Provided by: screen_4.3.1-2build1_amd64 bug


       screen - screen manager with VT100/ANSI terminal emulation


       screen [ -options ] [ cmd [ args ] ]
       screen -r [[pid.]tty[.host]]
       screen -r sessionowner/[[pid.]tty[.host]]


       Screen  is  a  full-screen  window  manager  that  multiplexes a physical terminal between
       several processes (typically interactive shells).   Each  virtual  terminal  provides  the
       functions of a DEC VT100 terminal and, in addition, several control functions from the ISO
       6429 (ECMA 48, ANSI X3.64) and ISO 2022 standards (e.g. insert/delete line and support for
       multiple  character sets).  There is a scrollback history buffer for each virtual terminal
       and a copy-and-paste mechanism that allows moving text regions between windows.

       When screen is called, it creates a single window with a shell in  it  (or  the  specified
       command)  and  then  gets  out of your way so that you can use the program as you normally
       would.  Then, at any time, you can create new (full-screen) windows with other programs in
       them  (including  more shells), kill existing windows, view a list of windows, turn output
       logging on and off, copy-and-paste text between  windows,  view  the  scrollback  history,
       switch  between  windows  in whatever manner you wish, etc. All windows run their programs
       completely independent of each other. Programs  continue  to  run  when  their  window  is
       currently  not  visible and even when the whole screen session is detached from the user's
       terminal.  When a program terminates, screen (per default) kills the window that contained
       it.  If this window was in the foreground, the display switches to the previous window; if
       none are left, screen exits. Shells usually distinguish between running as login-shell  or
       sub-shell.   Screen  runs them as sub-shells, unless told otherwise (See "shell" .screenrc

       Everything you type is sent to the program  running  in  the  current  window.   The  only
       exception  to  this  is the one keystroke that is used to initiate a command to the window
       manager.  By default, each command begins with a control-a (abbreviated C-a from now  on),
       and  is  followed  by one other keystroke.  The command character and all the key bindings
       can be fully customized to be anything you like, though they are always two characters  in

       Screen does not understand the prefix "C-" to mean control, although this notation is used
       in this manual for readability.  Please use the caret notation ("^A" instead of "C-a")  as
       arguments to e.g. the escape command or the -e option.  Screen will also print out control
       characters in caret notation.

       The standard way to create a new window is to type "C-a c".  This  creates  a  new  window
       running  a  shell  and switches to that window immediately, regardless of the state of the
       process running in the current window.  Similarly, you can create  a  new  window  with  a
       custom  command  in it by first binding the command to a keystroke (in your .screenrc file
       or at the "C-a :" command line) and then using it just  like  the  "C-a  c"  command.   In
       addition, new windows can be created by running a command like:

              screen emacs prog.c

       from a shell prompt within a previously created window.  This will not run another copy of
       screen, but will instead supply the command name and its arguments to the  window  manager
       (specified  in  the  $STY  environment variable) who will use it to create the new window.
       The above example would start the emacs editor (editing prog.c) and switch to its  window.
       -  Note  that  you  cannot  transport environment variables from the invoking shell to the
       application (emacs in this case), because it is forked from the parent screen process, not
       from the invoking shell.

       If  "/var/run/utmp"  is  writable by screen, an appropriate record will be written to this
       file for each window, and removed when the window  is  terminated.   This  is  useful  for
       working with "talk", "script", "shutdown", "rsend", "sccs" and other similar programs that
       use the utmp file to determine who you are. As long as screen is active on your  terminal,
       the terminal's own record is removed from the utmp file. See also "C-a L".


       Before  you  begin to use screen you'll need to make sure you have correctly selected your
       terminal type, just as you would for any other termcap/terminfo program.  (You can do this
       by using tset for example.)

       If  you're  impatient and want to get started without doing a lot more reading, you should
       remember this one command:  "C-a ?".  Typing these two characters will display a  list  of
       the  available  screen  commands  and  their  bindings. Each keystroke is discussed in the
       section "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS". The manual section "CUSTOMIZATION" deals with the contents
       of your .screenrc.

       If  your  terminal is a "true" auto-margin terminal (it doesn't allow the last position on
       the screen to be updated without scrolling the screen) consider using a  version  of  your
       terminal's termcap that has automatic margins turned off. This will ensure an accurate and
       optimal update of the screen in all circumstances. Most terminals  nowadays  have  "magic"
       margins  (automatic  margins  plus  usable  last column). This is the VT100 style type and
       perfectly suited for screen.  If all you've got is a "true"  auto-margin  terminal  screen
       will  be  content  to  use  it, but updating a character put into the last position on the
       screen may not be possible until the screen scrolls or the character is moved into a  safe
       position  in  some other way. This delay can be shortened by using a terminal with insert-
       character capability.


       Screen has the following command-line options:

       -a   include all capabilities (with some minor exceptions) in each window's termcap,  even
            if screen must redraw parts of the display in order to implement a function.

       -A   Adapt  the  sizes  of  all  windows to the size of the current terminal.  By default,
            screen tries to restore its old window sizes when attaching  to  resizable  terminals
            (those with "WS" in its description, e.g. suncmd or some xterm).

       -c file
            override the default configuration file from "$HOME/.screenrc" to file.

       -d|-D []
            does  not start screen, but detaches the elsewhere running screen session. It has the
            same effect as  typing  "C-a  d"  from  screen's  controlling  terminal.  -D  is  the
            equivalent  to  the  power detach key.  If no session can be detached, this option is
            ignored. In combination with the -r/-R option more powerful effects can be achieved:

       -d -r   Reattach a session and if necessary detach it first.

       -d -R   Reattach a session and if necessary detach or even create it first.

       -d -RR  Reattach a session and if necessary detach or create it. Use the first session  if
               more than one session is available.

       -D -r   Reattach a session. If necessary detach and logout remotely first.

       -D -R   Attach here and now. In detail this means: If a session is running, then reattach.
               If necessary detach and logout remotely first.  If it was not  running  create  it
               and notify the user. This is the author's favorite.

       -D -RR  Attach here and now. Whatever that means, just do it.

            Note:  It  is  always  a  good  idea to check the status of your sessions by means of
            "screen -list".

       -e xy
            specifies the command character to be  x  and  the  character  generating  a  literal
            command  character to y (when typed after the command character).  The default is "C-
            a" and `a', which can be specified as "-e^Aa".  When creating a screen session,  this
            option  sets  the  default  command character. In a multiuser session all users added
            will start off with this command character. But when attaching to an already  running
            session,  this option changes only the command character of the attaching user.  This
            option is equivalent to either the commands "defescape" or "escape" respectively.

       -f, -fn, and -fa
            turns flow-control on, off, or "automatic switching mode".  This can also be  defined
            through the "defflow" .screenrc command.

       -h num
            Specifies the history scrollback buffer to be num lines high.

       -i   will  cause the interrupt key (usually C-c) to interrupt the display immediately when
            flow-control is on.  See the "defflow" .screenrc command for  details.   The  use  of
            this option is discouraged.

       -l and -ln
            turns  login  mode  on or off (for /var/run/utmp updating).  This can also be defined
            through the "deflogin" .screenrc command.

       -ls [match]
       -list [match]
            does not start screen, but  prints  a  list  of  strings  and  creation
            timestamps  identifying  your  screen  sessions.   Sessions  marked `detached' can be
            resumed with "screen -r". Those marked `attached' are running and have a  controlling
            terminal.  If  the  session  runs  in  multiuser mode, it is marked `multi'. Sessions
            marked as  `unreachable'  either  live  on  a  different  host  or  are  `dead'.   An
            unreachable  session is considered dead, when its name matches either the name of the
            local host, or the specified parameter, if any.  See the -r flag  for  a  description
            how to construct matches.  Sessions marked as `dead' should be thoroughly checked and
            removed.  Ask your system administrator if you are not sure. Remove sessions with the
            -wipe option.

       -L   tells screen to turn on automatic output logging for the windows.

       -m   causes screen to ignore the $STY environment variable. With "screen -m" creation of a
            new session is enforced, regardless whether screen  is  called  from  within  another
            screen  session  or  not. This flag has a special meaning in connection with the `-d'

       -d -m   Start screen in "detached" mode. This creates a new session but doesn't attach  to
               it. This is useful for system startup scripts.

       -D -m   This  also  starts  screen in "detached" mode, but doesn't fork a new process. The
               command exits if the session terminates.

       -O   selects a more optimal output mode for your terminal rather than true VT100 emulation
            (only  affects  auto-margin  terminals  without  `LP').  This can also be set in your
            .screenrc by specifying `OP' in a "termcap" command.

       -p number_or_name|-|=|+
            Preselect a window. This is useful when you want to reattach to a specific window  or
            you want to send a command via the "-X" option to a specific window. As with screen's
            select command, "-" selects the blank window. As a special  case  for  reattach,  "="
            brings  up  the windowlist on the blank window, while a "+" will create a new window.
            The command will not be executed if the specified window could not be found.

       -q   Suppress printing of error messages. In combination with "-ls" the exit value  is  as
            follows:  9  indicates  a  directory  without sessions. 10 indicates a directory with
            running but not attachable sessions. 11  (or  more)  indicates  1  (or  more)  usable
            sessions.   In  combination with "-r" the exit value is as follows: 10 indicates that
            there is no session to resume. 12 (or more) indicates that  there  are  2  (or  more)
            sessions  to  resume  and you should specify which one to choose.  In all other cases
            "-q" has no effect.

       -Q   Some commands now can be queried from a remote session using this flag, e.g.  "screen
            -Q  windows".  The  commands  will  send  the  response to the stdout of the querying
            process. If there was an error in the command, then the querying  process  will  exit
            with a non-zero status.

            The commands that can be queried now are:

       -r []
       -r sessionowner/[]
            resumes a detached screen session.  No other options (except combinations with -d/-D)
            may be specified, though an optional  prefix  of  [pid.]  may  be  needed  to
            distinguish  between  multiple  detached screen sessions.  The second form is used to
            connect to another user's screen session which runs in multiuser mode. This indicates
            that  screen  should  look  for  sessions  in another user's directory. This requires

       -R   resumes screen only when it's unambiguous which one to attach, usually when only  one
            screen  is  detached. Otherwise lists available sessions.  -RR attempts to resume the
            youngest  (in  terms  of  creation  time)  detached  screen  session  it  finds.   If
            successful,  all  other  command-line  options  are  ignored.  If no detached session
            exists, starts a new session using the specified options, just as if -R had not  been
            specified.  The  option is set by default if screen is run as a login-shell (actually
            screen uses "-xRR" in that case).  For combinations with the -d/-D option see  there.
            Note: Time-based session selection is a Debian addition.

       -s program
            sets  the  default  shell  to  the  program  specified,  instead  of the value in the
            environment variable $SHELL (or "/bin/sh" if not defined).  This can also be  defined
            through the "shell" .screenrc command.  See also there.

       -S sessionname
            When creating a new session, this option can be used to specify a meaningful name for
            the session. This name identifies the session for  "screen  -list"  and  "screen  -r"
            actions. It substitutes the default [] suffix.

       -t name
            sets  the  title  (a.k.a.)  for the default shell or specified program.  See also the
            "shelltitle" .screenrc command.

       -T term
            Set the $TERM environment varible using the spcified term as opposed to  the  defualt
            setting of screen.

       -U   Run  screen  in  UTF-8  mode.  This  option tells screen that your terminal sends and
            understands UTF-8 encoded characters. It also  sets  the  default  encoding  for  new
            windows to `utf8'.

       -v   Print version number.

       -wipe [match]
            does the same as "screen -ls", but removes destroyed sessions instead of marking them
            as `dead'.  An unreachable session is considered dead, when its name  matches  either
            the  name  of  the local host, or the explicitly given parameter, if any.  See the -r
            flag for a description how to construct matches.

       -x   Attach to a not detached screen session. (Multi display  mode).   Screen  refuses  to
            attach  from  within  itself.   But  when  cascading  multiple screens, loops are not
            detected; take care.

       -X   Send the specified command to a running screen session. You may use the -S option  to
            specify  the  screen session if you have several screen sessions running. You can use
            the -d or -r option to tell screen to look  only  for  attached  or  detached  screen
            sessions. Note that this command doesn't work if the session is password protected.

       -4   Resolve hostnames only to IPv4 addresses.

       -6   Resolve hostnames only to IPv6 addresses.


       As  mentioned,  each  screen  command consists of a "C-a" followed by one other character.
       For your convenience, all commands that are bound to lower-case letters are also bound  to
       their control character counterparts (with the exception of "C-a a"; see below), thus, "C-
       a c" as well as "C-a C-c" can be used to create a window. See section "CUSTOMIZATION"  for
       a description of the command.

       The following table shows the default key bindings:

       C-a '       (select)      Prompt for a window name or number to switch to.

       C-a "       (windowlist -b)
                                 Present a list of all windows for selection.

       C-a 0       (select 0)
        C-a 9       (select 9)
       C-a -       (select -)    Switch to window number 0 - 9, or to the blank window.

       C-a tab     (focus)       Switch  the  input  focus  to  the next region.  See also split,
                                 remove, only.

       C-a C-a     (other)       Toggle to the  window  displayed  previously.   Note  that  this
                                 binding  defaults  to  the command character typed twice, unless
                                 overridden.  For instance, if you use the  option  "-e]x",  this
                                 command becomes "]]".

       C-a a       (meta)        Send the command character (C-a) to window. See escape command.

       C-a A       (title)       Allow the user to enter a name for the current window.

       C-a b
       C-a C-b     (break)       Send a break to window.

       C-a B       (pow_break)   Reopen the terminal line and send a break.

       C-a c
       C-a C-c     (screen)      Create a new window with a shell and switch to that window.

       C-a C       (clear)       Clear the screen.

       C-a d
       C-a C-d     (detach)      Detach screen from this terminal.

       C-a D D     (pow_detach)  Detach and logout.

       C-a f
       C-a C-f     (flow)        Toggle flow on, off or auto.

       C-a F       (fit)         Resize the window to the current region size.

       C-a C-g     (vbell)       Toggles screen's visual bell mode.

       C-a h       (hardcopy)    Write a hardcopy of the current window to the file "hardcopy.n".

       C-a H       (log)         Begins/ends   logging   of   the  current  window  to  the  file

       C-a i
       C-a C-i     (info)        Show info about this window.

       C-a k
       C-a C-k     (kill)        Destroy current window.

       C-a l
       C-a C-l     (redisplay)   Fully refresh current window.

       C-a L       (login)       Toggle this windows login slot.  Available  only  if  screen  is
                                 configured to update the utmp database.

       C-a m
       C-a C-m     (lastmsg)     Repeat the last message displayed in the message line.

       C-a M       (monitor)     Toggles monitoring of the current window.

       C-a space
       C-a n
       C-a C-n     (next)        Switch to the next window.

       C-a N       (number)      Show the number (and title) of the current window.

       C-a backspace
       C-a C-h
       C-a p
       C-a C-p     (prev)        Switch to the previous window (opposite of C-a n).

       C-a q
       C-a C-q     (xon)         Send a control-q to the current window.

       C-a Q       (only)        Delete all regions but the current one.  See also split, remove,

       C-a r
       C-a C-r     (wrap)        Toggle the current window's line-wrap setting (turn the  current
                                 window's automatic margins on and off).

       C-a s
       C-a C-s     (xoff)        Send a control-s to the current window.

       C-a S       (split)       Split  the  current  region horizontally into two new ones.  See
                                 also only, remove, focus.

       C-a t
       C-a C-t     (time)        Show system information.

       C-a v       (version)     Display the version and compilation date.

       C-a C-v     (digraph)     Enter digraph.

       C-a w
       C-a C-w     (windows)     Show a list of window.

       C-a W       (width)       Toggle 80/132 columns.

       C-a x
       C-a C-x     (lockscreen)  Lock this terminal.

       C-a X       (remove)      Kill the current region.  See also split, only, focus.

       C-a z
       C-a C-z     (suspend)     Suspend screen.  Your system must support BSD-style job-control.

       C-a Z       (reset)       Reset the virtual terminal to its "power-on" values.

       C-a .       (dumptermcap) Write out a ".termcap" file.

       C-a ?       (help)        Show key bindings.

       C-a \       (quit)        Kill all windows and terminate screen.

       C-a :       (colon)       Enter command line mode.

       C-a [
       C-a C-[
       C-a esc     (copy)        Enter copy/scrollback mode.

       C-a C-]
       C-a ]       (paste .)     Write the contents of the paste buffer to the stdin queue of the
                                 current window.

       C-a {
       C-a }       (history)     Copy and paste a previous (command) line.

       C-a >       (writebuf)    Write paste buffer to a file.

