Provided by: isc-dhcp-server_4.2.4-7ubuntu12_amd64 bug


       dhcpd - Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Server


       dhcpd [ -p port ] [ -f ] [ -d ] [ -q ] [ -t | -T ] [ -4 | -6 ] [ -s server ] [ -cf config-
       file ] [ -lf lease-file ] [ -pf pid-file ] [ --no-pid ] [ -tf trace-output-file ] [  -play
       trace-playback-file ] [ if0 [ ...ifN ] ]

       dhcpd --version


       The   Internet  Systems  Consortium  DHCP  Server,  dhcpd,  implements  the  Dynamic  Host
       Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and the Internet Bootstrap Protocol  (BOOTP).   DHCP  allows
       hosts  on  a  TCP/IP network to request and be assigned IP addresses, and also to discover
       information about the  network  to  which  they  are  attached.   BOOTP  provides  similar
       functionality, with certain restrictions.


       The  DHCP  protocol  allows  a  host  which  is unknown to the network administrator to be
       automatically assigned a new IP address out of a pool of IP  addresses  for  its  network.
       In  order  for  this  to  work,  the network administrator allocates address pools in each
       subnet and enters them into the dhcpd.conf(5) file.

       There are two versions of the DHCP protocol DHCPv4 and DHCPv6.  At startup the server  may
       be started for one or the other via the -4 or -6 arguments.

       On  startup,  dhcpd  reads the dhcpd.conf file and stores a list of available addresses on
       each subnet in memory.  When a client requests an address using the DHCP  protocol,  dhcpd
       allocates  an  address  for  it.   Each client is assigned a lease, which expires after an
       amount of time chosen by the administrator (by default, one day).  Before  leases  expire,
       the  clients  to which leases are assigned are expected to renew them in order to continue
       to use the addresses.  Once a lease has expired,  the  client  to  which  that  lease  was
       assigned is no longer permitted to use the leased IP address.

       In  order to keep track of leases across system reboots and server restarts, dhcpd keeps a
       list of leases it has assigned in the dhcpd.leases(5) file.   Before dhcpd grants a  lease
       to  a host, it records the lease in this file and makes sure that the contents of the file
       are flushed to disk.   This ensures that even in the event of a system crash,  dhcpd  will
       not  forget about a lease that it has assigned.   On startup, after reading the dhcpd.conf
       file, dhcpd reads the dhcpd.leases file to refresh its memory about what leases have  been

       New  leases  are  appended  to the end of the dhcpd.leases file.   In order to prevent the
       file from becoming arbitrarily large, from time to time dhcpd creates a  new  dhcpd.leases
       file  from  its  in-core lease database.  Once this file has been written to disk, the old
       file is renamed dhcpd.leases~, and the new file is renamed dhcpd.leases.   If  the  system
       crashes  in  the  middle of this process, whichever dhcpd.leases file remains will contain
       all the lease information, so there is no need for a special crash recovery process.

       BOOTP support is also provided by this server.  Unlike DHCP, the BOOTP protocol  does  not
       provide  a  protocol for recovering dynamically-assigned addresses once they are no longer
       needed.   It is still possible to dynamically assign addresses to BOOTP clients, but  some
       administrative  process  for  reclaiming  addresses  is required.   By default, leases are
       granted to BOOTP clients in perpetuity, although the  network  administrator  may  set  an
       earlier cutoff date or a shorter lease length for BOOTP leases if that makes sense.

       BOOTP  clients  may  also  be served in the old standard way, which is to simply provide a
       declaration in the dhcpd.conf file for each BOOTP client, permanently assigning an address
       to each client.

       Whenever  changes  are  made to the dhcpd.conf file, dhcpd must be restarted.   To restart
       dhcpd, send a SIGTERM (signal 15) to the process ID  contained  in  RUNDIR/,  and
       then  re-invoke  dhcpd.  Because the DHCP server database is not as lightweight as a BOOTP
       database, dhcpd does not automatically restart  itself  when  it  sees  a  change  to  the
       dhcpd.conf file.

