: if lsof(1) is installed, pressing this key will
            display the list of file descriptors opened by the process.

       w    Display the command line of the selected process in a separate screen,  wrapped  onto
            multiple lines as needed.

       x    Display the active file locks of the selected process in a separate screen.

       F1, h, ?
            Go to the help screen

       F2, S
            Go  to  the  setup screen, where you can configure the meters displayed at the top of
            the screen, set various display options, choose among color schemes, and select which
            columns are displayed, in which order.

       F3, /
            Incrementally  search the command lines of all the displayed processes. The currently
            selected (highlighted) command will  update  as  you  type.  While  in  search  mode,
            pressing  F3  will  cycle through matching occurrences.  Pressing Shift-F3 will cycle

            Alternatively the search can be started by simply typing the command you are  looking
            for, although for the first character normal key bindings take precedence.

       F4, \
            Incremental  process  filtering:  type  in  part  of  a process command line and only
            processes whose names match will be shown. To  cancel  filtering,  enter  the  Filter
            option  again  and press Esc.  The matching is done case-insensitive. Terms are fixed
            strings (no regex).  You can separate multiple terms with "|".

       F5, t
            Tree view: organize processes by parenthood, and layout the relations between them as
            a  tree.  Toggling the key will switch between tree and your previously selected sort
            view. Selecting a sort view will exit tree view.

       F6, <, >
            Selects a field for sorting, also accessible through < and >.  The current sort field
            is indicated by a highlight in the header.

       F7, ]
            Increase the selected process's priority (subtract from 'nice' value).  This can only
            be done by the superuser.

       F8, [
            Decrease the selected process's priority (add to 'nice' value)

       Shift-F7, }
            Increase the selected process's autogroup priority (subtract  from  autogroup  'nice'
            value).  This can only be done by the superuser.

       Shift-F8, {
            Decrease the selected process's autogroup priority (add to autogroup 'nice' value)

       F9, k
            "Kill"  process:  sends  a  signal  which is selected in a menu, to one or a group of
            processes. If processes were tagged, sends the signal to all  tagged  processes.   If
            none is tagged, sends to the currently selected process.

       F10, q

       I    Invert  the  sort order: if sort order is increasing, switch to decreasing, and vice-

       +, -, *
            When in tree view mode, expand or collapse subtree. When a subtree is collapsed a "+"
            sign shows to the left of the process name.  Pressing "*" will expand or collapse all
            children of PIDs without parents, so typically PID 1 (init) and PID  2  (kthreadd  on
            Linux, if kernel threads are shown).

       a (on multiprocessor machines)
            Set CPU affinity: mark which CPUs a process is allowed to use.

       u    Show only processes owned by a specified user.

       N    Sort by PID.

       M    Sort by memory usage (top compatibility key).

       P    Sort by processor usage (top compatibility key).

       T    Sort by time (top compatibility key).

       F    "Follow"  process: if the sort order causes the currently selected process to move in
            the list, make the selection bar follow it. This is useful for monitoring a  process:
            this  way,  you  can  keep a process always visible on screen. When a movement key is
            used, "follow" loses effect.

       K    Hide kernel threads: prevent the threads belonging the kernel to be displayed in  the
            process list. (This is a toggle key.)

       H    Hide user threads: on systems that represent them differently than ordinary processes
            (such as recent NPTL-based systems), this can hide threads from  userspace  processes
            in the process list. (This is a toggle key.)

       O    Hide  containerized  processes:  prevent  processes running in a container from being
            displayed in the process list. (This is a toggle key.)

       p    Show full paths to running programs, where applicable. (This is a toggle key.)

       Z    Pause/resume process updates.

       m    Merge exe, comm and cmdline, where applicable. (This is a toggle key.)

            Refresh: redraw screen and recalculate values.

            PID search: type in process ID and the selection highlight will be moved to it.


       The following columns can display data about each process. A value of '-' in all the  rows
       indicates that a column is unsupported on your system, or currently unimplemented in htop.
       The names below are the ones used in the "Available Columns" section of the setup  screen.
       If a different name is shown in htop's main screen, it is shown below in parenthesis.