       C-a <       (readbuf)     Reads the screen-exchange file into the paste buffer.

       C-a =       (removebuf)   Removes the file used by C-a < and C-a >.

       C-a ,       (license)     Shows  where screen comes from, where it went to and why you can
                                 use it.

       C-a _       (silence)     Start/stop monitoring the current window for inactivity.

       C-a |       (split -v)    Split the current region vertically into two new ones.

       C-a *       (displays)    Show a listing of all currently attached displays.


       The "socket directory" defaults either to  $HOME/.screen  or  simply  to  /tmp/screens  or
       preferably  to /var/run/screen chosen at compile-time. If screen is installed setuid-root,
       then the administrator should compile screen with an adequate  (not  NFS  mounted)  socket
       directory.  If  screen  is  not  running  setuid-root,  the  user can specify any mode 700
       directory in the environment variable $SCREENDIR.

       When screen is invoked, it executes initialization commands from the files "/etc/screenrc"
       and  ".screenrc"  in the user's home directory. These are the "programmer's defaults" that
       can be overridden in the following ways: for the global screenrc file screen searches  for
       the  environment  variable $SYSSCREENRC (this override feature may be disabled at compile-
       time). The user specific screenrc file is searched  in  $SCREENRC,  then  $HOME/.screenrc.
       The command line option -c takes precedence over the above user screenrc files.

       Commands  in  these  files  are  used  to  set  options,  bind  functions  to keys, and to
       automatically establish one or more windows at  the  beginning  of  your  screen  session.
       Commands  are  listed one per line, with empty lines being ignored.  A command's arguments
       are separated by tabs or spaces, and may be surrounded by single or double quotes.  A  `#'
       turns  the  rest  of  the line into a comment, except in quotes.  Unintelligible lines are
       warned about and ignored.  Commands may contain references to environment  variables.  The
       syntax  is  the shell-like "$VAR " or "${VAR}". Note that this causes incompatibility with
       previous screen versions, as now the '$'-character has to be  protected  with  '\'  if  no
       variable substitution shall be performed. A string in single-quotes is also protected from
       variable substitution.

       Two  configuration  files  are  shipped  as  examples  with  your   screen   distribution:
       "etc/screenrc" and "etc/etcscreenrc". They contain a number of useful examples for various

       Customization can also be done 'on-line'. To enter the command mode  type  `C-a  :'.  Note
       that  commands  starting  with  "def"  change  default values, while others change current

       The following commands are available:

       acladd usernames [crypted-pw]
       addacl usernames

       Enable users to fully access this screen session. Usernames can be one  user  or  a  comma
       separated list of users. This command enables to attach to the screen session and performs
       the equivalent of `aclchg usernames +rwx "#?"'.  executed. To add a user  with  restricted
       access,  use  the `aclchg' command below.  If an optional second parameter is supplied, it
       should be a crypted password for the named user(s). `Addacl' is  a  synonym  to  `acladd'.
       Multi user mode only.

       aclchg usernames permbits list
       chacl usernames permbits list

       Change permissions for a comma separated list of users. Permission bits are represented as
       `r', `w' and `x'. Prefixing `+' grants the permission, `-' removes it. The third parameter
       is  a  comma  separated  list  of  commands  and/or windows (specified either by number or
       title). The special list `#' refers to all windows, `?'  to  all  commands.  if  usernames
       consists  of  a  single `*', all known users are affected.  A command can be executed when
       the user has the `x' bit for it.  The user can type input to a window when he has its  `w'
       bit  set  and no other user obtains a writelock for this window.  Other bits are currently
       ignored.  To withdraw the writelock from another user in window 2: `aclchg  username  -w+w
       2'.   To  allow  read-only  access  to the session: `aclchg username -w "#"'. As soon as a
       user's name is known to screen he can attach to the session and  (per  default)  has  full
       permissions  for  all command and windows. Execution permission for the acl commands, `at'
       and others should also be removed or the user may be  able  to  regain  write  permission.
       Rights  of  the special username nobody cannot be changed (see the "su" command).  `Chacl'
       is a synonym to `aclchg'.  Multi user mode only.

       acldel username

       Remove a user from screen's access control list. If currently  attached,  all  the  user's
       displays are detached from the session. He cannot attach again.  Multi user mode only.

       aclgrp username [groupname]

       Creates  groups  of  users  that  share common access rights. The name of the group is the
       username of the group leader. Each member of the group inherits the permissions  that  are
       granted to the group leader. That means, if a user fails an access check, another check is
       made for the group leader.  A user is removed from all groups the special value "none"  is
       used  for  groupname.   If  the  second parameter is omitted all groups the user is in are

       aclumask [[users]+bits |[users]-bits …. ]
       umask [[users]+bits |[users]-bits …. ]

       This specifies the access other users have to windows that will be created by  the  caller
       of  the command.  Users may be no, one or a comma separated list of known usernames. If no
       users are specified, a list of  all  currently  known  users  is  assumed.   Bits  is  any
       combination  of access control bits allowed defined with the "aclchg" command. The special
       username "?" predefines the access that not yet known users will be granted to any  window
       initially.   The  special username "??" predefines the access that not yet known users are
       granted to any command.  Rights of the special username nobody cannot be changed (see  the
       "su" command).  `Umask' is a synonym to `aclumask'.

       activity message

       When any activity occurs in a background window that is being monitored, screen displays a
       notification in the message line.  The notification message can be re-defined by means  of
       the  "activity"  command.   Each occurrence of `%' in message is replaced by the number of
       the window in which activity has occurred, and each occurrence of `^G' is replaced by  the
       definition for bell in your termcap (usually an audible bell).  The default message is

                   'Activity in window %n'

       Note  that  monitoring is off for all windows by default, but can be altered by use of the
       "monitor" command (C-a M).

       allpartial on|off

       If set to on, only the current cursor line is refreshed on window  change.   This  affects
       all  windows  and  is useful for slow terminal lines. The previous setting of full/partial
       refresh for each window is restored with "allpartial off".  This is  a  global  flag  that
       immediately  takes  effect  on  all windows overriding the "partial" settings. It does not
       change the default redraw behavior of newly created windows.

       altscreen on|off

       If set to on, "alternate screen" support is enabled in virtual  terminals,  just  like  in
       xterm.  Initial setting is `off'.

       at [identifier][#|*|%] command [args … ]

       Execute  a  command  at  other  displays or windows as if it had been entered there.  "At"
       changes the context (the `current window' or `current display' setting) of the command. If
       the  first parameter describes a non-unique context, the command will be executed multiple
       times. If the first parameter is of the form  `identifier*'  then  identifier  is  matched
       against  user  names.   The  command  is  executed  once  for each display of the selected
       user(s). If the first parameter is of the form `identifier%' identifier is matched against
       displays.  Displays are named after the ttys they attach. The prefix `/dev/' or `/dev/tty'
       may be omitted from the identifier.  If identifier has a `#' or  nothing  appended  it  is
       matched against window numbers and titles. Omitting an identifier in front of the `#', `*'
       or `%'-character selects  all  users,  displays  or  windows  because  a  prefix-match  is
       performed.  Note  that  on  the  affected  display(s)  a  short message will describe what
       happened. Permission is checked for initiator of the "at" command, not for the  owners  of
       the  affected  display(s).  Note that the '#' character works as a comment introducer when
       it is preceded by whitespace. This can be escaped  by  prefixing  a  '\'.   Permission  is
       checked  for  the  initiator  of  the  "at"  command,  not  for the owners of the affected
       Caveat: When matching against windows, the command is executed at least once  per  window.
       Commands  that  change  the  internal  arrangement of windows (like "other") may be called
       again. In shared windows the command will be repeated for each attached  display.  Beware,
       when  issuing toggle commands like "login"!  Some commands (e.g. "process") require that a
       display is associated with the target windows.  These  commands  may  not  work  correctly
       under "at" looping over windows.

       attrcolor attrib [attribute/color-modifier]

       This command can be used to highlight attributes by changing the color of the text. If the
       attribute attrib is in use, the specified attribute/color modifier is also applied. If  no
       modifier  is  given,  the current one is deleted. See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter for the
       syntax of the modifier. Screen understands two pseudo-attributes,  "i"  stands  for  high-
       intensity foreground color and "I" for high-intensity background color.


              attrcolor b "R"

       Change the color to bright red if bold text is to be printed.

              attrcolor u "-u b"

       Use blue text instead of underline.

              attrcolor b ".I"

       Use bright colors for bold text. Most terminal emulators do this already.

              attrcolor i "+b"

       Make bright colored text also bold.

       autodetach on|off

       Sets  whether  screen  will automatically detach upon hangup, which saves all your running
       programs until they are resumed with a screen -r  command.   When  turned  off,  a  hangup
       signal  will  terminate  screen  and  all  the  processes it contains. Autodetach is on by

       autonuke on|off

       Sets whether a clear screen sequence should nuke all the output that has not been  written
       to the terminal. See also "obuflimit".

       backtick id lifespan autorefresh cmd args…
       backtick id

       Program  the  backtick  command with the numerical id id.  The output of such a command is
       used for substitution of the "%`" string escape. The specified lifespan is the  number  of
       seconds  the  output  is  considered valid. After this time, the command is run again if a
       corresponding string  escape  is  encountered.   The  autorefresh  parameter  triggers  an
       automatic  refresh  for  caption  and  hardstatus  strings  after  the specified number of
       seconds. Only the last line of output is used for substitution.
       If both the lifespan and the autorefresh parameters are  zero,  the  backtick  program  is
       expected to stay in the background and generate output once in a while.  In this case, the
       command is executed right away and screen stores the last line of output. If  a  new  line
       gets printed screen will automatically refresh the hardstatus or the captions.
       The second form of the command deletes the backtick command with the numerical id id.

       bce [on|off]

       Change background-color-erase setting. If "bce" is set to on, all characters cleared by an
       erase/insert/scroll/clear operation will be displayed in  the  current  background  color.
       Otherwise the default background color is used.

       bell_msg [message]

       When  a  bell  character is sent to a background window, screen displays a notification in
       the message line.  The notification message can  be  re-defined  by  this  command.   Each
       occurrence  of  `%' in message is replaced by the number of the window to which a bell has
       been sent, and each occurrence of `^G' is replaced by the  definition  for  bell  in  your
       termcap (usually an audible bell).  The default message is

                   'Bell in window %n'

       An empty message can be supplied to the "bell_msg" command to suppress output of a message
       line (bell_msg "").  Without parameter, the current message is shown.

       bind [-c class] key [command [args]]

       Bind a command to a key.  By default, most of the commands provided by screen are bound to
       one  or  more keys as indicated in the "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS" section, e.g. the command to
       create a new window is bound to "C-c" and "c".  The "bind" command can be used to redefine
       the  key  bindings  and  to  define  new  bindings.   The  key argument is either a single
       character, a two-character sequence of the form "^x" (meaning "C-x"), a backslash followed
       by  an  octal number (specifying the ASCII code of the character), or a backslash followed
       by a second character, such as "\^" or "\\".  The argument can  also  be  quoted,  if  you
       like.  If no further argument is given, any previously established binding for this key is
       removed.  The command argument can be any command listed in this section.

       If a command class is specified via the "-c" option, the key is bound  for  the  specified
       class.  Use  the  "command"  command  to  activate a class. Command classes can be used to
       create multiple command keys or multi-character bindings.

       Some examples:

                   bind ' ' windows
                   bind ^k
                   bind k
                   bind K kill
                   bind ^f screen telnet foobar
                   bind \033 screen -ln -t root -h 1000 9 su

       would bind the space key to the command that displays a  list  of  windows  (so  that  the
       command  usually  invoked  by  "C-a C-w" would also be available as "C-a space"). The next
       three lines remove the default kill binding from "C-a C-k" and "C-a k".  "C-a K"  is  then
       bound  to  the  kill  command.  Then it binds "C-f" to the command "create a window with a
       TELNET connection to foobar", and bind "escape" to the command that creates  an  non-login
       window  with  a.k.a.  "root" in slot #9, with a superuser shell and a scrollback buffer of
       1000 lines.

                   bind -c demo1 0 select 10
                   bind -c demo1 1 select 11
                   bind -c demo1 2 select 12
                   bindkey "^B" command -c demo1

       makes "C-b 0" select window 10, "C-b 1" window 11, etc.

                   bind -c demo2 0 select 10
                   bind -c demo2 1 select 11
                   bind -c demo2 2 select 12
                   bind - command -c demo2

       makes "C-a - 0" select window 10, "C-a - 1" window 11, etc.

       bindkey [-d] [-m] [-a] [[-k|-t] string [cmd args]]

       This command manages screen's input translation tables. Every entry in one of  the  tables
       tells  screen  how  to react if a certain sequence of characters is encountered. There are
       three tables: one that should contain actions programmed by the user, one for the  default
       actions  used for terminal emulation and one for screen's copy mode to do cursor movement.
       See section "INPUT TRANSLATION" for a list of default key bindings.
       If the -d option is given, bindkey modifies the default table, -m changes  the  copy  mode
       table  and  with  neither  option  the user table is selected.  The argument string is the
       sequence of characters to which an action is bound. This can either be a fixed string or a
       termcap keyboard capability name (selectable with the -k option).
       Some keys on a VT100 terminal can send a different string if application mode is turned on
       (e.g the cursor keys).  Such keys have two entries  in  the  translation  table.  You  can
       select the application mode entry by specifying the -a option.
       The  -t  option  tells  screen  not  to do inter-character timing. One cannot turn off the
       timing if a termcap capability is used.
       Cmd can be any of screen's commands with an arbitrary number of args.  If cmd  is  omitted
       the key-binding is removed from the table.
       Here are some examples of keyboard bindings:

               bindkey -d
       Show all of the default key bindings. The application mode entries are marked with [A].

               bindkey -k k1 select 1
       Make the "F1" key switch to window one.

               bindkey -t foo stuff barfoo
       Make  "foo"  an  abbreviation  of the word "barfoo". Timeout is disabled so that users can
       type slowly.

               bindkey "\024" mapdefault
       This key-binding makes "^T" an escape character for key-bindings. If  you  did  the  above
       "stuff  barfoo"  binding,  you  can enter the word "foo" by typing "^Tfoo". If you want to
       insert a "^T" you have to press the key twice (i.e., escape the escape binding).

               bindkey -k F1 command
       Make the F11 (not F1!) key an alternative screen escape (besides ^A).

       break [duration]

       Send a break signal for duration*0.25 seconds to this window.  For non-Posix  systems  the
       time  interval  may  be  rounded up to full seconds.  Most useful if a character device is
       attached to the window rather than a shell process (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES").  The
       maximum duration of a break signal is limited to 15 seconds.


       Activate  the  screen  blanker.  First  the  screen  is  cleared. If no blanker program is
       defined, the cursor is turned off, otherwise, the program is started and  it's  output  is
       written to the screen.  The screen blanker is killed with the first keypress, the read key
       is discarded.
       This command is normally used together with the "idle" command.

       blankerprg [program args]

       Defines a blanker program. Disables the blanker program if an  empty  argument  is  given.
       Shows the currently set blanker program if no arguments are given.

       breaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK |TCSBRK]

       Choose  one  of  the  available methods of generating a break signal for terminal devices.
       This command should affect the current window only.  But it  still  behaves  identical  to
       "defbreaktype". This will be changed in the future.  Calling "breaktype" with no parameter
       displays the break method for the current window.

       bufferfile [exchange-file]

       Change the filename used for reading and writing with the paste buffer.  If  the  optional
       argument    to    the    "bufferfile"    command   is   omitted,   the   default   setting
       ("/tmp/screen-exchange") is reactivated.  The following example will  paste  the  system's
       password file into the screen window (using the paste buffer, where a copy remains):

                   C-a : bufferfile /etc/passwd
                   C-a < C-a ]
                   C-a : bufferfile


       Swaps window with previous one on window list.


       Swaps window with next one on window list.

       c1 [on|off]

       Change  c1 code processing. "C1 on" tells screen to treat the input characters between 128
       and 159 as control functions.  Such an 8-bit code is normally the same as ESC followed  by
       the  corresponding  7-bit  code.  The  default  setting  is to process c1 codes and can be
       changed with the "defc1" command.  Users with fonts that have usable characters in the  c1
       positions may want to turn this off.

       caption always|splitonly [string]
       caption string [string]

       This  command controls the display of the window captions. Normally a caption is only used
       if more than one window is shown on the display (split screen mode). But if  the  type  is
       set  to always screen shows a caption even if only one window is displayed. The default is

       The second form changes the text used for the caption. You can use all  escapes  from  the
       "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. Screen uses a default of `%3n %t'.

