Provided by: net-tools_1.60-26ubuntu1_amd64 bug


       netstat  -  Print  network  connections,  routing tables, interface statistics, masquerade
       connections, and multicast memberships


       netstat  [address_family_options]  [--tcp|-t]   [--udp|-u]   [--raw|-w]   [--listening|-l]
       [--all|-a]    [--numeric|-n]    [--numeric-hosts]    [--numeric-ports]   [--numeric-users]
       [--symbolic|-N]  [--extend|-e[--extend|-e]]  [--timers|-o]  [--program|-p]  [--verbose|-v]

       netstat  {--route|-r}  [address_family_options]  [--extend|-e[--extend|-e]] [--verbose|-v]
       [--numeric|-n] [--numeric-hosts] [--numeric-ports] [--numeric-users] [--continuous|-c]

       netstat    {--interfaces|-i}    [--all|-a]    [--extend|-e[--extend|-e]]    [--verbose|-v]
       [--program|-p]   [--numeric|-n]   [--numeric-hosts]   [--numeric-ports]  [--numeric-users]

       netstat {--groups|-g} [--numeric|-n] [--numeric-hosts] [--numeric-ports] [--numeric-users]

       netstat {--masquerade|-M} [--extend|-e] [--numeric|-n] [--numeric-hosts] [--numeric-ports]
       [--numeric-users] [--continuous|-c]

       netstat {--statistics|-s} [--tcp|-t] [--udp|-u] [--raw|-w]

       netstat {--version|-V}

       netstat {--help|-h}


       [-4] [-6]  [--protocol={inet,unix,ipx,ax25,netrom,ddp}[,...]]   [--unix|-x]  [--inet|--ip]
       [--ax25] [--ipx] [--netrom] [--ddp]


       Netstat  prints information about the Linux networking subsystem.  The type of information
       printed is controlled by the first argument, as follows:

       By default, netstat displays a list of open sockets.  If you  don't  specify  any  address
       families, then the active sockets of all configured address families will be printed.

   --route , -r
       Display  the  kernel routing tables. See the description in route(8) for details.  netstat
       -r and route -e produce the same output.

   --groups , -g
       Display multicast group membership information for IPv4 and IPv6.

   --interfaces, -i
       Display a table of all network interfaces.

   --masquerade , -M
       Display a list of masqueraded connections.

   --statistics , -s
       Display summary statistics for each protocol.


   --verbose , -v
       Tell the user what is going on by being verbose. Especially print some useful  information
       about unconfigured address families.

   --wide , -W
       Do  not  truncate IP addresses by using output as wide as needed. This is optional for now
       to not break existing scripts.

   --numeric , -n
       Show numerical addresses instead of trying to determine symbolic host, port or user names.

       shows numerical host addresses but does not affect the resolution of port or user names.

       shows numerical port numbers but does not affect the resolution of host or user names.

       shows numerical user IDs but does not affect the resolution of host or port names.

   --protocol=family , -A
       Specifies the address families (perhaps better described as low level protocols) for which
       connections  are  to  be  shown.  family is a comma (',') separated list of address family
       keywords like inet, unix, ipx, ax25, netrom, and ddp.  This has the same effect  as  using
       the --inet, --unix (-x), --ipx, --ax25, --netrom, and --ddp options.

       The address family inet includes raw, udp and tcp protocol sockets.

   -c, --continuous
       This will cause netstat to print the selected information every second continuously.

   -e, --extend
       Display additional information.  Use this option twice for maximum detail.

   -o, --timers
       Include information related to networking timers.

   -p, --program
       Show the PID and name of the program to which each socket belongs.

   -l, --listening
       Show only listening sockets.  (These are omitted by default.)

   -a, --all
       Show  both  listening  and  non-listening  sockets.   With  the  --interfaces option, show
       interfaces that are not up

       Print routing information from the FIB.  (This is the default.)

       Print routing information from the route cache.


   Active Internet connections (TCP, UDP, raw)
       The protocol (tcp, udp, raw) used by the socket.

       The count of bytes not copied by the user program connected to this socket.

       The count of bytes not acknowledged by the remote host.

   Local Address
       Address and port number of the local end of the socket.  Unless the --numeric (-n)  option
       is  specified,  the  socket address is resolved to its canonical host name (FQDN), and the
       port number is translated into the corresponding service name.

   Foreign Address
       Address and port number of the remote end of the socket.  Analogous to "Local Address."