            The full command line of the process (i.e. program name and arguments).

            If  the  option  'Merge exe, comm and cmdline in Command' (toggled by the 'm' key) is
            active, the executable path (/proc/[pid]/exe) and the command name (/proc/[pid]/comm)
            are also shown merged with the command line, if available.

            The  program  basename  is  highlighted  if  set  in  the  configuration.  Additional
            highlighting can be configured for stale executables (cf. EXE column below).

       COMM The command name of the process obtained from /proc/[pid]/comm, if readable.

            Requires Linux kernel 2.6.33 or newer.

       EXE  The  abbreviated  basename  of  the  executable  of  the   process,   obtained   from
            /proc/[pid]/exe,  if  readable.  htop  is able to read this file on linux for ALL the
            processes only if it has the capability CAP_SYS_PTRACE or root privileges.

            The basename is marked in red if the executable used to  run  the  process  has  been
            replaced or deleted on disk since the process started. The information is obtained by
            processing the contents of /proc/[pid]/exe.

            Furthermore the basename is marked in yellow if any library  is  reported  as  having
            been  replaced  or  deleted  on  disk  since  it  was last loaded. The information is
            obtained by processing the contents of /proc/[pid]/maps.

            When deciding  the  color  the  replacement  of  the  main  executable  always  takes
            precedence  over replacement of any other library. If only the memory map indicates a
            replacement of the main executable, this will show as if any other library  had  been
            replaced or deleted.

            This  additional  color  markup can be configured in the "Display Options" section of
            the setup screen.

            Displaying EXE requires CAP_SYS_PTRACE and PTRACE_MODE_READ_FSCRED.

       PID  The process ID.

       STATE (S)
            The state of the process:
               S for sleeping
               I for idle (longer inactivity than sleeping on platforms that distinguish)
               R for running
               D for disk sleep (uninterruptible)
               Z for zombie (waiting for parent to read its exit status)
               T for traced or suspended (e.g by SIGTSTP)
               W for paging

       PPID The parent process ID.

       PGRP The process's group ID.

       SESSION (SID)
            The process's session ID.

       TTY  The controlling terminal of the process.

            The process ID of the foreground process group of the controlling terminal.

            The number of page faults happening in the main memory.

            The number of minor faults for the process's waited-for children (see MINFLT above).

            The number of page faults happening out of the main memory.

            The number of major faults for the process's waited-for children (see MAJFLT above).

       UTIME (UTIME+)
            The user CPU time, which is the amount of time the process has spent executing on the
            CPU in user mode (i.e. everything but system calls), measured in clock ticks.

       STIME (STIME+)
            The  system  CPU  time,  which  is  the amount of time the kernel has spent executing
            system calls on behalf of the process, measured in clock ticks.

            The children's user CPU time, which is the amount of time  the  process's  waited-for
            children have spent executing in user mode (see UTIME above).

            The  children's  system  CPU  time,  which is the amount of time the kernel has spent
            executing system calls on behalf of all the process's waited-for children (see  STIME

            The  kernel's  internal  priority  for  the process, usually just its nice value plus
            twenty. Different for real-time processes.

       NICE (NI)
            The nice value of a process, from 19 (low priority) to -20 (high  priority).  A  high
            value  means  the  process  is  being  nice,  letting  others  have a higher relative
            priority. The usual OS permission restrictions for adjusting priority apply.

            The time the process was started.

            The ID of the CPU the process last executed on.

       M_VIRT (VIRT)
            The size of the virtual memory of the process.

            The resident set size (text + data + stack) of the process  (i.e.  the  size  of  the
            process's used physical memory).

       M_SHARE (SHR)
            The size of the process's shared pages.

       M_TRS (CODE)
            The  text resident set size of the process (i.e. the size of the process's executable

       M_DRS (DATA)
            The data resident set size (data + stack) of the process (i.e. the size  of  anything
            except the process's executable instructions).