       You can mix both forms by providing a string as an additional argument.

       charset set

       Change  the  current  character  set slot designation and charset mapping.  The first four
       character of set are treated as charset designators while the fifth  and  sixth  character
       must be in range '0' to '3' and set the GL/GR charset mapping. On every position a '.' may
       be used to indicate that the corresponding charset/mapping should not be changed  (set  is
       padded to six characters internally by appending '.'  chars). New windows have "BBBB02" as
       default charset, unless a "encoding" command is active.
       The current setting can be viewed with the "info" command.

       chdir [directory]

       Change the current directory of screen to the specified directory or, if called without an
       argument,  to  your  home  directory  (the  value of the environment variable $HOME).  All
       windows that are created by means of the "screen" command from within  ".screenrc"  or  by
       means of "C-a : screen …" or "C-a c" use this as their default directory.  Without a chdir
       command, this would be the directory from which screen  was  invoked.   Hardcopy  and  log
       files  are  always written to the window's default directory, not the current directory of
       the process running in the window.  You can  use  this  command  multiple  times  in  your
       .screenrc  to  start  various windows in different default directories, but the last chdir
       value will affect all the windows you create interactively.

       cjkwidth [ on | off ]

       Treat ambiguous width characters as full/half width.


       Clears the current window and saves its image to the scrollback buffer.


       Reorders window on window list, removing number gaps between them.

       colon [prefix]

       Allows you to enter ".screenrc" command lines. Useful for on-the-fly modification  of  key
       bindings,  specific  window creation and changing settings. Note that the "set" keyword no
       longer exists! Usually commands affect the current window rather than default settings for
       future windows. Change defaults with commands starting with 'def…'.

       If  you  consider  this as the `Ex command mode' of screen, you may regard "C-a esc" (copy
       mode) as its `Vi command mode'.

       command [-c class]

       This command has the same effect as  typing  the  screen  escape  character  (^A).  It  is
       probably  only useful for key bindings.  If the "-c" option is given, select the specified
       command class.  See also "bind" and "bindkey".

       compacthist [on|off]

       This tells screen whether to suppress trailing blank lines when scrolling up text into the
       history buffer.

       console [on|off]

       Grabs  or  un-grabs  the  machines  console  output  to a window.  Note: Only the owner of
       /dev/console can grab the console output.  This command is only available if  the  machine
       supports the ioctl TIOCCONS.


       Enter  copy/scrollback  mode. This allows you to copy text from the current window and its
       history into the paste buffer. In this mode a vi-like `full screen editor' is active:
       Movement keys:
         h, C-h, or left arrow move the cursor left.
         j, C-n, or down arrow move the cursor down.
         k, C-p, or up arrow move the cursor up.
         l ('el') or right arrow move the cursor right.
         0 (zero) or C-a move to the leftmost column.
         + and - positions one line up and down.
         H, M and L move the cursor to the leftmost column of the top, center or bottom  line  of
           the window.
         | moves to the specified absolute column.
         g or home moves to the beginning of the buffer.
         G or end moves to the specified absolute line (default: end of buffer).
         % jumps to the specified percentage of the buffer.
         ^ or $ move to the leftmost column, to the first or last non-whitespace character on the
         w, b, and e move the cursor word by word.
         B, E move the cursor WORD by WORD (as in vi).
         f/F, t/T move the cursor forward/backward to the next  occurence  of  the  target.  (eg,
           '3fy' will move the cursor to the 3rd 'y' to the right.)
         ; and , Repeat the last f/F/t/T command in the same/opposite direction.
         C-e and C-y scroll the display up/down by one line while preserving the cursor position.
         C-u and C-d scroll the display up/down by the specified amount of lines while preserving
           the cursor position. (Default: half screen-full).
         C-b and C-f scroll the display up/down a full screen.

           Emacs style movement keys can be customized by a .screenrc  command.   (E.g.  markkeys
           "h=^B:l=^F:$=^E")  There  is  no  simple method for a full emacs-style keymap, as this
           involves multi-character codes.

           The copy range is specified by setting two marks. The text between these marks will be
           highlighted. Press:
         space  or  enter  to  set the first or second mark respectively. If mousetrack is set to
           `on', marks can also be set using left mouse click.
         Y and y used to mark one whole line or to mark from start of line.
         W marks exactly one word.
       Repeat count:
           Any of these commands can be prefixed with a repeat count number by pressing digits
         0..9 which is taken as a repeat count.
           Example: "C-a C-[ H 10 j 5 Y" will copy lines 11 to 15 into the paste buffer.
         / Vi-like search forward.
         ? Vi-like search backward.
         C-a s Emacs style incremental search forward.
         C-r Emacs style reverse i-search.
         n Find next search pattern.
         N Find previous search pattern.
           There are however some keys that act differently than in vi.  Vi does not allow one to
           yank rectangular blocks of text, but screen does. Press:
         c  or  C to set the left or right margin respectively. If no repeat count is given, both
           default to the current cursor position.
           Example: Try this on a rather full text screen: "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE  c  10  l  5  j  C

           This  moves  one to the middle line of the screen, moves in 20 columns left, marks the
           beginning of the paste buffer, sets the left column, moves 5 columns  down,  sets  the
           right column, and then marks the end of the paste buffer. Now try:
           "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE 10 l 5 j SPACE"

           and notice the difference in the amount of text copied.
         J joins lines. It toggles between 4 modes: lines separated by a newline character (012),
           lines glued seamless, lines separated by  a  single  whitespace  and  comma  separated
           lines.  Note  that  you  can  prepend  the  newline  character  with a carriage return
           character, by issuing a "crlf on".
         v or V is for all the vi users with ":set numbers" - it toggles the left margin  between
           column 9 and 1. Press
         a  before  the  final space key to toggle in append mode. Thus the contents of the paste
           buffer will not be overwritten, but is appended to.
         A toggles in append mode and sets a (second) mark.
         > sets the (second) mark and writes the contents of the  paste  buffer  to  the  screen-
           exchange file (/tmp/screen-exchange per default) once copy-mode is finished.
           This example demonstrates how to dump the whole scrollback buffer to that file: "C-A [
           g SPACE G $ >".
         C-g gives information about the current line and column.
         x or o exchanges the first mark and the current cursor position. You  can  use  this  to
           adjust an already placed mark.
         C-l ('el') will redraw the screen.
         @ does nothing. Does not even exit copy mode.
         All keys not described here exit copy mode.

       copy_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "readreg" instead.

       crlf [on|off]

       This  affects  the copying of text regions with the `C-a [' command. If it is set to `on',
       lines will be separated by the two character sequence `CR' -  `LF'.   Otherwise  (default)
       only `LF' is used.  When no parameter is given, the state is toggled.

       debug on|off

       Turns  runtime  debugging  on  or  off.  If  screen  has been compiled with option -DDEBUG
       debugging available and is turned on per default. Note  that  this  command  only  affects
       debugging  output  from  the  main  "SCREEN" process correctly. Debug output from attacher
       processes can only be turned off once and forever.

       defc1 on|off

       Same as the c1 command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. Initial
       setting is `on'.

       defautonuke on|off

       Same  as the autonuke command except that the default setting for new displays is changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.  Note that you can use the special `AN' terminal  capability  if
       you want to have a dependency on the terminal type.

       defbce on|off

       Same  as  the  bce  command  except  that  the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.

       defbreaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK |TCSBRK]

       Choose one of the available methods of generating a break signal for terminal devices. The
       preferred  methods  are  tcsendbreak and TIOCSBRK.  The third, TCSBRK, blocks the complete
       screen session for the duration of the break, but it may be the only way to generate  long
       breaks.   Tcsendbreak  and TIOCSBRK may or may not produce long breaks with spikes (e.g. 4
       per second). This is not only system-dependent, this also  differs  between  serial  board
       drivers.  Calling "defbreaktype" with no parameter displays the current setting.

       defcharset [set]

       Like the charset command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. Shows
       current default if called without argument.

       defescape xy

       Set the default command characters. This is equivalent to the "escape" except that  it  is
       useful  multiuser  sessions  only.  In  a  multiuser  session "escape" changes the command
       character of the calling user, where "defescape" changes the  default  command  characters
       for users that will be added later.

       defflow on|off|auto [interrupt]

       Same  as  the  flow  command  except  that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initial setting is `auto'.  Specifying  "defflow  auto  interrupt"  is  the  same  as  the
       command-line options -fa and -i.

       defgr on|off

       Same as the gr command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. Initial
       setting is `off'.

       defhstatus [status]

       The hardstatus line that all new windows will get is  set  to  status.   This  command  is
       useful  to  make  the hardstatus of every window display the window number or title or the
       like.  Status may contain the same directives as in the window messages, but the directive
       escape  character  is  '^E'  (octal  005)  instead  of  '%'.   This  was  done  to  make a
       misinterpretation of program generated hardstatus  lines  impossible.   If  the  parameter
       status  is  omitted,  the current default string is displayed.  Per default the hardstatus
       line of new windows is empty.

       defencoding enc

       Same as the encoding command except that the default setting for new windows  is  changed.
       Initial setting is the encoding taken from the terminal.

       deflog on|off

       Same  as  the  log  command  except  that  the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.

       deflogin on|off

       Same as the login command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. This
       is initialized with `on' as distributed (see

       defmode mode

       The  mode  of  each  newly  allocated pseudo-tty is set to mode.  Mode is an octal number.
       When no "defmode" command is given, mode 0622 is used.

       defmonitor on|off

       Same as the monitor command except that the default setting for new  windows  is  changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.

       defmousetrack on|off

       Same as the mousetrack command except that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.

       defnonblock on|off|numsecs

       Same as the nonblock command except that the default  setting  for  displays  is  changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.

       defobuflimit limit

       Same as the obuflimit command except that the default setting for new displays is changed.
       Initial setting is 256 bytes.  Note that you can use the special 'OL' terminal  capability
       if you want to have a dependency on the terminal type.

       defscrollback num

       Same as the scrollback command except that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initial setting is 100.

       defshell command

       Synonym to the shell .screenrc command. See there.

       defsilence on|off

       Same as the silence command except that the default setting for new  windows  is  changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.

       defslowpaste msec"

       Same  as the slowpaste command except that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initial setting is 0 milliseconds, meaning `off'.

       defutf8 on|off

       Same as the utf8 command except that the default  setting  for  new  windows  is  changed.
       Initial setting is `on' if screen was started with "-U", otherwise `off'.

       defwrap on|off

       Same  as  the  wrap  command  except  that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initially line-wrap is on and can be toggled with the "wrap" command ("C-a r") or by means
       of "C-a : wrap on|off".

       defwritelock on|off|auto

       Same  as the writelock command except that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initially writelocks will off.

       defzombie [keys]

       Synonym to the zombie command. Both currently change the default.  See there.

       detach [-h]

       Detach the  screen  session  (disconnect  it  from  the  terminal  and  put  it  into  the
       background).   This  returns you to the shell where you invoked screen.  A detached screen
       can be resumed by invoking screen with the  -r  option  (see  also  section  "COMMAND-LINE
       OPTIONS").  The -h option tells screen to immediately close the connection to the terminal


       Show what screen thinks about your terminal. Useful if you want to know why features  like
       color or the alternate charset don't work.


       Shows  a  tabular  listing of all currently connected user front-ends (displays).  This is
       most useful for multiuser sessions.  The following keys can be used in displays list:
         k, C-p, or up Move up one line.
         j, C-n, or down Move down one line.
         C-a or home Move to the first line.
         C-e or end Move to the last line.
         C-u or C-d Move one half page up or down.
         C-b or C-f Move one full page up or down.
         mouseclick Move to the selected line. Available when "mousetrack" is set to on.
         space Refresh the list
         d Detach that display
         D Power detach that display
         C-g, enter, or escape Exit the list

       The following is an example of what "displays" could look like:

              xterm 80x42 jnweiger@/dev/ttyp4     0(m11)   &rWx
              facit 80x24 mlschroe@/dev/ttyhf nb 11(tcsh)   rwx
              xterm 80x42 jnhollma@/dev/ttyp5     0(m11)   &R.x
               (A)   (B)     (C)     (D)     (E) (F)(G)   (H)(I)

       The legend is as follows:
       (A) The terminal type known by screen for this display.
       (B) Displays geometry as width x height.
       (C) Username who is logged in at the display.
       (D) Device name of the display or the attached device
       (E) Display is in blocking or nonblocking mode. The available modes are "nb", "NB",  "Z<",
       "Z>", and "BL".
       (F) Number of the window
       (G) Name/title of window
       (H) Whether the window is shared
       (I) Window permissions. Made up of three characters:
             (1st character)
                ‘-’ : no read
                ‘r’ : read
                ‘R’ : read only due to foreign wlock
             (2nd character)
                ‘-’ : no write
                ‘.’ : write suppressed by foreign wlock
                ‘w’ : write
                ‘W’ : own wlock
             (3rd character)
                ‘-’ : no execute
                ‘x’ : execute

       "Displays"  needs  a  region  size of at least 10 characters wide and 5 characters high in
       order to display.

       digraph [preset[unicode-value]]

       This command prompts the user for a digraph sequence. The next two  characters  typed  are
       looked  up in a builtin table and the resulting character is inserted in the input stream.
       For example, if the user enters 'a"', an a-umlaut will be inserted. If the first character
       entered  is  a  0  (zero),  screen will treat the following characters (up to three) as an
       octal number instead.  The optional argument preset is treated as user input, thus one can
       create an "umlaut" key.  For example the command "bindkey ^K digraph '"'" enables the user
       to generate an a-umlaut by typing CTRL-K a.  When a non-zero unicode-value is specified, a
       new  digraph is created with the specified preset. The digraph is unset if a zero value is
       provided for the unicode-value.


       Write the termcap entry for the virtual terminal optimized for the currently active window
       to  the file ".termcap" in the user's "$HOME/.screen" directory (or wherever screen stores
       its sockets. See the "FILES" section below).  This termcap entry is identical to the value
       of  the  environment  variable  $TERMCAP  that  is  set  up by screen for each window. For
       terminfo based systems you will need to run a converter like captoinfo  and  then  compile
       the entry with tic.

       echo [-n] message

       The  echo command may be used to annoy screen users with a 'message of the day'. Typically
       installed in a global /etc/screenrc.  The option "-n" may be used  to  suppress  the  line
       feed.   See  also  "sleep".   Echo  is  also  useful  for  online  checking of environment

       encoding enc [enc]

       Tell screen how to interpret the input/output. The first argument sets the encoding of the
       current  window.  Each  window  can  emulate  a  different  encoding.  The optional second
       parameter overwrites the encoding of the connected terminal. It should never be needed  as
       screen  uses  the  locale setting to detect the encoding.  There is also a way to select a
       terminal encoding depending on the terminal type by using the "KJ" termcap entry.

       Supported encodings are eucJP, SJIS, eucKR,  eucCN,  Big5,  GBK,  KOI8-R,  CP1251,  UTF-8,
       ISO8859-2,  ISO8859-3,  ISO8859-4,  ISO8859-5, ISO8859-6, ISO8859-7, ISO8859-8, ISO8859-9,
       ISO8859-10, ISO8859-15, jis.

       See also "defencoding", which changes the default setting of a new window.

       escape xy

       Set the command character to x and the character generating a  literal  command  character
       (by  triggering  the  "meta"  command)  to y (similar to the -e option).  Each argument is
       either a single character, a two-character sequence of the form "^x"  (meaning  "C-x"),  a
       backslash  followed  by an octal number (specifying the ASCII code of the character), or a
       backslash followed by a second character, such as "\^" or "\\".  The default is "^Aa".

       eval command1 [command2 ]

       Parses and executes each argument as separate command.

       exec [[fdpat] newcommand [args ]]

       Run a unix subprocess (specified  by  an  executable  path  newcommand  and  its  optional
       arguments)   in   the   current   window.   The   flow   of   data   between   newcommands
       stdin/stdout/stderr, the process  originally  started  in  the  window  (let  us  call  it
       "application-process")  and  screen  itself  (window) is controlled by the file descriptor
       pattern fdpat.  This pattern is basically a three character sequence  representing  stdin,
       stdout  and  stderr  of  newcommand. A dot (.) connects the file descriptor to screen.  An
       exclamation mark (!) causes the file  descriptor  to  be  connected  to  the  application-
       process.  A  colon  (:) combines both.  User input will go to newcommand unless newcommand
       receives the application-process' output (fdpats first character is `!' or `:') or a  pipe
       symbol (|) is added (as a fourth character) to the end of fdpat.
       Invoking  `exec'  without  arguments  shows  name  and  arguments of the currently running
       subprocess in this window. Only one subprocess a time can be running in each window.
       When a subprocess is running the `kill' command will affect  it  instead  of  the  windows
       Refer  to  the  postscript  file  `doc/'  for  a  confusing illustration of all 21
       possible combinations. Each drawing shows the digits 2,1,0  representing  the  three  file
       descriptors  of  newcommand. The box marked `W' is the usual pty that has the application-
       process on its slave side.  The box marked `P' is the secondary pty that now has screen at
       its master side.

