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       dvipdfmx, xdvipdfmx, dvipdfm - produce PDF files directly from DVI files


       dvipdfmx or dvipdfm [options] file[.dvi]


       The  program  dvipdfmx  generates  a  PDF  file from a DVI file.  DVI files are the output
       produced by TeX.  groff can also generate DVI files using grodvi(-Tdvi).

       In TeX Live, dvipdfm is another incarnation of dvipdfmx rather than  a  separate  program.
       Compatibility is attempted as best as possible.

       In  addition,  xdvipdfmx  is  yet  another  incarnation.   It  is used as the back end for
       xetex(1) and is not intended to be invoked directly.

       dvipdfmx recognizes several commonly used \special commands, which are extensions  to  the
       DVI  format.   Specifically,  it  understands  color  specials,  papersize  specials, tpic
       specials (which allow it to be used with pic),  hypertex  specials,  and  some  PostScript
       specials.   These  extensions  allow  documents to contain color, figures, and hyperlinks.
       The program tries to mimic the behavior of  dvips  where  possible,  so  that  many  macro
       packages  produced  for  use  with  dvips  will  also  work  with  dvipdfmx.  In addition,
       understands its own specific \special commands to allow access to  PDF  features  such  as
       annotations and bookmarks.

       Unrecognized  specials will generate warning messages. Packages that may need a dvipdfm or
       dvipdfmx driver option include geometry, hyperref, bookmark, graphicx, and xcolor.

       For issues related to bounding boxes (and hence image sizes), see extractbb(1).


       Unlike with many other programs, argument values must be separated from option names by  a
       space,  not  an  =  sign;  option names cannot be abbreviated; and - and -- cannot be used

       -c   Ignore (or accept) color \specials.  By  default,  color  \specials  are  interpreted
            normally  (changeable  in  the  configuration  file).   The  -c option may be used to
            produce a black and white document from a  document  containing  color  TeX  \special

            Enable  dvipdfm  emulation  mode.   This  is  the  default  if the executable name is

       -d number
            Specify the number of decimal digits in the PDF output; must  be  between  0  and  5,
            default is 2.

       -e   Ignored, for (semi-)compatibility with dvipdfm.

       -f map_file
            Read  the  font  map  file  given  by  map_file.  The default map file in TeX Live is
  , as defined in the configuration file.  --help Show  a  help  message  and
            exit successfully.

       -l   Select landscape mode.  In other words, exchange the x and y dimensions of the paper.

       -m  mag
            Magnify the input document by mag.

       -o  filename
            Set the PDF output file name; use `-' for stdout.  By default, the name of the output
            file is derived from the input, that is, file.pdf.

       -p  paper
            Select the papersize by name (e.g., letter, legal, ledger, tabloid, a3, a4, or a5 )

       -q   Quiet mode.

       -r  size
            Set resolution of bitmapped fonts  to  size  dots  per  inch.   Bitmapped  fonts  are
            generated by the Kpathsea library, which uses Metafont.  Bitmapped fonts are included
            as Type 3 fonts in the PDF output file.  Default is 600.

       -s  page_specifications
            Select the pages of the DVI file to be processed; default is `-', meaning all  pages.
            The page_specifications consists of a comma separated list of page_ranges:
            page_specifications := page_specification[,page_specifications]
            page_specification := single_page|page_range
            page_range := [first_page]-[last_page]
            An  empty  first_page  is  treated  as  the  first page of the DVI file, and an empty
            last_page is treated as the last page of the DVI file.


            -s 1,3,5
                 includes pages 1, 3, and 5;

            -s - includes all pages;

            -s -,-
                 includes two copies of all pages in the DVI file; and

            -s 1-10
                 includes the first ten pages of the DVI file.

       -t   Search for thumbnail images of each  page  in  the  directory  named  by  the  TMPDIR
            environment  variable.   The thumbnail images must be named in a specific format: the
            same base name as the DVI file and the page number as the extension to the file name.
            dvipdfmx  does  not  generate  such  thumbnails  itself, but it is distributed with a
            wrapper program named dvipdft that does so.

            Show a help message and exit successfully.

       -v   Increase verbosity.  Results of the -v option are cumulative (e.g., -vv increases the
            verbosity by two increments).  Maximum verbosity is four.

       --kpathsea-debug number
            Have Kpathsea output debugging information; `-1' for everything (voluminous).

       -x x_offset
            Set  the  left  margin to x_offset.  The default left margin is 1.0in.  The dimension
            may be specified in any units understood by TeX (e.g., bp, pt, in, cm).

       -y y_offset
            Set the top margin to y_offset.  The default top margin is 1.0in.  The dimension  may
            be specified in any units understood by TeX (e.g., bpt, pt, in, cm).

       -z number
            Set  the compression level to compression_level.  Compression levels range from 0 (no
            compression) to 9 (maximum compression) and correspond to the  values  understood  by
            zlib; default is 9.

       -C number
            Miscellaneous option flags; see the --help output for details.

       -D template
            PostScript  to  PDF  conversion  command line template; the default is taken from the
            configuration  file,  which  also  gives  all  the  details  and   mentions   several

       -E   Always try to embed fonts, ignoring licensing flags, etc.

       -I number
            Image  cache  life  in  hours;  default is -2, meaning to not cache images at all.  A
            value of -1 means to erase all old images and also new images; 0 means to  erase  all
            old images but leave new images.

       -K number
            Encryption key length; default 40.

       -M   Process MetaPost PostScript output.

       -O number
            Set maximum depth of open bookmark items; default 0.

       -P number
            Set permission flags for PDF encryption; default 0x003C.

       -S   Enable PDF encryption.

       -V number
            Set PDF minor version; default 5 (from the configuration file).


       When  including  images with dvipdfmx, their bounding boxes should be generated by running
       extractbb.  The result will be in an .xbb file; the xbb information is the same as for the
       PDF format.


       dvipdfmx  uses  the  kpathsea  library  for  locating the files that it opens.  Hence, the
       environment variables documented in the Kpathsea library documentation influence dvipdfmx.
       It  also  uses the value of the environment variable TMPDIR as the directory to search for
       thumbnail images of each page.


       The precise location of  the  following  files  is  determined  by  the  Kpathsea  library
       configuration.  The location may be determined by using kpsewhich, e.g.,
       kpsewhich -progname=dvipdfmx -format='other text files' dvipdfmx.cfg

            Default configuration file
            The default font map file (this may be changed in the config file).

            TeX font metrics

       *.vf TeX virtual font files

            PostScript Type 1 font files

            The  Kpathsea  library configuration file.  The location of this file may be found by
            kpsewhich texmf.cnf


       dvipdft(1), extractbb(1), tex(1), dvips(1), groff(1), grodvi(1), pic(1), and the  Kpathsea
       library Info documentation (


       Primarily  Mark  A. Wicks; dvipdfmx extensions primarily by Jin-Hwan Cho, Shunsaku Hirata,
       and Matthias Franz.  For the version in TeX Live, all bugs and other reports should go  to
       the  dvipdfmx maintainers at tex-k (at)  This man page edited for TeX Live by Bob
       Tennent and others.

                                           15 July 2014                               DVIPDFMX(1)