       Note:  We  get  a  lot of complaints about this.   We realize that it would be nice if one
       could send a SIGHUP to the  server  and  have  it  reload  the  database.    This  is  not
       technically  impossible,  but  it  would  require  a great deal of work, our resources are
       extremely limited, and they can be better spent  elsewhere.    So  please  don't  complain
       about  this on the mailing list unless you're prepared to fund a project to implement this
       feature, or prepared to do it yourself.


       The names of the network interfaces on which dhcpd should listen  for  broadcasts  may  be
       specified  on  the  command line.  This should be done on systems where dhcpd is unable to
       identify non-broadcast interfaces, but should not be required on  other  systems.   If  no
       interface  names  are  specified  on  the  command  line  dhcpd  will identify all network
       interfaces which are up, eliminating non-broadcast interfaces if possible, and listen  for
       DHCP broadcasts on each interface.


       -4     Run as a DHCP server. This is the default and cannot be combined with -6.

       -6     Run as a DHCPv6 server. This cannot be combined with -4.

       -p port
              The  udp  port  number on which dhcpd should listen.  If unspecified dhcpd uses the
              default port of 67.  This is mostly useful for debugging purposes.

       -s address
              Specify an address or host name to which dhcpd should send replies rather than  the
              broadcast address (  This option is only supported in IPv4.

       -f     Force  dhcpd  to  run  as  a  foreground  process  instead  of  as  a daemon in the
              background.  This is useful when running dhcpd under a debugger, or when running it
              out of inittab on System V systems.

       -d     Send  log  messages  to  the  standard  error  descriptor.   This can be useful for
              debugging, and also at sites where a complete log of all dhcp activity must be kept
              but syslogd is not reliable or otherwise cannot be used.   Normally, dhcpd will log
              all output using the syslog(3) function with the log facility  set  to  LOG_DAEMON.
              Note that -d implies -f (the daemon will not fork itself into the background).

       -q     Be  quiet at startup.  This suppresses the printing of the entire copyright message
              during startup.  This might be desirable when starting dhcpd from a system  startup
              script (e.g., /etc/rc).

       -t     Test  the  configuration file.  The server tests the configuration file for correct
              syntax, but will not attempt to perform any network operations.   This can be  used
              to test a new configuration file automatically before installing it.

       -T     Test  the lease file.  The server tests the lease file for correct syntax, but will
              not attempt to perform any network operations.   This can be used  to  test  a  new
              leaes file automatically before installing it.

       -tf tracefile
              Specify  a  file  into  which  the  entire  startup state of the server and all the
              transactions it processes are logged.  This can be useful in submitting bug reports
              -  if you are getting a core dump every so often, you can start the server with the
              -tf option and then, when the server dumps core, the trace file  will  contain  all
              the  transactions that led up to it dumping core, so that the problem can be easily
              debugged with -play.

       -play playfile
              Specify a file from which the entire startup  state  of  the  server  and  all  the
              transactions  it  processed  are  read.  The -play option must be specified with an
              alternate lease file, using the -lf switch, so that the DHCP  server  doesn't  wipe
              out  your  existing  lease file with its test data.  The DHCP server will refuse to
              operate in playback mode unless you specify an alternate lease file.

              Print version number and exit.

       Modifying default file locations:  The  following  options  can  be  used  to  modify  the
       locations  dhcpd  uses  for it's files.  Because of the importance of using the same lease
       database at all times when running dhcpd in production, these options should be used  only
       for testing lease files or database files in a non-production environment.

       -cf config-file
              Path to alternate configuration file.

       -lf lease-file
              Path to alternate lease file.

       -pf pid-file
              Path to alternate pid file.

              Option to disable writing pid files.  By default the program will write a pid file.
              If the program is invoked with this option it will not check for an existing server


       The  syntax  of  the  dhcpd.conf(5) file is discussed separately.   This section should be
       used as an overview of the configuration  process,  and  the  dhcpd.conf(5)  documentation
       should be consulted for detailed reference information.


       dhcpd  needs  to  know the subnet numbers and netmasks of all subnets for which it will be
       providing service.   In addition, in order to dynamically allocate addresses, it  must  be
       assigned  one  or  more  ranges of addresses on each subnet which it can in turn assign to
       client hosts as they boot.   Thus, a very  simple  configuration  providing  DHCP  support
       might look like this:

            subnet netmask {

       Multiple address ranges may be specified like this:

            subnet netmask {

       If  a  subnet  will only be provided with BOOTP service and no dynamic address assignment,
       the range clause can be left out entirely, but the subnet statement must appear.