       Whitespace between the word `exec' and fdpat and the command can be omitted. Trailing dots
       and a fdpat consisting only of dots can be omitted. A simple `|'  is  synonymous  for  the
       pattern `!..|'; the word exec can be omitted here and can always be replaced by `!'.


              exec … /bin/sh
              exec /bin/sh

       Creates  another  shell  in  the  same  window, while the original shell is still running.
       Output of both shells is displayed and user input is sent to the new /bin/sh.

              exec !.. stty 19200
              exec ! stty 19200
              !!stty 19200

       Set the speed of the window's tty. If your stty  command  operates  on  stdout,  then  add
       another `!'.

              exec !..| less

       This  adds  a  pager to the window output. The special character `|' is needed to give the
       user control over the pager although it gets its input from  the  window's  process.  This
       works, because less listens on stderr (a behavior that screen would not expect without the
       `|') when its stdin is not a tty.  Less versions newer than 177 fail miserably here;  good
       old pg still works.

              !:sed -n s/.*Error.*/\007/p

       Sends  window  output to both, the user and the sed command. The sed inserts an additional
       bell character (oct. 007) to the window output seen by screen.  This will cause  "Bell  in
       window x" messages, whenever the string "Error" appears in the window.


       Change  the  window size to the size of the current region. This command is needed because
       screen doesn't adapt the window size automatically if the window is  displayed  more  than

       flow [on|off|auto]

       Sets  the  flow-control  mode  for  this window.  Without parameters it cycles the current
       window's flow-control setting from "automatic" to "on" to "off".  See  the  discussion  on
       "FLOW-CONTROL"  later  on in this document for full details and note, that this is subject
       to change in future releases.  Default is set by `defflow'.

       focus [up|down|top|bottom]

       Move the input focus to the next region. This is done in a cyclic  way  so  that  the  top
       region  is selected after the bottom one. If no subcommand is given it defaults to `down'.
       `up' cycles in the opposite order, `top' and `bottom' go to  the  top  and  bottom  region
       respectively. Useful bindings are (j and k as in vi)
           bind j focus down
           bind k focus up
           bind t focus top
           bind b focus bottom
       Note that k is traditionally bound to the kill command.

       focusminsize [ ( width|max|_ ) ( height|max|_ ) ]

       This  forces  any currently selected region to be automatically resized at least a certain
       width and height. All other surrounding regions will be resized in order  to  accommodate.
       This constraint follows everytime the "focus" command is used. The "resize" command can be
       used to increase either  dimension  of  a  region,  but  never  below  what  is  set  with
       "focusminsize".  The underscore `_' is a synonym for max. Setting a width and height of `0
       0' (zero zero) will undo any constraints and  allow  for  manual  resizing.   Without  any
       parameters, the minimum width and height is shown.

       gr [on|off]

       Turn GR charset switching on/off. Whenever screen sees an input character with the 8th bit
       set, it will use the charset stored in the GR slot and print the character  with  the  8th
       bit  stripped.  The  default  (see  also  "defgr")  is not to process GR switching because
       otherwise the ISO88591 charset would not work.

       group [grouptitle]

       Change or show the group the current window  belongs  to.  Windows  can  be  moved  around
       between  different  groups  by  specifying  the  name  of  the  destination group. Without
       specifying a group, the title of the current group is displayed.

       hardcopy [-h] [file]

       Writes out the currently displayed  image  to  the  file  file,  or,  if  no  filename  is
       specified,  to  hardcopy.n  in the default directory, where n is the number of the current
       window.  This either appends or overwrites the file if  it  exists.  See  below.   If  the
       option -h is specified, dump also the contents of the scrollback buffer.

       hardcopy_append on|off

       If  set  to "on", screen will append to the "hardcopy.n" files created by the command "C-a
       h", otherwise these files are overwritten each time.  Default is `off'.

       hardcopydir directory

       Defines a directory where hardcopy files will be placed. If unset, hardcopys are dumped in
       screen's current working directory.

       hardstatus [on|off]
       hardstatus [always]firstline|lastline|message|ignore [string]
       hardstatus string [string]

       This command configures the use and emulation of the terminal's hardstatus line. The first
       form toggles whether screen will use the hardware status line to display messages. If  the
       flag  is  set  to  `off', these messages are overlaid in reverse video mode at the display
       line. The default setting is `on'.

       The second form tells screen what to do if the terminal doesn't  have  a  hardstatus  line
       (i.e.  the  termcap/terminfo  capabilities  "hs",  "ts", "fs" and "ds" are not set).  When
       "firstline/lastline" is used, screen will reserve the first/last line of the  display  for
       the  hardstatus. "message" uses screen's message mechanism and "ignore" tells screen never
       to display the  hardstatus.   If  you  prepend  the  word  "always"  to  the  type  (e.g.,
       "alwayslastline"), screen will use the type even if the terminal supports a hardstatus.

       The  third  form  specifies  the contents of the hardstatus line.  '%h' is used as default
       string, i.e., the stored hardstatus of the current window (settable via "ESC]0;<string>^G"
       or  "ESC_<string>ESC\")  is  displayed.   You  can  customize  this to any string you like
       including the escapes from the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. If you  leave  out  the  argument
       string, the current string is displayed.

       You can mix the second and third form by providing the string as additional argument.

       height [-w|-d] [lines [cols]]

       Set  the  display  height  to  a  specified  number of lines. When no argument is given it
       toggles between 24 and 42 lines display. You can also specify  a  width  if  you  want  to
       change  both  values.   The -w option tells screen to leave the display size unchanged and
       just set the window size, -d vice versa.

       help [-c class]

       Not really a online help, but displays a help screen showing you  all  the  key  bindings.
       The  first  pages  list  all  the  internal  commands  followed by their current bindings.
       Subsequent pages will display the custom commands, one command per key.  Press space  when
       you're done reading each page, or return to exit early.  All other characters are ignored.
       If the "-c" option is given, display all bound commands for the specified  command  class.
       See also "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS" section.


       Usually users work with a shell that allows easy access to previous commands.  For example
       csh has the command "!!" to repeat the last command executed.  Screen allows you to have a
       primitive  way  of re-calling "the command that started …": You just type the first letter
       of that command, then hit `C-a {' and screen tries to find a previous  line  that  matches
       with  the  `prompt  character'  to  the  left of the cursor. This line is pasted into this
       window's input queue.  Thus you have a crude command  history  (made  up  by  the  visible
       window and its scrollback buffer).

       hstatus status

       Change the window's hardstatus line to the string status.

       idle [timeout [cmd args]]

       Sets  a  command  that is run after the specified number of seconds inactivity is reached.
       This command will normally be the "blanker" command to create a screen blanker, but it can
       be  any screen command.  If no command is specified, only the timeout is set. A timeout of
       zero (or the special timeout off) disables the timer.  If  no  arguments  are  given,  the
       current settings are displayed.

       ignorecase [on|off]

       Tell  screen  to  ignore the case of characters in searches. Default is `off'. Without any
       options, the state of ignorecase is toggled.


       Uses the message line to display some information about the  current  window:  the  cursor
       position  in  the form "(column,row)" starting with "(1,1)", the terminal width and height
       plus the size of the scrollback buffer in lines, like in "(80,24)+50", the  current  state
       of window XON/XOFF flow control is shown like this (See also section FLOW CONTROL):

         +flow     automatic flow control, currently on.
         -flow     automatic flow control, currently off.
         +(+)flow  flow control enabled. Agrees with automatic control.
         -(+)flow  flow control disabled. Disagrees with automatic control.
         +(-)flow  flow control enabled. Disagrees with automatic control.
         -(-)flow  flow control disabled. Agrees with automatic control.

       The  current line wrap setting (`+wrap' indicates enabled, `-wrap' not) is also shown. The
       flags `ins', `org', `app', `log', `mon' or `nored' are displayed when  the  window  is  in
       insert mode, origin mode, application-keypad mode, has output logging, activity monitoring
       or partial redraw enabled.

       The currently active character set (G0, G1, G2, or G3) and in square brackets the terminal
       character  sets  that are currently designated as G0 through G3 is shown. If the window is
       in UTF-8 mode, the string "UTF-8" is shown instead.

       Additional modes depending on the type of the window are  displayed  at  the  end  of  the
       status line (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES").
       If  the state machine of the terminal emulator is in a non-default state, the info line is
       started with a string identifying the current state.
       For system information use the "time" command.

       ins_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "paste" instead.


       Kill current window.
       If there is an `exec' command running then it is killed.  Otherwise  the  process  (shell)
       running  in  the  window  receives a HANGUP condition, the window structure is removed and
       screen (your display) switches to another window.  When  the  last  window  is  destroyed,
       screen exits.  After a kill screen switches to the previously displayed window.
       Note:  Emacs  users  should  keep  this  command  in  mind,  when  killing  a line.  It is
       recommended not to use "C-a" as the screen escape key or to rebind kill to "C-a K".


       Redisplay the last contents of the message/status line.  Useful if you're  typing  when  a
       message appears, because  the message goes away when you press a key (unless your terminal
       has a hardware status line).  Refer to the commands "msgwait" and  "msgminwait"  for  fine

       layout new [title]

       Create  a  new  layout.  The screen will change to one whole region and be switched to the
       blank window. From here, you build the regions and the windows they show  as  you  desire.
       The  new  layout will be numbered with the smallest available integer, starting with zero.
       You can optionally give a title to your new layout.  Otherwise, it  will  have  a  default
       title  of  "layout".  You  can  always  change the title later by using the command layout

       layout remove [n|title]

       Remove, or in other words, delete the specified layout. Either the number or the title can
       be specified. Without either specification, screen will remove the current layout.

       Removing a layout does not affect your set windows or regions.

       layout next

       Switch to the next layout available

       layout prev

       Switch to the previous layout available

       layout select [n|title]

       Select the desired layout. Either the number or the title can be specified. Without either
       specification, screen will prompt and ask which screen is desired. To  see  which  layouts
       are available, use the layout show command.

       layout show

       List  on  the  message  line  the  number(s)  and title(s) of the available layout(s). The
       current layout is flagged.

       layout title [title]

       Change or display the title of the current layout. A string given will be used to name the
       layout.  Without  any  options,  the  current title and number is displayed on the message

       layout number [n]

       Change or display the number of the current layout. An  integer  given  will  be  used  to
       number  the  layout. Without any options, the current number and title is displayed on the
       message line.

       layout attach [title|:last]

       Change or display which layout to reattach back to. The  default  is  :last,  which  tells
       screen  to  reattach  back  to the last used layout just before detachment. By supplying a
       title, You can instruct screen to reattach to a particular layout regardless which one was
       used  at  the  time  of detachment. Without any options, the layout to reattach to will be
       shown in the message line.

       layout save [n|title]

       Remember the  current  arrangement  of  regions.  When  used,  screen  will  remember  the
       arrangement  of  vertically  and  horizontally split regions. This arrangement is restored
       when a screen session is reattached or switched back  from  a  different  layout.  If  the
       session ends or the screen process dies, the layout arrangements are lost. The layout dump
       command should help in this siutation. If a number  or  title  is  supplied,  screen  will
       remember  the  arrangement  of  that  particular  layout. Without any options, screen will
       remember the current layout.

       Saving your regions can be done automatically by using the layout autosave command.

       layout autosave [on|off]

       Change or display the status of automatcally saving layouts. The default  is  on,  meaning
       when  screen  is detached or changed to a different layout, the arrangement of regions and
       windows will be remembered at the time of change and restored upon return.  If autosave is
       set  to  off,  that  arrangement  will only be restored to either to the last manual save,
       using layout save, or to when the layout was first created, to  a  single  region  with  a
       single window. Without either an on or off, the current status is displayed on the message

       layout dump [filename]

       Write to a file the order of splits made in the current layout. This is useful to recreate
       the  order  of  your  regions  used  in  your  current  layout. Only the current layout is
       recorded. While the order of the regions are recorded, the  sizes  of  those  regions  and
       which  windows  correspond  to  which  regions  are  not. If no filename is specified, the
       default is layout-dump, saved in the directory that the screen process was started in.  If
       the file already exists, layout dump will append to that file. As an example:

                   C-a : layout dump /home/user/.screenrc

       will save or append the layout to the user's .screenrc file.


       Display  the  disclaimer  page.  This  is done whenever screen is started without options,
       which should be often enough. See also the "startup_message" command.


       Lock this display.  Call a  screenlock  program  (/local/bin/lck  or  /usr/bin/lock  or  a
       builtin  if  no  other  is  available). Screen does not accept any command keys until this
       program terminates. Meanwhile processes in the windows may continue, as the windows are in
       the  `detached'  state.  The  screenlock  program  may  be changed through the environment
       variable $LOCKPRG (which must be set in the shell from which screen  is  started)  and  is
       executed with the user's uid and gid.
       Warning:  When you leave other shells unlocked and you have no password set on screen, the
       lock is void: One could easily re-attach from  an  unlocked  shell.  This  feature  should
       rather be called `lockterminal'.

       log [on|off]

       Start/stop  writing  output  of the current window to a file "screenlog.n" in the window's
       default directory, where n is the number of the  current  window.  This  filename  can  be
       changed  with  the  `logfile'  command.  If no parameter is given, the state of logging is
       toggled. The session log is appended to the previous contents of the file  if  it  already
       exists.  The  current contents and the contents of the scrollback history are not included
       in the session log.  Default is `off'.

       logfile filename
       logfile flush secs

       Defines the name the log files will get. The default is "screenlog.%n".  The  second  form
       changes  the  number of seconds screen will wait before flushing the logfile buffer to the
       file-system. The default value is 10 seconds.

       login [on|off]

       Adds or removes the entry in the utmp database file for the current window.  This controls
       if  the  window is `logged in'.  When no parameter is given, the login state of the window
       is toggled.  Additionally to that toggle, it is convenient having a `log in'  and  a  `log
       out'  key.  E.g.  `bind I login on' and `bind O login off' will map these keys to be C-a I
       and C-a O.  The default setting (in should be "on" for  a  screen  that  runs
       under  suid-root.   Use  the  "deflogin" command to change the default login state for new
       windows. Both commands are only present when screen has been compiled with utmp support.

       logtstamp [on|off]
       logtstamp after [secs]
       logtstamp string [string]

       This command controls logfile time-stamp mechanism of screen.  If time-stamps  are  turned
       "on", screen adds a string containing the current time to the logfile after two minutes of
       inactivity.  When output continues and more than another two minutes have passed, a second
       time-stamp  is  added  to  document the restart of the output. You can change this timeout
       with the second form of the command. The third form is used for customizing the time-stamp
       string (`-- %n:%t -- time-stamp -- %M/%d/%y %c:%s --\n' by default).


       Tell  screen that the next input character should only be looked up in the default bindkey
       table. See also "bindkey".


       Like mapdefault, but don't even look in the default bindkey table.

       maptimeout [timeout]

       Set the inter-character timer for input sequence detection to a timeout of timeout ms. The
       default  timeout  is  300ms.  Maptimeout with no arguments shows the current setting.  See
       also "bindkey".

       markkeys string

       This is a method of changing the keymap used for copy/history mode.  The string is made up
       of  oldchar=newchar pairs which are separated by `:'. Example: The string "B=^B:F=^F" will
       change the keys `C-b' and `C-f' to the vi style binding (scroll up/down fill page).   This
       happens  to be the default binding for `B' and `F'.  The command "markkeys h=^B:l=^F:$=^E"
       would set the mode for an emacs-style binding.  If your terminal  sends  characters,  that
       cause you to abort copy mode, then this command may help by binding these characters to do
       nothing.  The no-op character is `@' and is used like this: "markkeys @=L=H" if you do not
       want  to  use the `H' or `L' commands any longer.  As shown in this example, multiple keys
       can be assigned to one function in a single statement.

       maxwin num

       Set the maximum window number screen will create. Doesn't affect already existing windows.
       The number can be increased only when there are no existing windows.