       M_LRS (LIB)
            The library size of the process.

       M_SWAP (SWAP)
            The size of the process's swapped pages.

       M_PSS (PSS)
            The  proportional set size, same as M_RESIDENT but each page is divided by the number
            of processes sharing it.

       M_M_PSSWP (PSSWP)
            The proportional swap share of this mapping, unlike M_SWAP this does  not  take  into
            account swapped out page of underlying shmem objects.

       ST_UID (UID)
            The user ID of the process owner.

            The  percentage  of  the  CPU  time that the process is currently using.  This is the
            default way to represent CPU usage in Linux. Each process  can  consume  up  to  100%
            which  means the full capacity of the core it is running on. This is sometimes called
            "Irix mode" e.g. in top(1).

            The percentage of the CPU time that the process is currently using normalized by  CPU
            count. This is sometimes called "Solaris mode" e.g. in top(1).

            The  percentage  of  memory  the  process  is currently using (based on the process's
            resident memory size, see M_RESIDENT above).

       USER The username of the process owner, or the user ID if the name can't be determined.

            On Linux the username is highlighted if the process has elevated privileges, i.e.  if
            it  has  been  started  from  binaries  with  file capabilities set or retained Linux
            capabilities, via the ambient set, after switching from the root user.

       TIME (TIME+)
            The time, measured in clock ticks that the process has spent in user and system  time
            (see UTIME, STIME above).

       NLWP The number of Light-Weight Processes (=threads) in the process.

       TGID The thread group ID.

       CTID OpenVZ container ID, a.k.a virtual environment ID.

       VPID OpenVZ process ID.

       VXID VServer process ID.

       RCHAR (RD_CHAR)
            The number of bytes the process has read.

       WCHAR (WR_CHAR)
            The number of bytes the process has written.

       SYSCR (RD_SYSC)
            The number of read(2) syscalls for the process.

       SYSCW (WR_SYSC)
            The number of write(2) syscalls for the process.

            Bytes of read(2) I/O for the process.

            Bytes of write(2) I/O for the process.

            Bytes of cancelled write(2) I/O.

            The I/O rate of read(2) in bytes per second, for the process.

            The I/O rate of write(2) in bytes per second, for the process.

       IO_RATE (DISK R/W)
            The I/O rate, IO_READ_RATE + IO_WRITE_RATE (see above).

            Which cgroup the process is in. For a shortened view see the CCGROUP column below.

            Shortened  view  of  the  cgroup  name  that  the  process is in.  This performs some
            pattern-based replacements to shorten the displayed  string  and  thus  condense  the
               /*.slice is shortened to /[*] (exceptions below)
               /system.slice is shortened to /[S]
               /user.slice is shortened to /[U]
               /user-*.slice is shortened to /[U:*] (directly preceding /[U] before dropped)
               /machine.slice is shortened to /[M]
               /machine-*.scope  is  shortened  to  /[SNC:*]  (SNC:  systemd  nspawn  container),
            uppercase for the monitor
               /lxc.monitor.* is shortened to /[LXC:*]
               /lxc.payload.* is shortened to /[lxc:*]
               /*.scope is shortened to /!*
               /*.service is shortened to /* (suffix removed)

            Encountered escape sequences (e.g. from systemd)  inside  the  cgroup  name  are  not

       OOM  OOM killer score.

       CTXT Incremental sum of voluntary and nonvoluntary context switches.

            The I/O scheduling class followed by the priority if the class supports it:
               R for Realtime
               B for Best-effort
               id for Idle

            The   percentage  of  time  spent  waiting  for  a  CPU  (while  runnable).  Requires

            The percentage of time spent waiting for the completion  of  synchronous  block  I/O.
            Requires CAP_NET_ADMIN.

            The percentage of time spent swapping in pages. Requires CAP_NET_ADMIN.

       AGRP The autogroup identifier for the process. Requires Linux CFS to be enabled.

       ANI  The autogroup nice value for the process autogroup. Requires Linux CFS to be enabled.