Lease Lengths

       DHCP leases can be assigned almost any length from zero seconds to infinity.   What  lease
       length  makes  sense  for  any  given  subnet,  or  for  any given installation, will vary
       depending on the kinds of hosts being served.

       For example, in an office environment where systems  are  added  from  time  to  time  and
       removed  from time to time, but move relatively infrequently, it might make sense to allow
       lease times of a month or more.   In a final test environment on a manufacturing floor, it
       may  make  more  sense  to assign a maximum lease length of 30 minutes - enough time to go
       through a simple test procedure  on  a  network  appliance  before  packaging  it  up  for

       It is possible to specify two lease lengths: the default length that will be assigned if a
       client doesn't ask for any particular lease length, and a maximum  lease  length.    These
       are specified as clauses to the subnet command:

            subnet netmask {
              default-lease-time 600;
              max-lease-time 7200;

       This  particular  subnet  declaration  specifies  a default lease time of 600 seconds (ten
       minutes), and a maximum lease time of 7200 seconds  (two  hours).    Other  common  values
       would be 86400 (one day), 604800 (one week) and 2592000 (30 days).

       Each  subnet  need  not  have  the  same  leaseā€”in the case of an office environment and a
       manufacturing environment served by the same DHCP server, it  might  make  sense  to  have
       widely disparate values for default and maximum lease times on each subnet.

BOOTP Support

       Each  BOOTP  client  must  be  explicitly  declared in the dhcpd.conf file.   A very basic
       client declaration will specify the client network interface's hardware address and the IP
       address  to  assign  to  that client.   If the client needs to be able to load a boot file
       from the server, that file's name must be specified.   A simple bootp  client  declaration
       might look like this:

            host haagen {
              hardware ethernet 08:00:2b:4c:59:23;
              filename "/tftpboot/haagen.boot";


       DHCP  (and  also  BOOTP with Vendor Extensions) provide a mechanism whereby the server can
       provide the client with information about how to configure its  network  interface  (e.g.,
       subnet  mask),  and also how the client can access various network services (e.g., DNS, IP
       routers, and so on).

       These options can be specified on a per-subnet basis, and, for BOOTP clients,  also  on  a
       per-client  basis.    In  the event that a BOOTP client declaration specifies options that
       are also specified in  its  subnet  declaration,  the  options  specified  in  the  client
       declaration  take  precedence.    A  reasonably  complete  DHCP  configuration  might look
       something like this:

            subnet netmask {
              default-lease-time 600 max-lease-time 7200;
              option subnet-mask;
              option broadcast-address;
              option routers;
              option domain-name-servers,;
              option domain-name "";

       A bootp host on that subnet that needs to be in a different domain  and  use  a  different
       name server might be declared as follows:

            host haagen {
              hardware ethernet 08:00:2b:4c:59:23;
              filename "/tftpboot/haagen.boot";
              option domain-name-servers;
              option domain-name "";

       A more complete description of the dhcpd.conf file syntax is provided in dhcpd.conf(5).


       The  DHCP  server  provides the capability to modify some of its configuration while it is
       running, without stopping it, modifying its  database  files,  and  restarting  it.   This
       capability  is  currently  provided  using OMAPI - an API for manipulating remote objects.
       OMAPI clients connect to the server using TCP/IP, authenticate, and can then  examine  the
       server's current status and make changes to it.

       Rather  than implementing the underlying OMAPI protocol directly, user programs should use
       the dhcpctl API or OMAPI  itself.    Dhcpctl  is  a  wrapper  that  handles  some  of  the
       housekeeping  chores  that  OMAPI  does  not  do  automatically.    Dhcpctl  and OMAPI are
       documented in dhcpctl(3) and omapi(3).

       OMAPI exports objects, which can then be examined and modified.   The DHCP server  exports
       the  following  objects: lease, host, failover-state and group.   Each object has a number
       of methods that are provided: lookup, create, and destroy.   In addition, it  is  possible
       to  look  at  attributes  that  are  stored  on objects, and in some cases to modify those


       Leases can't currently be created or destroyed, but they can be looked up to  examine  and
       modify their state.