       Insert the command character (C-a) in the current window's input stream.

       monitor [on|off]

       Toggles  activity  monitoring  of  windows.   When monitoring is turned on and an affected
       window is switched into the background, you will receive the activity notification message
       in  the status line at the first sign of output and the window will also be marked with an
       `@' in the window-status display.  Monitoring is initially off for all windows.

       mousetrack [on|off]

       This command determines whether screen will watch for mouse clicks. When this  command  is
       enabled,  regions that have been split in various ways can be selected by pointing to them
       with a mouse and left-clicking them. Without specifying on or off, the  current  state  is
       displayed. The default state is determined by the "defmousetrack" command.

       msgminwait sec

       Defines the time screen delays a new message when one message is currently displayed.  The
       default is 1 second.

       msgwait sec

       Defines the time a message is displayed if screen is not disturbed by other activity.  The
       default is 5 seconds.

       multiuser on|off

       Switch  between singleuser and multiuser mode. Standard screen operation is singleuser. In
       multiuser mode the commands `acladd', `aclchg', `aclgrp'  and  `acldel'  can  be  used  to
       enable (and disable) other users accessing this screen session.

       nethack on|off

       Changes  the  kind  of error messages used by screen.  When you are familiar with the game
       "nethack", you may enjoy the nethack-style messages which will  often  blur  the  facts  a
       little,  but  are much funnier to read. Anyway, standard messages often tend to be unclear
       as well.
       This option is only available if screen was compiled with the NETHACK  flag  defined.  The
       default   setting  is  then  determined  by  the  presence  of  the  environment  variable
       $NETHACKOPTIONS and the file ~/.nethackrc - if either one is present, the default is on.


       Switch to the next window.  This command can be used repeatedly to cycle through the  list
       of windows.

       nonblock [on|off|numsecs]

       Tell  screen how to deal with user interfaces (displays) that cease to accept output. This
       can happen if a user presses ^S or a TCP/modem  connection  gets  cut  but  no  hangup  is
       received. If nonblock is off (this is the default) screen waits until the display restarts
       to accept the output. If nonblock is on, screen waits until the timeout is reached (on  is
       treated  as  1s). If the display still doesn't receive characters, screen will consider it
       "blocked" and stop sending characters to it.  If  at  some  time  it  restarts  to  accept
       characters, screen will unblock the display and redisplay the updated window contents.

       number [[+|-]n]

       Change  the  current  window's  number.  If  the given number n is already used by another
       window, both windows exchange their numbers. If no  argument  is  specified,  the  current
       window  number  (and  title) is shown. Using `+' or `-' will change the window's number by
       the relative amount specified.

       obuflimit [limit]

       If the output buffer contains more bytes than the specified limit, no more  data  will  be
       read  from the windows. The default value is 256. If you have a fast display (like xterm),
       you can set it to some higher value. If no argument is specified, the current  setting  is


       Kill all regions but the current one.


       Switch  to the window displayed previously. If this window does no longer exist, other has
       the same effect as next.

       partial on|off

       Defines whether the display should be refreshed (as with redisplay) after switching to the
       current  window.  This command only affects the current window.  To immediately affect all
       windows use the allpartial command.  Default is `off', of course.  This default is  fixed,
       as there is currently no defpartial command.

       password [crypted_pw]

       Present  a  crypted password in your ".screenrc" file and screen will ask for it, whenever
       someone attempts to resume a detached. This is useful  if  you  have  privileged  programs
       running  under  screen  and  you  want  to  protect your session from reattach attempts by
       another user masquerading as your uid (i.e. any superuser.)  If  no  crypted  password  is
       specified,  screen  prompts  twice  for typing a password and places its encryption in the
       paste buffer.  Default is `none', this disables password checking.

       paste [registers [dest_reg]]

       Write the (concatenated) contents of the specified registers to the  stdin  queue  of  the
       current  window. The register '.' is treated as the paste buffer. If no parameter is given
       the user is prompted for a single register to paste.  The paste buffer can be filled  with
       the  copy, history and readbuf commands.  Other registers can be filled with the register,
       readreg and paste commands.  If paste is called with a second argument,  the  contents  of
       the  specified  registers  is  pasted  into the named destination register rather than the
       window. If '.' is  used  as  the  second  argument,  the  displays  paste  buffer  is  the
       destination.   Note,  that  "paste"  uses  a  wide variety of resources: Whenever a second
       argument is specified no current window is needed.  When  the  source  specification  only
       contains  registers  (not  the  paste  buffer)  then  there  need not be a current display
       (terminal attached), as the registers are a global resource. The paste buffer exists  once
       for every user.

       pastefont [on|off]

       Tell  screen to include font information in the paste buffer. The default is not to do so.
       This command is especially useful for multi character fonts like kanji.


       Reopen the window's terminal line and send a break condition. See `break'.


       Power detach.  Mainly the same as detach, but also sends a HANGUP  signal  to  the  parent
       process  of  screen.   CAUTION: This will result in a logout, when screen was started from
       your login-shell.

       pow_detach_msg [message]

       The message specified here is output whenever a `Power detach' was performed.  It  may  be
       used as a replacement for a logout message or to reset baud rate, etc.  Without parameter,
       the current message is shown.


       Switch to the window with the next lower number.  This command can be used  repeatedly  to
       cycle through the list of windows.

       printcmd [cmd]

       If cmd is not an empty string, screen will not use the terminal capabilities "po/pf" if it
       detects an ansi print sequence ESC [ 5 i, but pipe  the  output  into  cmd.   This  should
       normally  be  a command like "lpr" or "'cat > /tmp/scrprint'".  printcmd without a command
       displays the current setting.  The ansi sequence ESC \ ends printing and closes the pipe.
       Warning: Be careful with this command! If other user have write access to  your  terminal,
       they will be able to fire off print commands.

       process [key]

       Stuff  the contents of the specified register into screen's input queue. If no argument is
       given you are prompted for a register name. The text is parsed as if it had been typed  in
       from  the  user's  keyboard. This command can be used to bind multiple actions to a single


       Kill all windows and terminate screen.  Note that on VT100-style terminals  the  keys  C-4
       and  C-\ are identical.  This makes the default bindings dangerous: Be careful not to type
       C-a C-4 when selecting window no. 4.  Use the empty bind command (as in  "bind  '^\'")  to
       remove a key binding.

       readbuf [-e encoding] [filename]

       Reads  the  contents of the specified file into the paste buffer.  You can tell screen the
       encoding of the file via the -e option.  If no  file  is  specified,  the  screen-exchange
       filename is used.  See also "bufferfile" command.

       readreg [-e encoding] [register [filename]]

       Does one of two things, dependent on number of arguments: with zero or one arguments it it
       duplicates the paste buffer contents into the register specified or entered at the prompt.
       With  two  arguments  it  reads  the contents of the named file into the register, just as
       readbuf reads the screen-exchange file into the paste buffer.  You  can  tell  screen  the
       encoding  of  the  file  via the -e option.  The following example will paste the system's
       password file into the screen window (using register p, where a copy remains):

                   C-a : readreg p /etc/passwd
                   C-a : paste p


       Redisplay the current window. Needed to get a full redisplay when in partial redraw mode.

       register [-e encoding] key string

       Save the specified string to the  register  key.   The  encoding  of  the  string  can  be
       specified via the -e option.  See also the "paste" command.


       Kill the current region. This is a no-op if there is only one region.


       Unlinks the screen-exchange file used by the commands "writebuf" and "readbuf".

       rendition bell | monitor | silence | so attr [color]

       Change the way screen renders the titles of windows that have monitor or bell flags set in
       caption or hardstatus or windowlist. See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter for  the  syntax  of
       the modifiers.  The default for monitor is currently "=b " (bold, active colors), for bell
       "=ub " (underline, bold and active colors), and "=u " for silence.


       Reset the virtual terminal to its "power-on" values. Useful when  strange  settings  (like
       scroll regions or graphics character set) are left over from an application.


       Resize  the current region. The space will be removed from or added to the region below or
       if there's not enough space from the region above.

              resize +N   increase current region height by N

              resize -N   decrease current region height by N

              resize  N   set current region height to N

              resize  =   make all windows equally high

              resize  max maximize current region height

              resize  min minimize current region height

       screen [-opts] [n] [cmd [args]|//group]

       Establish a new window.  The flow-control options (-f, -fn and -fa), title (a.k.a.) option
       (-t),  login  options (-l and -ln) , terminal type option (-T <term>), the all-capability-
       flag (-a) and scrollback option (-h <num>) may be specified with each command.  The option
       (-M)  turns  monitoring  on  for this window.  The option (-L) turns output logging on for
       this window.  If an optional number n in the range 0..MAXWIN-1 is given, the window number
       n  is assigned to the newly created window (or, if this number is already in-use, the next
       available number).  If a command is specified after "screen", this command (with the given
       arguments)  is  started  in  the  window;  otherwise,  a  shell is created.  If //group is
       supplied, a container-type window is created in which other windows may be created  inside

       Thus, if your ".screenrc" contains the lines

                   # example for .screenrc:
                   screen 1
                   screen -fn -t foobar -L 2 telnet foobar

       screen  creates a shell window (in window #1) and a window with a TELNET connection to the
       machine foobar (with no flow-control using the title "foobar" in window #2) and will write
       a  logfile  ("screenlog.2") of the telnet session.  Note, that unlike previous versions of
       screen no additional default window is created when "screen" commands are included in your
       ".screenrc" file. When the initialization is completed, screen switches to the last window
       specified in your .screenrc file or, if none, opens a default window #0.
       Screen has built in some functionality of "cu" and "telnet".   See  also  chapter  "WINDOW

       scrollback num

       Set  the  size  of the scrollback buffer for the current windows to num lines. The default
       scrollback is 100 lines.  See also the "defscrollback" command and use "info" to view  the
       current  setting.  To access and use the contents in the scrollback buffer, use the "copy"

       select [WindowID]

       Switch to the window identified by WindowID.  This can be  a  prefix  of  a  window  title
       (alphanumeric  window name) or a window number.  The parameter is optional and if omitted,
       you get prompted for an identifier.  When a new window is established, the first available
       number is assigned to this window.  Thus, the first window can be activated by "select 0".
       The number of windows is limited at compile-time by  the  MAXWIN  configuration  parameter
       (which  defaults  to 40).  There are two special WindowIDs, "-" selects the internal blank
       window and "." selects the current window. The latter is useful if used with screen's "-X"

       sessionname [name]

       Rename  the  current  session.  Note,  that  for "screen -list" the name shows up with the
       process-id prepended. If the argument "name" is omitted,  the  name  of  this  session  is
       displayed. Caution: The $STY environment variables will still reflect the old name in pre-
       existing shells.  This  may  result  in  confusion.  Use  of  this  command  is  generally
       discouraged.  Use  the  "-S"  command-line  option if you want to name a new session.  The
       default is constructed from the tty and host names.

       setenv [var [string]]

       Set the environment variable var to value string.  If only var is specified, the user will
       be  prompted  to enter a value.  If no parameters are specified, the user will be prompted
       for both variable and value. The environment  is  inherited  by  all  subsequently  forked

       setsid [on|off]

       Normally  screen  uses different sessions and process groups for the windows. If setsid is
       turned off, this is not done anymore and all windows will be in the same process group  as
       the  screen  backend process. This also breaks job-control, so be careful.  The default is
       on, of course. This command is probably useful only in rare circumstances.

       shell command

       Set the command to be used to create a  new  shell.   This  overrides  the  value  of  the
       environment  variable $SHELL.  This is useful if you'd like to run a tty-enhancer which is
       expecting to execute the program specified in $SHELL.  If the command begins  with  a  '-'
       character,  the  shell  will  be  started as a login-shell. Typical shells do only minimal
       initialization when  not  started  as  a  login-shell.   E.g.  Bash  will  not  read  your
       "~/.bashrc" unless it is a login-shell.

       shelltitle title

       Set  the  title  for  all  shells  created  during startup or by the C-A C-c command.  For
       details about what a title is, see the discussion entitled "TITLES (naming windows)".

       silence [on|off|sec]

       Toggles silence monitoring of windows.  When silence is turned on and an  affected  window
       is  switched into the background, you will receive the silence notification message in the
       status line after a specified period of inactivity (silence). The default timeout  can  be
       changed  with  the  `silencewait'  command or by specifying a number of seconds instead of
       `on' or `off'.  Silence is initially off for all windows.

       silencewait sec

       Define the time that all windows monitored for silence should  wait  before  displaying  a
       message. Default 30 seconds.

       sleep num

       This  command  will  pause  the  execution  of a .screenrc file for num seconds.  Keyboard
       activity will end the sleep.  It may be used to give users a chance to read  the  messages
       output by "echo".

       slowpaste msec

       Define  the speed at which text is inserted into the current window by the paste ("C-a ]")
       command.  If the slowpaste value is  nonzero  text  is  written  character  by  character.
       screen  will  make a pause of msec milliseconds after each single character write to allow
       the application to process its input. Only use slowpaste if your underlying system exposes
       flow control problems while pasting large amounts of text.


       Sort the windows in alphabetical order of the window tiles.

       source file

       Read  and  execute  commands  from  file  file. Source commands may be nested to a maximum
       recursion level of ten. If file is not an absolute path and screen is already processing a
       source  command, the parent directory of the running source command file is used to search
       for the new command file before screen's current directory.

       Note that termcap/terminfo/termcapinfo commands only work at startup and reattach time, so
       they must be reached via the default screenrc files to have an effect.

       sorendition [attr [color]]

       This command is deprecated. See "rendition so" instead.

       split [-v]

       Split the current region into two new ones. All regions on the display are resized to make
       room for the new region. The blank window is displayed on the new region. Splits are  made
       horizontally  unless -v is used. Use the "remove" or the "only" command to delete regions.
       Use "focus" to toggle between regions.

       startup_message on|off

       Select whether you want to see the copyright notice during startup.  Default is  `on',  as
       you probably noticed.

       stuff [string]

       Stuff  the  string  string  in  the  input buffer of the current window.  This is like the
       "paste" command but with much less overhead.  Without a parameter, screen will prompt  for
       a  string  to  stuff.  You cannot paste large buffers with the "stuff" command. It is most
       useful for key bindings. See also "bindkey".

       su [username [password [password2]]]

       Substitute the user of a display. The command prompts for all parameters that are omitted.
       If  passwords are specified as parameters, they have to be specified un-crypted. The first
       password is matched against the systems passwd database, the second  password  is  matched
       against  the screen password as set with the commands "acladd" or "password".  "Su" may be
       useful for the screen administrator to test multiuser  setups.   When  the  identification
       fails, the user has access to the commands available for user nobody.  These are "detach",
       "license", "version", "help" and "displays".


       Suspend screen.  The windows are in the `detached' state, while screen is suspended.  This
       feature relies on the shell being able to do job control.

       term term

       In  each  window's  environment  screen  opens,  the  $TERM variable is set to "screen" by
       default.  But when no description for "screen"  is  installed  in  the  local  termcap  or
       terminfo  data  base, you set $TERM to - say - "vt100". This won't do much harm, as screen
       is VT100/ANSI compatible.  The use of the "term" command is  discouraged  for  non-default
       purpose.   That  is,  one  may want to specify special $TERM settings (e.g. vt100) for the
       next "screen rlogin othermachine"  command.  Use  the  command  "screen  -T  vt100  rlogin
       othermachine" rather than setting and resetting the default.

       termcap term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]
       terminfo term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]
       termcapinfo term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]

       Use  this  command  to  modify your terminal's termcap entry without going through all the
       hassles involved in creating a custom termcap entry.  Plus, you can  optionally  customize
       the  termcap  generated  for  the windows.  You have to place these commands in one of the
       screenrc startup files, as they are meaningless once the terminal emulator is booted.
       If your system  works  uses  the  terminfo  database  rather  than  termcap,  screen  will
       understand  the  `terminfo'  command, which has the same effects as the `termcap' command.
       Two separate commands are provided, as there are subtle syntactic differences,  e.g.  when
       parameter  interpolation  (using  `%')  is  required.  Note  that  termcap  names  of  the
       capabilities have to be used with the `terminfo' command.
       In many cases, where the arguments are valid in both terminfo and termcap syntax, you  can
       use  the  command  `termcapinfo',  which  is  just a shorthand for a pair of `termcap' and
       `terminfo' commands with identical arguments.

       The first argument specifies which terminal(s) should be affected by this definition.  You
       can  specify  multiple  terminal names by separating them with `|'s.  Use `*' to match all
       terminals and `vt*' to match all terminals that begin with "vt".

       Each tweak argument contains one or  more  termcap  defines  (separated  by  `:'s)  to  be
       inserted  at  the  start  of  the  appropriate  termcap  entry, enhancing it or overriding
       existing  values.   The  first  tweak  modifies  your  terminal's  termcap,  and  contains
       definitions  that  your terminal uses to perform certain functions.  Specify a null string
       to leave this unchanged (e.g. '').  The second (optional) tweak modifies  all  the  window
       termcaps,  and  should  contain  definitions  that  screen  understands  (see the "VIRTUAL
       TERMINAL" section).

