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       ocamlc - The OCaml bytecode compiler


       ocamlc [ options ] filename ...

       ocamlc.opt [ options ] filename ...


       The OCaml bytecode compiler ocamlc(1) compiles OCaml source files to bytecode object files
       and links these object files to  produce  standalone  bytecode  executable  files.   These
       executable files are then run by the bytecode interpreter ocamlrun(1).

       The ocamlc(1) command has a command-line interface similar to the one of most C compilers.
       It accepts several types of arguments and processes them sequentially:

       Arguments ending in .mli are taken to be source files  for  compilation  unit  interfaces.
       Interfaces  specify the names exported by compilation units: they declare value names with
       their types, define public data types, declare abstract data types, and so  on.  From  the
       file x.mli, the ocamlc(1) compiler produces a compiled interface in the file x.cmi.

       Arguments ending in .ml are taken to be source files for compilation unit implementations.
       Implementations provide definitions for the names exported by the unit, and  also  contain
       expressions  to  be  evaluated  for their side-effects.  From the file, the ocamlc(1)
       compiler produces compiled object bytecode in the file x.cmo.

       If the interface file x.mli  exists,  the  implementation  is  checked  against  the
       corresponding  compiled  interface x.cmi, which is assumed to exist. If no interface x.mli
       is provided, the compilation of produces a compiled interface file x.cmi in  addition
       to  the  compiled  object  code  file  x.cmo.   The  file x.cmi produced corresponds to an
       interface that exports everything that is defined in the implementation

       Arguments ending in .cmo are taken to be compiled object bytecode.  These files are linked
       together,  along  with  the object files obtained by compiling .ml arguments (if any), and
       the OCaml standard library, to produce a standalone executable program. The order in which
       .cmo arguments are presented on the command line is relevant: compilation units are
       initialized in that order at run-time, and it is a link-time error to use a component of a
       unit  before  having  initialized  it. Hence, a given x.cmo file must come before all .cmo
       files that refer to the unit x.

       Arguments ending in .cma are taken to be libraries  of  object  bytecode.   A  library  of
       object  bytecode  packs  in  a  single  file  a set of object bytecode files (.cmo files).
       Libraries are built with ocamlc -a (see the description  of  the  -a  option  below).  The
       object files contained in the library are linked as regular .cmo files (see above), in the
       order specified when the .cma file was built. The only difference is  that  if  an  object
       file  contained  in  a  library  is not referenced anywhere in the program, then it is not
       linked in.

       Arguments ending in .c are passed to the C compiler, which generates  a  .o  object  file.
       This  object  file  is  linked  with  the  program  if  the  -custom  flag is set (see the
       description of -custom below).

       Arguments ending in .o or .a are assumed to be C object  files  and  libraries.  They  are
       passed  to  the  C  linker  when  linking  in -custom mode (see the description of -custom

       Arguments ending in .so are assumed to be C shared libraries (DLLs).  During linking, they
       are  searched for external C functions referenced from the OCaml code, and their names are
       written in the generated bytecode executable.  The run-time system ocamlrun(1) then  loads
       them dynamically at program start-up time.

       The  output  of  the  linking  phase  is  a  file containing compiled bytecode that can be
       executed by the OCaml bytecode interpreter: the command ocamlrun(1).  If caml.out  is  the
       name   of  the  file  produced  by  the  linking  phase,  the  command  ocamlrun  caml.out
       arg1  arg2 ... argn executes the compiled  code  contained  in  caml.out,  passing  it  as
       arguments the character strings arg1 to argn.  (See ocamlrun(1) for more details.)

       On  most  systems,  the  file  produced  by  the linking phase can be run directly, as in:
       ./caml.out arg1  arg2 ... argn.  The produced file has the  executable  bit  set,  and  it
       manages to launch the bytecode interpreter by itself.

       ocamlc.opt  is  the  same  compiler  as ocamlc, but compiled with the native-code compiler
       ocamlopt(1).  Thus, it behaves exactly like ocamlc, but compiles faster.   ocamlc.opt  may
       not be available in all installations of OCaml.


       The following command-line options are recognized by ocamlc(1).

       -a     Build a library (.cma file) with the object files (.cmo files) given on the command
              line, instead of linking them into an executable file. The name of the library must
              be set with the -o option.

              If  -custom, -cclib or -ccopt options are passed on the command line, these options
              are stored in  the  resulting  .cma  library.   Then,  linking  with  this  library
              automatically  adds back the -custom, -cclib and -ccopt options as if they had been
              provided on the command line, unless the -noautolink option is given.

              Show absolute filenames in error messages.