       Leases have the following attributes:

       state integer lookup, examine
            1 = free
            2 = active
            3 = expired
            4 = released
            5 = abandoned
            6 = reset
            7 = backup
            8 = reserved
            9 = bootp

       ip-address data lookup, examine
            The IP address of the lease.

       dhcp-client-identifier data lookup, examine, update
            The  client  identifier  that  the  client  used when it acquired the lease.  Not all
            clients send client identifiers, so this may be empty.

       client-hostname data examine, update
            The value the client sent in the host-name option.

       host handle examine
            the host declaration associated with this lease, if any.

       subnet handle examine
            the subnet object associated with this lease (the  subnet  object  is  not  currently

       pool handle examine
            the  pool  object  associated  with  this  lease  (the  pool  object is not currently

       billing-class handle examine
            the handle to the class to which this lease is currently billed, if  any  (the  class
            object is not currently supported).

       hardware-address data examine, update
            the hardware address (chaddr) field sent by the client when it acquired its lease.

       hardware-type integer examine, update
            the  type  of  the  network  interface  that the client reported when it acquired its

       ends time examine
            the time when the lease's current state ends, as understood by the client.

       tstp time examine
            the time when the lease's current state ends, as understood by the server.
       tsfp time examine
            the adjusted time when the lease's current state ends, as understood by the  failover
            peer  (if  there is no failover peer, this value is undefined).  Generally this value
            is only adjusted for expired, released, or reset leases while the server is operating
            in partner-down state, and otherwise is simply the value supplied by the peer.
       atsfp time examine
            the  actual  tsfp  value  sent  from  the peer.  This value is forgotten when a lease
            binding state change is made, to facilitate retransmission logic.

       cltt time examine
            The time of the last transaction with the client on this lease.


       Hosts can be created, destroyed, looked up, examined and modified.  If a host  declaration
       is  created  or deleted using OMAPI, that information will be recorded in the dhcpd.leases
       file.   It is permissible to delete host declarations that are declared in the  dhcpd.conf

       Hosts have the following attributes:

       name data lookup, examine, modify
            the  name  of  the  host  declaration.    This  name  must  be  unique among all host

       group handle examine, modify
            the named group associated with the host declaration, if there is one.

       hardware-address data lookup, examine, modify
            the link-layer address that will be used to match the client, if any.  Only valid  if
            hardware-type is also present.

       hardware-type integer lookup, examine, modify
            the  type  of  the  network  interface that will be used to match the client, if any.
            Only valid if hardware-address is also present.

       dhcp-client-identifier data lookup, examine, modify
            the dhcp-client-identifier option that will be used to match the client, if any.

       ip-address data examine, modify
            a fixed IP address which is reserved  for  a  DHCP  client  that  matches  this  host
            declaration.    The IP address will only be assigned to the client if it is valid for
            the network segment to which the client is connected.

       statements data modify
            a list of statements in the format of the  dhcpd.conf  file  that  will  be  executed
            whenever a message from the client is being processed.

       known integer examine, modify
            if nonzero, indicates that a client matching this host declaration will be treated as
            known in pool permit lists.   If zero, the client will not be treated as known.


       Named groups can be created, destroyed, looked up, examined  and  modified.   If  a  group
       declaration  is  created  or deleted using OMAPI, that information will be recorded in the
       dhcpd.leases file.  It is permissible to delete group declarations that  are  declared  in
       the dhcpd.conf file.

       Named  groups  currently  can  only  be  associated  with  hosts  - this allows one set of
       statements to be efficiently attached to more than one host declaration.

       Groups have the following attributes:

       name data
            the name of the group.  All groups that are created using OMAPI must have names,  and
            the names must be unique among all groups.

       statements data
            a  list  of  statements  in  the  format of the dhcpd.conf file that will be executed
            whenever a message from a client whose host  declaration  references  this  group  is


       The  control  object allows you to shut the server down.   If the server is doing failover
       with another peer, it will make a clean transition into the shutdown state and notify  its
       peer,  so  that  the peer can go into partner down, and then record the "recover" state in
       the lease file so that when the server is restarted, it will  automatically  resynchronize
       with its peer.