       Some examples:

              termcap xterm*  LP:hs@

       Informs screen that all terminals that begin with  `xterm'  have  firm  auto-margins  that
       allow  the  last  position  on the screen to be updated (LP), but they don't really have a
       status line (no 'hs' - append `@' to turn entries off).  Note that we assume `LP' for  all
       terminal  names  that start with "vt", but only if you don't specify a termcap command for
       that terminal.

              termcap vt*  LP
              termcap vt102|vt220  Z0=\E[?3h:Z1=\E[?3l

       Specifies the firm-margined `LP' capability for all terminals that begin  with  `vt',  and
       the  second  line  will  also add the escape-sequences to switch into (Z0) and back out of
       (Z1) 132-character-per-line mode if this is a VT102 or VT220.  (You must specify Z0 and Z1
       in your termcap to use the width-changing commands.)

              termcap vt100  ""  l0=PF1:l1=PF2:l2=PF3:l3=PF4

       This  leaves  your  vt100  termcap alone and adds the function key labels to each window's
       termcap entry.

              termcap h19|z19  am@:im=\E@:ei=\EO  dc=\E[P

       Takes a h19 or z19 termcap and turns off auto-margins (am@) and enables  the  insert  mode
       (im)  and end-insert (ei) capabilities (the `@' in the `im' string is after the `=', so it
       is part of the string).  Having the `im' and `ei' definitions  put  into  your  terminal's
       termcap  will  cause  screen to automatically advertise the character-insert capability in
       each window's termcap.  Each window will also get  the  delete-character  capability  (dc)
       added  to  its  termcap,  which  screen will translate into a line-update for the terminal
       (we're pretending it doesn't support character deletion).

       If you would like to fully specify each window's termcap entry, you should instead set the
       $SCREENCAP variable prior to running screen.  See the discussion on the "VIRTUAL TERMINAL"
       in this manual, and the termcap(5) man page for more information on termcap definitions.

       time [string]

       Uses the message line to display the time of day, the host name,  and  the  load  averages
       over  1,  5,  and  15  minutes (if this is available on your system).  For window specific
       information, use "info".

       If a string is specified, it changes the format of the time report like it is described in
       the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. Screen uses a default of "%c:%s %M %d %H%? %l%?".

       title [windowtitle]

       Set the name of the current window to windowtitle. If no name is specified, screen prompts
       for one. This command was known as `aka' in previous releases.


       Unbind all the bindings. This can be useful when screen is used solely for  its  detaching
       abilities,  such  as  when  letting  a  console  application run as a daemon. If, for some
       reason, it is necessary to bind commands after this, use 'screen -X'.

       unsetenv var

       Unset an environment variable.

       utf8 [on|off [on|off]]

       Change the encoding used in the current window. If utf8 is enabled, the  strings  sent  to
       the  window  will  be  UTF-8  encoded  and  vice versa. Omitting the parameter toggles the
       setting. If a second parameter is given, the display's  encoding  is  also  changed  (this
       should  rather  be done with screen's "-U" option).  See also "defutf8", which changes the
       default setting of a new window.

       vbell [on|off]

       Sets the visual bell setting for this window. Omitting the parameter toggles the  setting.
       If  vbell  is  switched  on,  but  your terminal does not support a visual bell, a `vbell-
       message' is displayed in the status line when the bell character (^G) is received.  Visual
       bell support of a terminal is defined by the termcap variable `vb' (terminfo: 'flash').
       Per default, vbell is off, thus the audible bell is used.  See also `bell_msg'.

       vbell_msg [message]

       Sets the visual bell message. message is printed to the status line if the window receives
       a bell character (^G), vbell is set to "on", but the terminal does not  support  a  visual
       bell.  The default message is "Wuff, Wuff!!".  Without a parameter, the current message is

       vbellwait sec

       Define a delay in seconds after each display of screen's visual bell message. The  default
       is 1 second.

       verbose [on|off]

       If  verbose  is  switched on, the command name is echoed, whenever a window is created (or
       resurrected from zombie state). Default is off.  Without a parameter, the current  setting
       is shown.


       Print the current version and the compile date in the status line.

       wall message

       Write a message to all displays. The message will appear in the terminal's status line.

       width [-w|-d] [cols [lines]]

       Toggle  the  window  width  between  80  and  132  columns or set it to cols columns if an
       argument is specified.  This requires a capable terminal and the termcap entries "Z0"  and
       "Z1".   See  the "termcap" command for more information. You can also specify a new height
       if you want to change both values.  The -w option tells screen to leave the  display  size
       unchanged and just set the window size, -d vice versa.

       windowlist [-b] [-m] [-g]
       windowlist string [string]
       windowlist title [title]

       Display  all  windows  in  a table for visual window selection.  If screen was in a window
       group, screen will back out of the group and then display the windows in that  group.   If
       the -b option is given, screen will switch to the blank window before presenting the list,
       so that the current window is also selectable.  The -m option changes  the  order  of  the
       windows,  instead of sorting by window numbers screen uses its internal most-recently-used
       list.  The -g option will show the windows inside any groups in that level and downwards.

       The following keys are used to navigate in "windowlist":
         k, C-p, or up Move up one line.
         j, C-n, or down Move down one line.
         C-g or escape Exit windowlist.
         C-a or home Move to the first line.
         C-e or end Move to the last line.
         C-u or C-d Move one half page up or down.
         C-b or C-f Move one full page up or down.
         0..9 Using the number keys, move to the selected line.
         mouseclick Move to the selected line. Available when "mousetrack" is set to "on"
         / Search.
         n Repeat search in the forward direction.
         N Repeat search in the backward direction.
         m Toggle MRU.
         g Toggle group nesting.
         a All window view.
         C-h or backspace Back out the group.
         , Switch numbers with the previous window.
         . Switch numbers with the next window.
         K Kill that window.
         space or enter Select that window.

       The table format can be changed with the string and title option, the title  is  displayed
       as  table  heading,  while  the  lines  are  made by using the string setting. The default
       setting is "Num Name%=Flags" for the title and  "%3n  %t%=%f"  for  the  lines.   See  the
       "STRING ESCAPES" chapter for more codes (e.g. color settings).

       "Windowlist"  needs  a region size of at least 10 characters wide and 6 characters high in
       order to display.

       windows [ string ]

       Uses the message line to display a list of all the windows.   Each  window  is  listed  by
       number  with  the  name of process that has been started in the window (or its title); the
       current window is marked with a `*'; the previous window is marked with  a  `-';  all  the
       windows  that are "logged in" are marked with a `$'; a background window that has received
       a bell is marked with a `!'; a background window that  is  being  monitored  and  has  had
       activity  occur  is  marked  with  an  `@'; a window which has output logging turned on is
       marked with `(L)'; windows occupied by other users are marked with  `&';  windows  in  the
       zombie  state  are  marked  with  `Z'.   If this list is too long to fit on the terminal's
       status line only the portion around the current window is displayed.  The optional  string
       parameter  follows the "STRING ESCAPES" format.  If string parameter is passed, the output
       size is unlimited.  The default command without any parameter is limited to a size of 1024

       wrap [on|off]

       Sets  the  line-wrap  setting  for  the  current window.  When line-wrap is on, the second
       consecutive printable character output at the last column of a line will wrap to the start
       of  the  following  line.   As an added feature, backspace (^H) will also wrap through the
       left margin to the previous line.  Default is `on'. Without any options, the state of wrap
       is toggled.

       writebuf [-e encoding] [filename]

       Writes  the  contents  of the paste buffer to the specified file, or the public accessible
       screen-exchange file if no filename is given. This is thought of as a primitive  means  of
       communication between screen users on the same host. If an encoding is specified the paste
       buffer is recoded on the fly to match the encoding.  The filename  can  be  set  with  the
       bufferfile command and defaults to "/tmp/screen-exchange".

       writelock [on|off|auto]

       In addition to access control lists, not all users may be able to write to the same window
       at once. Per default, writelock is in `auto' mode and grants exclusive input permission to
       the  user  who is the first to switch to the particular window. When he leaves the window,
       other users may obtain the writelock (automatically). The writelock of the current  window
       is  disabled by the command "writelock off". If the user issues the command "writelock on"
       he keeps the exclusive write permission while switching to other windows.


       Insert a CTRL-s / CTRL-q character to the stdin queue of the current window.

       zmodem [off|auto|catch|pass]
       zmodem sendcmd [string]
       zmodem recvcmd [string]

       Define zmodem support for screen. Screen understands two different modes when it detects a
       zmodem  request:  "pass" and "catch".  If the mode is set to "pass", screen will relay all
       data to the attacher until the end of the transmission is reached.  In "catch" mode screen
       acts  as a zmodem endpoint and starts the corresponding rz/sz commands. If the mode is set
       to "auto", screen will use "catch" if the window is a tty (e.g. a serial line),  otherwise
       it will use "pass".
       You  can  define  the  templates  screen uses in "catch" mode via the second and the third
       Note also that this is an experimental feature.

       zombie [keys[onerror]]
       defzombie [keys]

       Per default screen windows are removed from the window list as soon as the windows process
       (e.g.  shell)  exits. When a string of two keys is specified to the zombie command, `dead'
       windows will remain in the list.  The kill command may be used to remove  such  a  window.
       Pressing  the  first  key in the dead window has the same effect. When pressing the second
       key, screen will attempt to resurrect the window. The process that was  initially  running
       in  the  window  will  be launched again. Calling zombie without parameters will clear the
       zombie setting, thus making windows disappear when their process exits.

       As the zombie-setting is manipulated globally for all windows, this command should only be
       called  defzombie.  Until  we  need  this as a per window setting, the commands zombie and
       defzombie are synonymous.

       Optionally you can put the word "onerror" after  the  keys.  This  will  cause  screen  to
       monitor  exit status of the process running in the window. If it exits normally ('0'), the
       window disappears. Any other exit value causes the window to become a zombie.


       Per default screen windows are removed from the window list as soon as the windows process
       (e.g.  shell) exits. If zombie keys are defined (compare with above zombie command), it is
       possible to also set a timeout when screen tries to automatically reconnect a dead  screen


       Screen  displays  informational  messages  and other diagnostics in a message line.  While
       this line is distributed to appear at the bottom of the  screen,  it  can  be  defined  to
       appear  at  the  top of the screen during compilation.  If your terminal has a status line
       defined in its termcap, screen will use this for displaying its messages, otherwise a line
       of  the  current  screen  will  be  temporarily overwritten and output will be momentarily
       interrupted. The message line is automatically removed after a few seconds delay,  but  it
       can also be removed early (on terminals without a status line) by beginning to type.

       The  message  line facility can be used by an application running in the current window by
       means of the ANSI Privacy message control sequence.  For instance, from within the  shell,
       try something like:

              echo '<esc>^Hello world from window '$WINDOW'<esc>\\'

       where  '<esc>'  is  an  escape,  '^'  is  a literal up-arrow, and '\\' turns into a single


       Screen provides three different window types. New windows are created with screen's screen
       command (see also the entry in chapter "CUSTOMIZATION"). The first parameter to the screen
       command defines which type of window is  created.  The  different  window  types  are  all
       special cases of the normal type. They have been added in order to allow screen to be used
       efficiently as a console multiplexer with 100 or more windows.

       •  The normal window contains a shell (default, if no parameter is  given)  or  any  other
          system command that could be executed from a shell (e.g.  slogin, etc…)

       •  If  a  tty (character special device) name (e.g. "/dev/ttya") is specified as the first
          parameter, then the window is directly connected to this device.  This window  type  is
          similar  to  "screen cu -l /dev/ttya".  Read and write access is required on the device
          node, an exclusive open is attempted on the node to mark the connection line  as  busy.
          An  optional  parameter is allowed consisting of a comma separated list of flags in the
          notation used by stty(1):

                 Usually 300, 1200, 9600 or 19200. This affects transmission as well  as  receive

          cs8 or cs7
                 Specify the transmission of eight (or seven) bits per byte.

          ixon or -ixon
                 Enables (or disables) software flow-control (CTRL-S/CTRL-Q) for sending data.

          ixoff or -ixoff
                 Enables (or disables) software flow-control for receiving data.

          istrip or -istrip
                 Clear (or keep) the eight bit in each received byte.

          You  may  want  to  specify as many of these options as applicable. Unspecified options
          cause the terminal driver to make up the parameter values  of  the  connection.   These
          values  are  system  dependent  and  may be in defaults or values saved from a previous

          For tty windows, the info command shows some of the modem control lines in  the  status
          line. These may include `RTS', `CTS', 'DTR', `DSR', `CD' and more.  This depends on the
          available ioctl()'s and system header files as well as the on the physical capabilities
          of  the serial board.  Signals that are logical low (inactive) have their name preceded
          by an exclamation mark (!), otherwise the signal is logical high (active).  Signals not
          supported by the hardware but available to the ioctl() interface are usually shown low.

          When  the  CLOCAL  status  bit is true, the whole set of modem signals is placed inside
          curly braces ({ and }).  When the CRTSCTS or TIOCSOFTCAR bit is set, the signals  `CTS'
          or `CD' are shown in parenthesis, respectively.

          For  tty  windows,  the command break causes the Data transmission line (TxD) to go low
          for a specified period of time. This is expected to be interpreted as break  signal  on
          the  other  side.  No data is sent and no modem control line is changed when a break is

       •  If the first parameter is "//telnet", the second parameter is expected  to  be  a  host
          name,  and  an  optional third parameter may specify a TCP port number (default decimal
          23).  Screen will connect to a server listening on the remote host and use  the  telnet
          protocol to communicate with that server.
          For  telnet  windows,  the  command  info  shows details about the connection in square
          brackets ([ and ]) at the end of the status line.

          b      BINARY. The connection is in binary mode.

          e      ECHO. Local echo is disabled.

          c      SGA. The connection is in `character mode' (default: `line mode').

          t      TTYPE. The terminal type has been requested by the remote  host.   Screen  sends
                 the name "screen" unless instructed otherwise (see also the command `term').

          w      NAWS. The remote site is notified about window size changes.

          f      LFLOW.  The  remote  host  will  send flow control information.  (Ignored at the

          Additional flags for debugging are x, t and n (XDISPLOC, TSPEED and NEWENV).

          For telnet windows, the command break sends the telnet code IAC BREAK (decimal 243)  to
          the remote host.

          This  window  type  is  only  available  if screen was compiled with the BUILTIN_TELNET
          option defined.


       Screen provides an escape mechanism to insert  information  like  the  current  time  into
       messages  or  file  names.  The  escape  character  is '%' with one exception: inside of a
       window's hardstatus '^%' ('^E') is used instead.

       Here is the full list of supported escapes:

       %      the escape character itself

       a      either 'am' or 'pm'

       A      either 'AM' or 'PM'

       c      current time HH:MM in 24h format

       C      current time HH:MM in 12h format

       d      day number

       D      weekday name

       E      sets %? to true if the escape character has been pressed.

       f      flags of the window, see "windows" for meanings of the various flags

       F      sets %? to true if the window has the focus

       h      hardstatus of the window

       H      hostname of the system

       l      current load of the system

       m      month number

       M      month name

       n      window number

       P      sets %? to true if the current region is in copy/paste mode

       S      session name

       s      seconds

       t      window title

       u      all other users on this window

       w      all window numbers and names. With '-' qualifier: up to the  current  window;  with
              '+' qualifier: starting with the window after the current one.

       W      all window numbers and names except the current one

       x      the executed command including arguments running in this windows

       X      the executed command without arguments running in this windows

       y      last two digits of the year number

       Y      full year number

       ?      the part to the next '%?' is displayed only if a '%' escape inside the part expands
              to a non-empty string

       :      else part of '%?'

       =      pad the string to the display's width (like TeX's hfill). If a number is specified,
              pad to the percentage of the window's width.  A '0' qualifier tells screen to treat
              the number as absolute position.  You can specify  to  pad  relative  to  the  last
              absolute  pad  position  by  adding a '+' qualifier or to pad relative to the right
              margin by using '-'. The padding truncates the string  if  the  specified  position
              lies before the current position. Add the 'L' qualifier to change this.

       <      same as '%=' but just do truncation, do not fill with spaces

       >      mark  the  current  text  position for the next truncation. When screen needs to do
              truncation, it tries to do it in a way that the marked position gets moved  to  the
              specified  percentage  of  the output area. (The area starts from the last absolute
              pad position and ends with the position specified by the truncation operator.)  The
              'L' qualifier tells screen to mark the truncated parts with '…'.