       All other flags
            Currently unsupported (always displays '-').


       While htop depends on most of the libraries it uses at build time there are two noteworthy
       exceptions to this rule.  These  exceptions  both  relate  to  data  displayed  in  meters
       displayed  in  the  header  of  htop  and  were  intentionally created as optional runtime
       dependencies instead.  These exceptions are described below:

              The bindings for libsystemd are used in the SystemD meter to determine  the  number
              of  active  services  and  the  overall  system state. Looking for the functions to
              determine these information at runtime allows for builds to  support  these  meters
              without  forcing  the  package  manager  to install these libraries on systems that
              otherwise don't use systemd.

              Summary: no build time dependency, optional runtime dependency  on  libsystemd  via
              dynamic loading, with systemctl(1) fallback.

              The  bindings  for  libsensors are used for the CPU temperature readings in the CPU
              usage meters if displaying the temperature is enabled through the setup screen.  In
              order  for htop to show these temperatures correctly though, a proper configuration
              of libsensors through its usual configuration files is assumed  and  that  all  CPU
              cores  correspond  to  temperature  sensors  from  the  coretemp driver with core 0
              corresponding to a sensor labelled "Core 0". The package temperature may  be  given
              as  "Package  id  0".  If  missing  it  is  inferred  as the maximum value from the
              available per-core readings.

              Summary: build time dependency on libsensors(3) C header  files,  optional  runtime
              dependency on libsensors(3) via dynamic loading.


       By default htop reads its configuration from the XDG-compliant path ~/.config/htop/htoprc.
       The configuration  file  is  overwritten  upon  clean  exit  by  htop's  in-program  Setup
       configuration,  so  it  should  not  be hand-edited.  If no user configuration exists htop
       tries to read the system-wide configuration from /etc/htoprc and as a last  resort,  falls
       back to its hard coded defaults.

       You  may  override  the  location  of the configuration file using the $HTOPRC environment
       variable (so you can have multiple configurations for different machines  that  share  the
       same home directory, for example).

       The  pcp-htop  utility  makes  use  of  htoprc  in  exactly the same way.  In addition, it
       supports additional configuration files allowing new meters and columns to be added to the
       display  via  the usual Setup function, which will display additional Available Meters and
       Available Column entries for each runtime configured meter or column.

       These pcp-htop configuration files are read once at startup.  The format of these files is
       described in detail in the pcp-htop(5) manual page.

       This  functionality  makes  available  many  thousands of Performance Co-Pilot metrics for
       display by pcp-htop, as well as the ability to display custom metrics added at  individual
       sites.    Applications   and   services   instrumented   using   the   OpenMetrics  format can  also  be  displayed  by  pcp-htop  if  the  pmdaopenmetrics(1)
       component is configured.

       The configuration for both htop and pcp-htop is only saved when a clean exit is performed.
       Sending any signal will cause all configuration changes to be lost.


       Memory sizes in htop are displayed in a human-readable form.  Sizes are printed in  powers
       of  1024  using  binary IEC units.  If no suffix is shown the units are implicitly K as in
       KiB (kibibyte, 1 KiB = 1024 bytes).

       The decision to use this convention was made in order to conserve screen  space  and  make
       memory size representations consistent throughout htop as allocations are granular to full
       memory pages (4 KiB for most platforms).


       proc(5), top(1), free(1), ps(1), uptime(1) and limits.conf(5).


       pmdaopenmetrics(1), PCPIntro(1), PMAPI(3), and pcp-htop(5).


       htop was originally developed by Hisham  Muhammad.   Nowadays  it  is  maintained  by  the
       community at <>.

       pcp-htop is maintained as a collaboration between the <> and <>
       communities, and forms part of the Performance Co-Pilot suite of tools.


       Copyright © 2004-2019 Hisham Muhammad.
       Copyright © 2020-2024 htop dev team.

       License GPLv2+: GNU General Public License  version  2  or,  at  your  option,  any  later

       This  is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.  There is NO WARRANTY,
       to the extent permitted by law.