       On  shutdown  the server will also attempt to cleanly shut down all OMAPI connections.  If
       these connections do  not  go  down  cleanly  after  five  seconds,  they  are  shut  down
       preemptively.   It  can  take  as  much  as  25 seconds from the beginning of the shutdown
       process to the time that the server actually exits.

       To shut the server down, open its control object and set the state attribute to 2.


       The failover-state object is the object that tracks the state of the failover protocol  as
       it  is  being  managed  for  a given failover peer.  The failover object has the following
       attributes (please see dhcpd.conf (5) for explanations about what these attributes mean):

       name data examine
            Indicates the name of the failover peer relationship, as described  in  the  server's
            dhcpd.conf file.

       partner-address data examine
            Indicates the failover partner's IP address.

       local-address data examine
            Indicates  the  IP  address  that  is being used by the DHCP server for this failover

       partner-port data examine
            Indicates the TCP port on which  the  failover  partner  is  listening  for  failover
            protocol connections.

       local-port data examine
            Indicates  the  TCP  port on which the DHCP server is listening for failover protocol
            connections for this failover pair.

       max-outstanding-updates integer examine
            Indicates the number of updates that can be outstanding  and  unacknowledged  at  any
            given time, in this failover relationship.

       mclt integer examine
            Indicates the maximum client lead time in this failover relationship.

       load-balance-max-secs integer examine
            Indicates  the  maximum  value  for  the  secs  field in a client request before load
            balancing is bypassed.

       load-balance-hba data examine
            Indicates the load balancing hash bucket array for this failover relationship.

       local-state integer examine, modify
            Indicates the present state  of  the  DHCP  server  in  this  failover  relationship.
            Possible values for state are:

                 1   - startup
                 2   - normal
                 3   - communications interrupted
                 4   - partner down
                 5   - potential conflict
                 6   - recover
                 7   - paused
                 8   - shutdown
                 9   - recover done
                 10  - resolution interrupted
                 11  - conflict done
                 254 - recover wait

            (Note that some of the above values have changed since DHCP 3.0.x.)

            In general it is not a good idea to make changes to this state.  However, in the case
            that the failover partner is known to be down, it can  be  useful  to  set  the  DHCP
            server's  failover  state  to partner down.   At this point the DHCP server will take
            over service of the failover partner's leases as soon as possible, and will give  out
            normal  leases,  not  leases  that  are  restricted by MCLT.   If you do put the DHCP
            server into the partner-down when the other DHCP server is not  in  the  partner-down
            state,  but  is  not  reachable,  IP  address assignment conflicts are possible, even
            likely.   Once a server has been put into partner-down  mode,  its  failover  partner
            must  not  be  brought  back  online  until communication is possible between the two

       partner-state integer examine
            Indicates the present state of the failover partner.

       local-stos integer examine
            Indicates the time at which the  DHCP  server  entered  its  present  state  in  this
            failover relationship.

       partner-stos integer examine
            Indicates the time at which the failover partner entered its present state.

       hierarchy integer examine
            Indicates  whether  the  DHCP server is primary (0) or secondary (1) in this failover

       last-packet-sent integer examine
            Indicates the time at which the most recent failover packet was  sent  by  this  DHCP
            server to its failover partner.

       last-timestamp-received integer examine
            Indicates  the timestamp that was on the failover message most recently received from
            the failover partner.

       skew integer examine
            Indicates the skew between the failover partner's clock and this DHCP server's clock

       max-response-delay integer examine
            Indicates the time in seconds after  which,  if  no  message  is  received  from  the
            failover partner, the partner is assumed to be out of communication.

       cur-unacked-updates integer examine
            Indicates  the  number  of  update messages that have been received from the failover
            partner but not yet processed.


       ETCDIR/dhcpd.conf, DBDIR/dhcpd.leases, RUNDIR/, DBDIR/dhcpd.leases~.


       dhclient(8), dhcrelay(8), dhcpd.conf(5), dhcpd.leases(5)


       dhcpd(8) was originally written by Ted Lemon under a contract with  Vixie  Labs.   Funding
       for  this  project  was  provided  by Internet Systems Consortium.   Version 3 of the DHCP
       server was funded by Nominum, Inc.   Information  about  Internet  Systems  Consortium  is
       available at