       The state of the socket. Since there are no states in raw mode and usually no states  used
       in UDP, this column may be left blank. Normally this can be one of several values:

              The socket has an established connection.

              The socket is actively attempting to establish a connection.

              A connection request has been received from the network.

              The socket is closed, and the connection is shutting down.

              Connection is closed, and the socket is waiting for a shutdown from the remote end.

              The socket is waiting after close to handle packets still in the network.

       CLOSE  The socket is not being used.

              The remote end has shut down, waiting for the socket to close.

              The   remote   end   has   shut  down,  and  the  socket  is  closed.  Waiting  for

       LISTEN The socket is listening for incoming connections.  Such sockets are not included in
              the output unless you specify the --listening (-l) or --all (-a) option.

              Both sockets are shut down but we still don't have all our data sent.

              The state of the socket is unknown.

       The username or the user id (UID) of the owner of the socket.

   PID/Program name
       Slash-separated pair of the process id (PID) and process name of the process that owns the
       socket.  --program causes this column to  be  included.   You  will  also  need  superuser
       privileges  to  see  this  information  on  sockets  you  don't  own.  This identification
       information is not yet available for IPX sockets.

       (this needs to be written)

   Active UNIX domain Sockets
       The protocol (usually unix) used by the socket.

       The reference count (i.e. attached processes via this socket).

       The flags displayed is SO_ACCEPTON (displayed as ACC), SO_WAITDATA (W) or SO_NOSPACE  (N).
       SO_ACCECPTON  is  used on unconnected sockets if their corresponding processes are waiting
       for a connect request. The other flags are not of normal interest.

       There are several types of socket access:

              The socket is used in Datagram (connectionless) mode.

              This is a stream (connection) socket.

              The socket is used as a raw socket.

              This one serves reliably-delivered messages.

              This is a sequential packet socket.

              Raw interface access socket.

              Who ever knows what the future will bring us - just fill in here :-)

       This field will contain one of the following Keywords:

       FREE   The socket is not allocated

              The socket is listening for a connection request.  Such sockets are  only  included
              in the output if you specify the --listening (-l) or --all (-a) option.

              The socket is about to establish a connection.

              The socket is connected.

              The socket is disconnecting.

              The socket is not connected to another one.

              This state should never happen.

   PID/Program name
       Process  ID  (PID)  and  process  name of the process that has the socket open.  More info
       available in Active Internet connections section written above.

       This is the path name as which the corresponding processes attached to the socket.

   Active IPX sockets
       (this needs to be done by somebody who knows it)

   Active NET/ROM sockets
       (this needs to be done by somebody who knows it)

   Active AX.25 sockets
       (this needs to be done by somebody who knows it)


       Starting with Linux release 2.2 netstat -i does not show interface  statistics  for  alias
       interfaces. To get per alias interface counters you need to setup explicit rules using the
       ipchains(8) command.


       /etc/services -- The services translation file

       /proc -- Mount point for  the  proc  filesystem,  which  gives  access  to  kernel  status
       information via the following files.

       /proc/net/dev -- device information

       /proc/net/raw -- raw socket information

       /proc/net/tcp -- TCP socket information

       /proc/net/udp -- UDP socket information

       /proc/net/igmp -- IGMP multicast information

       /proc/net/unix -- Unix domain socket information

       /proc/net/ipx -- IPX socket information

       /proc/net/ax25 -- AX25 socket information

       /proc/net/appletalk -- DDP (appletalk) socket information

       /proc/net/nr -- NET/ROM socket information

       /proc/net/route -- IP routing information

       /proc/net/ax25_route -- AX25 routing information

       /proc/net/ipx_route -- IPX routing information

       /proc/net/nr_nodes -- NET/ROM nodelist

       /proc/net/nr_neigh -- NET/ROM neighbours

       /proc/net/ip_masquerade -- masqueraded connections

       /proc/net/snmp -- statistics


       route(8), ifconfig(8), ipchains(8), iptables(8), proc(5)


       Occasionally  strange  information may appear if a socket changes as it is viewed. This is
       unlikely to occur.


       The     netstat     user     interface     was     written     by     Fred      Baumgarten
       <>,    the    man    page   basically   by   Matt   Welsh
       <>. It was updated by Alan Cox <> but could do with  a
       bit more work.  It was updated again by Tuan Hoang <>.
       The  man  page  and  the command included in the net-tools package is totally rewritten by
       Bernd Eckenfels <>.