       {      attribute/color modifier string terminated by the next "}"

       `      Substitute with the output of a 'backtick' command. The length qualifier is misused
              to identify one of the commands.

       The 'c' and 'C' escape may be qualified with a '0' to make  screen  use  zero  instead  of
       space  as  fill  character.  The  '0'  qualifier  also  makes  the '=' escape use absolute
       positions. The 'n' and '=' escapes understand a length qualifier (e.g. '%3n'), 'D' and 'M'
       can be prefixed with 'L' to generate long names, 'w' and 'W' also show the window flags if
       'L' is given.

       An attribute/color modifier is is used to change the attributes or the color settings. Its
       format  is  "[attribute  modifier]  [color  description]".  The attribute modifier must be
       prefixed by a change type indicator if it can be confused with a  color  description.  The
       following change types are known:

       +      add the specified set to the current attributes

       -      remove the set from the current attributes

       !      invert the set in the current attributes

       =      change the current attributes to the specified set

       The  attribute set can either be specified as a hexadecimal number or a combination of the
       following letters:

       d      dim
       u      underline
       b      bold
       r      reverse
       s      standout
       B      blinking

       Colors are coded either as a hexadecimal number or  two  letters  specifying  the  desired
       background and foreground color (in that order). The following colors are known:

       k      black
       r      red
       g      green
       y      yellow
       b      blue
       m      magenta
       c      cyan
       w      white
       d      default color
       .      leave color unchanged

       The capitalized versions of the letter specify bright colors. You can also use the pseudo-
       color 'i' to set just the brightness and leave the color unchanged.
       A one digit/letter  color  description  is  treated  as  foreground  or  background  color
       dependent  on  the  current  attributes:  if  reverse mode is set, the background color is
       changed instead of the foreground color.  If you don't like this, prefix the color with  a
       ".".  If  you  want  the same behavior for two-letter color descriptions, also prefix them
       with a ".".
       As a special case, "%{-}" restores the attributes and colors that were set before the last
       change was made (i.e., pops one level of the color-change stack).


       "G"    set color to bright green

       "+b r" use bold red

       "= yd" clear all attributes, write in default color on yellow background.

       %-Lw%{= BW}%50>%n%f* %t%{-}%+Lw%<
              The available windows centered at the current window and truncated to the available
              width. The current window is displayed white  on  blue.   This  can  be  used  with
              "hardstatus alwayslastline".

       %?%F%{.R.}%?%3n %t%? [%h]%?
              The window number and title and the window's hardstatus, if one is set.  Also use a
              red background if this is the active focus. Useful for "caption string".


       Each window has a flow-control setting that determines how screen deals with the  XON  and
       XOFF  characters  (and perhaps the interrupt character).  When flow-control is turned off,
       screen ignores the XON and XOFF characters, which allows the user  to  send  them  to  the
       current  program  by  simply typing them (useful for the emacs editor, for instance).  The
       trade-off is that it will take longer for output from  a  "normal"  program  to  pause  in
       response  to  an  XOFF.   With flow-control turned on, XON and XOFF characters are used to
       immediately pause the output of the current window.  You can still send  these  characters
       to  the  current  program,  but you must use the appropriate two-character screen commands
       (typically "C-a q" (xon) and "C-a s" (xoff)).  The xon/xoff commands are also  useful  for
       typing C-s and C-q past a terminal that intercepts these characters.

       Each  window  has  an  initial  flow-control  value  set  with either the -f option or the
       "defflow" .screenrc command. Per default the windows are set to automatic  flow-switching.
       It  can  then  be toggled between the three states 'fixed on', 'fixed off' and 'automatic'
       interactively with the "flow" command bound to "C-a f".

       The automatic flow-switching mode deals with flow control using  the  TIOCPKT  mode  (like
       "rlogin"  does).  If the tty driver does not support TIOCPKT, screen tries to find out the
       right mode based on the current setting of the application keypad - when  it  is  enabled,
       flow-control  is  turned  off  and  visa versa.  Of course, you can still manipulate flow-
       control manually when needed.

       If you're running with flow-control enabled and  find  that  pressing  the  interrupt  key
       (usually C-c) does not interrupt the display until another 6-8 lines have scrolled by, try
       running screen with the "interrupt" option (add the "interrupt" flag to the "flow" command
       in your .screenrc, or use the -i command-line option).  This causes the output that screen
       has accumulated from the interrupted program to be flushed.  One disadvantage is that  the
       virtual  terminal's  memory  contains the non-flushed version of the output, which in rare
       cases can cause minor inaccuracies in the output.  For example, if you switch screens  and
       return,  or  update  the  screen  with "C-a l" you would see the version of the output you
       would have gotten without "interrupt" being on.  Also, you might need to  turn  off  flow-
       control  (or  use auto-flow mode to turn it off automatically) when running a program that
       expects you to type the interrupt character as input, as it is possible to  interrupt  the
       output of the virtual terminal to your physical terminal when flow-control is enabled.  If
       this happens, a simple refresh of the screen with "C-a l" will restore it.  Give each mode
       a try, and use whichever mode you find more comfortable.

TITLES (naming windows)

       You  can  customize  each  window's  name in the window display (viewed with the "windows"
       command (C-a w)) by setting it  with  one  of  the  title  commands.   Normally  the  name
       displayed is the actual command name of the program created in the window.  However, it is
       sometimes useful to distinguish various programs of the same name or to  change  the  name
       on-the-fly to reflect the current state of the window.

       The  default  name  for  all shell windows can be set with the "shelltitle" command in the
       .screenrc file, while all other windows are created with a "screen" command and  thus  can
       have  their name set with the -t option.  Interactively, there is the title-string escape-
       sequence (<esc>kname<esc>\) and the "title" command (C-a A).  The  former  can  be  output
       from  an  application  to control the window's name under software control, and the latter
       will prompt for a name when typed.  You can also bind pre-defined names to keys  with  the
       "title" command to set things quickly without prompting.

       Finally,  screen  has  a  shell-specific heuristic that is enabled by setting the window's
       name to "search|name" and arranging to have a null title escape-sequence output as a  part
       of  your  prompt.   The search portion specifies an end-of-prompt search string, while the
       name portion specifies the default shell name for the window.  If the name ends in  a  `:'
       screen  will  add  what it believes to be the current command running in the window to the
       end of the window's shell name (e.g. "name:cmd").   Otherwise  the  current  command  name
       supersedes the shell name while it is running.

       Here's  how  it  works:   you must modify your shell prompt to output a null title-escape-
       sequence (<esc>k<esc>\) as a part of your prompt.  The last part of your  prompt  must  be
       the  same  as  the string you specified for the search portion of the title.  Once this is
       set up, screen will use the title-escape-sequence to clear the previous command  name  and
       get ready for the next command.  Then, when a newline is received from the shell, a search
       is made for the end of the prompt.  If found, it  will  grab  the  first  word  after  the
       matched  string  and  use  it as the command name.  If the command name begins with either
       '!', '%', or '^' screen will use the first word  on  the  following  line  (if  found)  in
       preference  to  the  just-found  name.  This helps csh users get better command names when
       using job control or history recall commands.

       Here's some .screenrc examples:

              screen -t top 2 nice top

       Adding this line to your .screenrc would start a nice-d version of the  "top"  command  in
       window 2 named "top" rather than "nice".

                   shelltitle '> |csh'
                   screen 1

       These  commands  would start a shell with the given shelltitle.  The title specified is an
       auto-title that would expect the prompt and the typed command to look something  like  the

              /usr/joe/src/dir> trn

       (it  looks  after  the  '> ' for the command name).  The window status would show the name
       "trn" while the command was running, and revert to "csh" upon completion.

              bind R screen -t '% |root:' su

       Having this command in your .screenrc would bind the key sequence  "C-a  R"  to  the  "su"
       command  and  give  it  an  auto-title  name of "root:".  For this auto-title to work, the
       screen could look something like this:

                   % !em
                   emacs file.c

       Here the user typed the csh history command "!em" which ran the previously entered "emacs"
       command.   The  window status would show "root:emacs" during the execution of the command,
       and revert to simply "root:" at its completion.

                   bind o title
                   bind E title ""
                   bind u title (unknown)

       The first binding doesn't have any arguments, so it would prompt you for a title. when you
       type  "C-a  o".   The  second binding would clear an auto-title's current setting (C-a E).
       The third binding would set the current window's title to "(unknown)" (C-a u).

       One thing to keep in mind when adding a null title-escape-sequence to your prompt is  that
       some  shells  (like  the csh) count all the non-control characters as part of the prompt's
       length.  If these invisible characters aren't a multiple of 8 then backspacing over a  tab
       will  result  in an incorrect display.  One way to get around this is to use a prompt like

              set prompt='^[[0000m^[k^[\% '

       The escape-sequence "<esc>[0000m" not only normalizes the character  attributes,  but  all
       the  zeros round the length of the invisible characters up to 8.  Bash users will probably
       want to echo the escape sequence in the PROMPT_COMMAND:

              PROMPT_COMMAND='printf "\033k\033\134"'

       (I used "134" to output a `\' because of a bug in bash v1.04).


       Each window in a screen session emulates a  VT100  terminal,  with  some  extra  functions
       added. The VT100 emulator is hard-coded, no other terminal types can be emulated.
       Usually  screen  tries  to  emulate as much of the VT100/ANSI standard as possible. But if
       your terminal lacks certain capabilities, the emulation may  not  be  complete.  In  these
       cases  screen  has to tell the applications that some of the features are missing. This is
       no problem on machines using termcap, because screen can  use  the  $TERMCAP  variable  to
       customize the standard screen termcap.

       But  if  you  do  a  rlogin on another machine or your machine supports only terminfo this
       method fails. Because of this, screen offers a way to deal with these cases.  Here is  how
       it works:

       When  screen  tries  to figure out a terminal name for itself, it first looks for an entry
       named "screen.<term>", where <term> is the contents of your $TERM variable.   If  no  such
       entry  exists,  screen  tries "screen" (or "screen-w" if the terminal is wide (132 cols or
       more)).  If even this entry cannot be found, "vt100" is used as a substitute.

       The idea is that if you have a terminal which doesn't support an important  feature  (e.g.
       delete  char or clear to EOS) you can build a new termcap/terminfo entry for screen (named
       "screen.<dumbterm>") in which  this  capability  has  been  disabled.  If  this  entry  is
       installed  on  your  machines  you  are  able  to  do  a rlogin and still keep the correct
       termcap/terminfo entry.  The terminal name is  put  in  the  $TERM  variable  of  all  new
       windows.   Screen  also  sets  the  $TERMCAP  variable  reflecting the capabilities of the
       virtual terminal emulated. Notice that, however, on machines using the  terminfo  database
       this  variable  has  no  effect.   Furthermore,  the variable $WINDOW is set to the window
       number of each window.

       The actual  set  of  capabilities  supported  by  the  virtual  terminal  depends  on  the
       capabilities  supported by the physical terminal.  If, for instance, the physical terminal
       does not support underscore mode, screen does not put the `us' and `ue' capabilities  into
       the  window's  $TERMCAP  variable, accordingly.  However, a minimum number of capabilities
       must be supported by a terminal in order to run screen; namely  scrolling,  clear  screen,
       and direct cursor addressing (in addition, screen does not run on hardcopy terminals or on
       terminals that over-strike).

       Also, you can customize the $TERMCAP value used by screen by using the "termcap" .screenrc
       command,  or  by  defining  the  variable $SCREENCAP prior to startup.  When the is latter
       defined, its value will be copied verbatim into each window's $TERMCAP variable.  This can
       either  be the full terminal definition, or a filename where the terminal "screen" (and/or
       "screen-w") is defined.

       Note that screen honors the "terminfo" .screenrc command if the system uses  the  terminfo
       database rather than termcap.

       When the boolean `G0' capability is present in the termcap entry for the terminal on which
       screen has been called, the terminal emulation of screen supports multiple character sets.
       This  allows an application to make use of, for instance, the VT100 graphics character set
       or national character sets.  The following control functions from ISO 2022 are  supported:
       lock shift G0 (SI), lock shift G1 (SO), lock shift G2, lock shift G3, single shift G2, and
       single shift G3.  When a virtual terminal is created or reset, the ASCII character set  is
       designated  as  G0  through G3.  When the `G0' capability is present, screen evaluates the
       capabilities `S0', `E0', and `C0' if present. `S0' is the sequence the  terminal  uses  to
       enable  and  start  the  graphics character set rather than SI.  `E0' is the corresponding
       replacement for SO. `C0' gives a character by character translation string  that  is  used
       during semi-graphics mode. This string is built like the `acsc' terminfo capability.

       When  the  `po'  and  `pf'  capabilities  are  present  in  the  terminal's termcap entry,
       applications running in a screen window can  send  output  to  the  printer  port  of  the
       terminal.   This  allows  a  user to have an application in one window sending output to a
       printer connected to the terminal, while all other windows are still active  (the  printer
       port  is enabled and disabled again for each chunk of output).  As a side-effect, programs
       running in different windows can send output to the printer simultaneously.  Data sent  to
       the  printer  is  not  displayed in the window.  The info command displays a line starting
       `PRIN' while the printer is active.

       Screen maintains a hardstatus line for every  window.  If  a  window  gets  selected,  the
       display's hardstatus will be updated to match the window's hardstatus line. If the display
       has no hardstatus the line will be displayed as a standard screen message.  The hardstatus
       line  can  be changed with the ANSI Application Program Command (APC): "ESC_<string>ESC\".
       As a convenience for xterm users the sequence "ESC]0..2;<string>^G" is also accepted.

       Some capabilities are only put into the $TERMCAP variable of the virtual terminal if  they
       can be efficiently implemented by the physical terminal.  For instance, `dl' (delete line)
       is only put into the $TERMCAP variable if the terminal supports either delete line  itself
       or scrolling regions. Note that this may provoke confusion, when the session is reattached
       on a different terminal, as the value of $TERMCAP cannot be modified by parent processes.

       The "alternate screen" capability is not enabled by default.  Set the altscreen  .screenrc
       command to enable it.

       The  following  is  a  list  of  control  sequences recognized by screen.  "(V)" and "(A)"
       indicate VT100-specific and ANSI- or ISO-specific functions, respectively.

       ESC E                      Next Line

       ESC D                      Index

       ESC M                      Reverse Index

       ESC H                      Horizontal Tab Set

       ESC Z                      Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC 7                 (V)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC 8                 (V)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [s                (A)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [u                (A)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC c                      Reset to Initial State

       ESC g                      Visual Bell

       ESC Pn p                   Cursor Visibility (97801)

           Pn = 6                 Invisible

                7                 Visible

       ESC =                 (V)  Application Keypad Mode

       ESC >                 (V)  Numeric Keypad Mode

       ESC # 8               (V)  Fill Screen with E's

       ESC \                 (A)  String Terminator

       ESC ^                 (A)  Privacy Message String (Message Line)

       ESC !                      Global Message String (Message Line)

       ESC k                      A.k.a. Definition String

       ESC P                 (A)  Device Control String.  Outputs a string directly to  the  host
                                  terminal without interpretation.

       ESC _                 (A)  Application Program Command (Hardstatus)

       ESC ] 0 ; string ^G   (A)  Operating System Command (Hardstatus, xterm title hack)

       ESC ] 83 ; cmd ^G     (A)  Execute  screen  command. This only works if multi-user support
                                  is compiled into screen. The pseudo-user ":window:" is used  to
                                  check the access control list. Use "addacl :window: -rwx #?" to
                                  create a  user  with  no  rights  and  allow  only  the  needed

       Control-N             (A)  Lock Shift G1 (SO)

       Control-O             (A)  Lock Shift G0 (SI)

       ESC n                 (A)  Lock Shift G2

       ESC o                 (A)  Lock Shift G3

       ESC N                 (A)  Single Shift G2

       ESC O                 (A)  Single Shift G3

       ESC ( Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G0

       ESC ) Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G1

       ESC * Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G2

       ESC + Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G3

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn H            Direct Cursor Addressing

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn f            same as above

       ESC [ Pn J                 Erase in Display

             Pn = None or 0       From Cursor to End of Screen

                  1               From Beginning of Screen to Cursor

                  2               Entire Screen

       ESC [ Pn K                 Erase in Line

             Pn = None or 0       From Cursor to End of Line

                  1               From Beginning of Line to Cursor

                  2               Entire Line

       ESC [ Pn X                 Erase character

       ESC [ Pn A                 Cursor Up

       ESC [ Pn B                 Cursor Down

       ESC [ Pn C                 Cursor Right

       ESC [ Pn D                 Cursor Left

       ESC [ Pn E                 Cursor next line

       ESC [ Pn F                 Cursor previous line

       ESC [ Pn G                 Cursor horizontal position

       ESC [ Pn `                 same as above

       ESC [ Pn d                 Cursor vertical position

       ESC [ Ps ;; Ps m          Select Graphic Rendition

             Ps = None or 0       Default Rendition

                  1               Bold

                  2          (A)  Faint

                  3          (A)  Standout Mode (ANSI: Italicized)

                  4               Underlined

                  5               Blinking

                  7               Negative Image

                  22         (A)  Normal Intensity

                  23         (A)  Standout Mode off (ANSI: Italicized off)

                  24         (A)  Not Underlined

                  25         (A)  Not Blinking

                  27         (A)  Positive Image

                  30         (A)  Foreground Black

                  31         (A)  Foreground Red

                  32         (A)  Foreground Green

                  33         (A)  Foreground Yellow

                  34         (A)  Foreground Blue

                  35         (A)  Foreground Magenta

                  36         (A)  Foreground Cyan

                  37         (A)  Foreground White

                  39         (A)  Foreground Default

                  40         (A)  Background Black

                  49         (A)  Background Default

       ESC [ Pn g                 Tab Clear

             Pn = None or 0       Clear Tab at Current Position

                  3               Clear All Tabs

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn r       (V)  Set Scrolling Region

       ESC [ Pn I            (A)  Horizontal Tab

       ESC [ Pn Z            (A)  Backward Tab

       ESC [ Pn L            (A)  Insert Line

       ESC [ Pn M            (A)  Delete Line

       ESC [ Pn @            (A)  Insert Character

       ESC [ Pn P            (A)  Delete Character

       ESC [ Pn S                 Scroll Scrolling Region Up

       ESC [ Pn T                 Scroll Scrolling Region Down

       ESC [ Pn ^                 same as above

       ESC [ Ps ;; Ps h          Set Mode

       ESC [ Ps ;; Ps l          Reset Mode

             Ps = 4          (A)  Insert Mode

                  20         (A)  Automatic Linefeed Mode

                  34              Normal Cursor Visibility

                  ?1         (V)  Application Cursor Keys

                  ?3         (V)  Change Terminal Width to 132 columns

                  ?5         (V)  Reverse Video

                  ?6         (V)  Origin Mode

                  ?7         (V)  Wrap Mode

                  ?9              X10 mouse tracking

                  ?25        (V)  Visible Cursor

                  ?47             Alternate Screen (old xterm code)

                  ?1000      (V)  VT200 mouse tracking

                  ?1047           Alternate Screen (new xterm code)

                  ?1049           Alternate Screen (new xterm code)

       ESC [ 5 i             (A)  Start relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 4 i             (A)  Stop relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 8 ; Ph ; Pw t        Resize  the  window  to  `Ph'  lines  and `Pw' columns (SunView

       ESC [ c                    Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC [ x                    Send Terminal Parameter Report

       ESC [ > c                  Send VT220 Secondary Device Attributes String

       ESC [ 6 n                  Send Cursor Position Report


       In order to do a full VT100 emulation screen has to detect that a sequence  of  characters
       in  the  input  stream  was  generated by a keypress on the user's keyboard and insert the
       VT100 style escape sequence. Screen has a very flexible way of doing  this  by  making  it
       possible  to  map  arbitrary  commands  on arbitrary sequences of characters. For standard
       VT100 emulation the command will always insert a string in the input buffer of the  window
       (see  also  command  stuff  in  the  command table).  Because the sequences generated by a
       keypress can change after a reattach from a different terminal type,  it  is  possible  to
       bind  commands  to  the  termcap name of the keys.  Screen will insert the correct binding
       after each reattach. See the bindkey  command  for  further  details  on  the  syntax  and

       Here  is  the table of the default key bindings. (A) means that the command is executed if
       the keyboard is switched into application mode.

       Key name          Termcap name    Command
       Cursor up             ku          stuff \033[A
                                         stuff \033OA    (A)
       Cursor down           kd          stuff \033[B
                                         stuff \033OB    (A)
       Cursor right          kr          stuff \033[C
                                         stuff \033OC    (A)
       Cursor left           kl          stuff \033[D
                                         stuff \033OD    (A)
       Function key 0        k0          stuff \033[10~
       Function key 1        k1          stuff \033OP
       Function key 2        k2          stuff \033OQ
       Function key 3        k3          stuff \033OR
       Function key 4        k4          stuff \033OS
       Function key 5        k5          stuff \033[15~
       Function key 6        k6          stuff \033[17~
       Function key 7        k7          stuff \033[18~
       Function key 8        k8          stuff \033[19~
       Function key 9        k9          stuff \033[20~
       Function key 10       k;          stuff \033[21~
       Function key 11       F1          stuff \033[23~
       Function key 12       F2          stuff \033[24~
       Home                  kh          stuff \033[1~
       End                   kH          stuff \033[4~
       Insert                kI          stuff \033[2~
       Delete                kD          stuff \033[3~
       Page up               kP          stuff \033[5~
       Page down             kN          stuff \033[6~
       Keypad 0              f0          stuff 0
                                         stuff \033Op    (A)
       Keypad 1              f1          stuff 1
                                         stuff \033Oq    (A)
       Keypad 2              f2          stuff 2
                                         stuff \033Or    (A)
       Keypad 3              f3          stuff 3
                                         stuff \033Os    (A)
       Keypad 4              f4          stuff 4
                                         stuff \033Ot    (A)
       Keypad 5              f5          stuff 5
                                         stuff \033Ou    (A)
       Keypad 6              f6          stuff 6
                                         stuff \033Ov    (A)
       Keypad 7              f7          stuff 7
                                         stuff \033Ow    (A)
       Keypad 8              f8          stuff 8
                                         stuff \033Ox    (A)
       Keypad 9              f9          stuff 9
                                         stuff \033Oy    (A)
       Keypad +              f+          stuff +
                                         stuff \033Ok    (A)
       Keypad -              f-          stuff -
                                         stuff \033Om    (A)
       Keypad *              f*          stuff *
                                         stuff \033Oj    (A)
       Keypad /              f/          stuff /
                                         stuff \033Oo    (A)
       Keypad =              fq          stuff =
                                         stuff \033OX    (A)
       Keypad .              f.          stuff .
                                         stuff \033On    (A)
       Keypad ,              f,          stuff ,
                                         stuff \033Ol    (A)
       Keypad enter          fe          stuff \015
                                         stuff \033OM    (A)


       The following table describes all terminal capabilities that are recognized by screen  and
       are  not  in  the  termcap(5)  manual.   You  can place these capabilities in your termcap
       entries (in `/etc/termcap') or use  them  with  the  commands  `termcap',  `terminfo'  and
       `termcapinfo' in your screenrc files. It is often not possible to place these capabilities
       in the terminfo database.

       LP   (bool)  Terminal has VT100 style margins (`magic margins'). Note that this capability
                    is obsolete because screen uses the standard 'xn' instead.

       Z0   (str)   Change width to 132 columns.

       Z1   (str)   Change width to 80 columns.

       WS   (str)   Resize  display.  This  capability  has  the  desired  width  and  height  as
                    arguments. SunView(tm) example: '\E[8;%d;%dt'.

       NF   (bool)  Terminal doesn't need flow control. Send ^S and ^Q direct to the application.
                    Same as 'flow off'. The opposite of this capability is 'nx'.

       G0   (bool)  Terminal can deal with ISO 2022 font selection sequences.

       S0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0' to the specified charset. Default is '\E(%.'.

       E0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0' back to standard charset. Default is '\E(B'.

       C0   (str)   Use  the  string  as a conversion table for font '0'. See the 'ac' capability
                    for more details.

       CS   (str)   Switch cursor-keys to application mode.

       CE   (str)   Switch cursor-keys back to normal mode.

       AN   (bool)  Turn on autonuke. See the 'autonuke' command for more details.

       OL   (num)   Set the output buffer limit. See the 'obuflimit' command for more details.

       KJ   (str)   Set the encoding of the  terminal.  See  the  'encoding'  command  for  valid

       AF   (str)   Change  character  foreground  color  in an ANSI conform way. This capability
                    will almost always be set to '\E[3%dm' ('\E[3%p1%dm' on terminfo machines).

       AB   (str)   Same as 'AF', but change background color.

       AX   (bool)  Does understand ANSI set default fg/bg color (\E[39m / \E[49m).

       XC   (str)   Describe a translation of characters to  strings  depending  on  the  current
                    font. More details follow in the next section.

       XT   (bool)  Terminal understands special xterm sequences (OSC, mouse tracking).

       C8   (bool)  Terminal needs bold to display high-intensity colors (e.g. Eterm).

       TF   (bool)  Add missing capabilities to the termcap/info entry. (Set by default).


       Screen  has a powerful mechanism to translate characters to arbitrary strings depending on
       the current font and terminal type.  Use this feature if you want to work  with  a  common
       standard  character  set  (say  ISO8851-latin1)  even  on  terminals that scatter the more
       unusual characters over several national language font pages.

           <charset-mapping> := <designator><template>{,<mapping>}
           <mapping> := <char-to-be-mapped><template-arg>

       The things in braces may be repeated any number of times.

       A <charset-mapping> tells screen how to map characters in font <designator>  ('B':  Ascii,
       'A': UK, 'K': German, etc.)  to strings. Every <mapping> describes to what string a single
       character will be translated. A template mechanism is used, as most of the time the  codes
       have  a  lot  in  common (for example strings to switch to and from another charset). Each
       occurrence of '%'  in  <template>  gets  substituted  with  the  <template-arg>  specified
       together  with  the  character.  If your strings are not similar at all, then use '%' as a
       template and place the full string in <template-arg>. A quoting  mechanism  was  added  to
       make  it  possible to use a real '%'. The '\' character quotes the special characters '\',
       '%', and ','.

       Here is an example:

           termcap hp700 'XC=B\E(K%\E(B,\304[,\326\\\\,\334]'

       This tells screen how to translate ISOlatin1 (charset 'B') upper case umlaut characters on
       a  hp700  terminal that has a German charset. '\304' gets translated to '\E(K[\E(B' and so
       on.  Note that this line gets parsed *three* times before the  internal  lookup  table  is
       built, therefore a lot of quoting is needed to create a single '\'.

       Another  extension was added to allow more emulation: If a mapping translates the unquoted
       '%' char, it will be sent to the terminal whenever screen switches  to  the  corresponding
       <designator>.  In  this  special  case  the template is assumed to be just '%' because the
       charset switch sequence and the character mappings normally haven't much in common.

       This example shows one use of the extension:

           termcap xterm 'XC=K%,%\E(B,[\304,\\\\\326,]\334'

       Here, a part of the German ('K') charset is emulated on an xterm.  If screen has to change
       to  the  'K'  charset, '\E(B' will be sent to the terminal, i.e. the ASCII charset is used
       instead. The template is just '%', so the mapping is straightforward: '[' to  '\304',  '\'
       to '\326', and ']' to '\334'.


       COLUMNS        Number of columns on the terminal (overrides termcap entry).
       HOME           Directory in which to look for .screenrc.
       LINES          Number of lines on the terminal (overrides termcap entry).
       LOCKPRG        Screen lock program.
       NETHACKOPTIONS Turns on nethack option.
       PATH           Used for locating programs to run.
       SCREENCAP      For customizing a terminal's TERMCAP value.
       SCREENDIR      Alternate socket directory.
       SCREENRC       Alternate user screenrc file.
       SHELL          Default  shell  program  for opening windows (default "/bin/sh").  See also
                      "shell" .screenrc command.
       STY            Alternate socket name.
       SYSSCREENRC    Alternate system screenrc file.
       TERM           Terminal name.
       TERMCAP        Terminal description.
       WINDOW         Window number of a window (at creation time).


       …/screen-4.?.??/etc/etcscreenrc   Examples in the screen distribution package for  private
                                         and global initialization files.
       /etc/screenrc                     screen initialization commands
       $HOME/.screenrc                   Read in after /etc/screenrc
       /var/run/screen/S-<login>         Socket directories (default)
       /usr/tmp/screens/S-<login>        Alternate socket directories.
       <socket directory>/.termcap       Written by the "termcap" output function
       /usr/tmp/screens/screen-exchange  or
       /tmp/screen-exchange              screen `interprocess communication buffer'
       hardcopy.[0-9]                    Screen images created by the hardcopy function
       screenlog.[0-9]                   Output log files created by the log function
       /usr/lib/terminfo/?/*             or
       /etc/termcap                      Terminal capability databases
       /var/run/utmp                     Login records
       $LOCKPRG                          Program that locks a terminal.


       termcap(5), utmp(5), vi(1), captoinfo(1), tic(1)


       Originally  created by Oliver Laumann. For a long time maintained and developed by Juergen
       Weigert, Michael Schroeder, Micah Cowan and Sadrul Habib Chowdhury.  This  latest  version
       was   produced   by   Amadeusz   Sławiński   <>   and   Alexander   Naumov


       Copyright (c) 2010-2015
            Juergen Weigert (
            Sadrul Habib Chowdhury (
       Copyright (c) 2008, 2009
            Juergen Weigert (
            Michael Schroeder (
            Micah Cowan (
            Sadrul Habib Chowdhury (
       Copyright (C) 1993-2003
            Juergen Weigert (
            Michael Schroeder (
       Copyright (C) 1987 Oliver Laumann
       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of
       the  GNU  General  Public  License  as  published  by the Free Software Foundation; either
       version 3, or (at your option) any later version.
       This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY  WARRANTY;
       without  even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
       See the GNU General Public License for more details.
       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this  program
       (see  the  file  COPYING);  if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple
       Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA


       Ken Beal (,
       Rudolf Koenig (,
       Toerless Eckert (,
       Wayne Davison (,
       Patrick Wolfe (, kailand!pat),
       Bart Schaefer (,
       Nathan Glasser (,
       Larry W. Virden (,
       Howard Chu (,
       Tim MacKenzie (,
       Markku Jarvinen (mta@{cc,cs,ee},
       Marc Boucher (marc@CAM.ORG),
       Doug Siebert (,
       Ken Stillson (,
       Ian Frechett (frechett@spot.Colorado.EDU),
       Brian Koehmstedt (,
       Don Smith (,
       Frank van der Linden (,
       Martin Schweikert (,
       David Vrona (,
       E. Tye McQueen (,
       Matthew Green (,
       Christopher Williams (,
       Matt Mosley (,
       Gregory Neil Shapiro (gshapiro@wpi.WPI.EDU),
       Johannes Zellner (,
       Pablo Averbuj (


       This is version 4.3.1. Its roots are a merge of a custom version 2.3PR7 by  Wayne  Davison
       and  several enhancements to Oliver Laumann's version 2.0. Note that all versions numbered
       2.x are copyright by Oliver Laumann.


       The   latest   official   release   of   screen   available   via   anonymous   ftp   from  or  any  other  GNU distribution site. The home site of screen is  If  you  want  to  help,  send  a  note   to   screen-


       •  `dm'  (delete  mode)  and  `xs'  are  not handled correctly (they are ignored). `xn' is
          treated as a magic-margin indicator.

       •  Screen has no clue about double-high or double-wide characters.  But this is  the  only
          area where vttest is allowed to fail.

       •  It is not possible to change the environment variable $TERMCAP when reattaching under a
          different terminal type.

       •  The support of terminfo based systems is very limited.  Adding  extra  capabilities  to
          $TERMCAP may not have any effects.

       •  Screen does not make use of hardware tabs.

       •  Screen must be installed as set-uid with owner root on most systems in order to be able
          to correctly change the owner  of  the  tty  device  file  for  each  window.   Special
          permission may also be required to write the file "/var/run/utmp".

       •  Entries  in  "/var/run/utmp"  are not removed when screen is killed with SIGKILL.  This
          will cause some programs (like "w" or "rwho") to advertise that a user is logged on who
          really isn't.

       •  Screen may give a strange warning when your tty has no utmp entry.

       •  When  the  modem line was hung up, screen may not automatically detach (or quit) unless
          the device driver is configured to send a HANGUP signal.  To detach  a  screen  session
          use the -D or -d command line option.

       •  If a password is set, the command line options -d and -D still detach a session without

       •  Both "breaktype" and "defbreaktype" change the break  generating  method  used  by  all
          terminal  devices.  The first should change a window specific setting, where the latter
          should change only the default for new windows.

       •  When attaching to a multiuser session, the user's .screenrc file is not  sourced.  Each
          user's  personal  settings  have  to  be  included in the .screenrc file from which the
          session is booted, or have to be changed manually.

       •  A weird imagination is most useful to gain full advantage of all the features.

       •  Send bug-reports, fixes,  enhancements,  t-shirts,  money,  beer  &  pizza  to  screen-