       -annot Dump detailed information about the compilation (types, bindings, tail-calls, etc).
              The  information  for  file  is put into file src.annot.  In case of a type
              error, dump all the information inferred by the type-checker before the error.  The
              src.annot  file can be used with the emacs commands given in emacs/caml-types.el to
              display types and other annotations interactively.

              Dump detailed information about the compilation (types, bindings, tail-calls,  etc)
              in  binary  format.  The  information for file is put into file src.cmt.  In
              case of a type error, dump all the information inferred by the type-checker  before
              the  error.   The  annotation files produced by -bin-annot contain more information
              and are much more compact than the files produced by -annot.

       -c     Compile only. Suppress the linking phase of the compilation. Source code files  are
              turned  into  compiled  files,  but  no executable file is produced. This option is
              useful to compile modules separately.

       -cc ccomp
              Use ccomp as the C linker when linking in "custom runtime" mode  (see  the  -custom
              option) and as the C compiler for compiling .c source files.

       -cclib -llibname
              Pass  the  -llibname  option  to the C linker when linking in "custom runtime" mode
              (see the -custom option). This causes the given C library to  be  linked  with  the

       -ccopt option
              Pass  the  given  option  to  the  C  compiler  and linker, when linking in "custom
              runtime" mode (see the -custom option). For instance,  -ccopt -Ldir  causes  the  C
              linker to search for C libraries in directory dir.

              Check that the generated bytecode executable can run on 32-bit platforms and signal
              an error if it cannot. This is useful when compiling bytecode on a 64-bit machine.

              Print the version number of ocamlc(1) and a detailed summary of its  configuration,
              then exit.

              Link  in  "custom  runtime"  mode. In the default linking mode, the linker produces
              bytecode  that  is  intended  to  be  executed  with  the  shared  runtime  system,
              ocamlrun(1).   In  the custom runtime mode, the linker produces an output file that
              contains both the runtime system and the bytecode for the  program.  The  resulting
              file is larger, but it can be executed directly, even if the ocamlrun(1) command is
              not installed. Moreover, the "custom runtime" mode enables linking OCaml code  with
              user-defined C functions.

              Never  use  the  strip(1)  command  on executables produced by ocamlc -custom, this
              would remove the bytecode part of the executable.

       -dllib -llibname
              Arrange for the C shared library to be loaded dynamically by the run-
              time system ocamlrun(1) at program start-up time.

       -dllpath dir
              Adds  the  directory  dir  to  the run-time search path for shared C libraries.  At
              link-time, shared libraries are searched in  the  standard  search  path  (the  one
              corresponding  to  the  -I  option).   The -dllpath option simply stores dir in the
              produced executable file, where ocamlrun(1) can find it and use it.

       -for-pack ident
              This option is accepted for compatibility with ocamlopt(1) ; it does nothing.

       -g     Add debugging information while compiling and linking. This option is  required  in
              order  to  be  able  to  debug  the program with ocamldebug(1) and to produce stack
              backtraces when the program terminates on an uncaught exception.

       -i     Cause the compiler to print all defined names (with their inferred types  or  their
              definitions)  when  compiling an implementation (.ml file). No compiled files (.cmo
              and .cmi files) are produced.  This can be useful to check the  types  inferred  by
              the  compiler. Also, since the output follows the syntax of interfaces, it can help
              in writing an explicit interface (.mli file) for a file: just redirect the standard
              output  of  the  compiler  to  a  .mli  file,  and  edit  that  file  to remove all
              declarations of unexported names.

       -I directory
              Add the given directory to the list of directories searched for compiled  interface
              files  (.cmi), compiled object code files (.cmo), libraries (.cma), and C libraries
              specified with -cclib -l xxx.  By default, the current directory is searched first,
              then  the  standard library directory. Directories added with -I are searched after
              the current directory, in the order in which they were given on the  command  line,
              but before the standard library directory.

              If  the given directory starts with +, it is taken relative to the standard library
              directory. For instance, -I +labltk adds the subdirectory labltk  of  the  standard
              library to the search path.

       -impl filename
              Compile  the  file filename as an implementation file, even if its extension is not

       -intf filename
              Compile the file filename as an interface file, even if its extension is not .mli.

       -intf-suffix string
              Recognize file names ending with string as interface files (instead of the  default

              Labels  are  not ignored in types, labels may be used in applications, and labelled
              parameters can be given in any order.  This is the default.

              Force all modules contained in libraries to be linked  in.  If  this  flag  is  not
              given, unreferenced modules are not linked in. When building a library (option -a),
              setting the -linkall option forces all subsequent links of programs involving  that
              library to link all the modules contained in the library.

              Build  a  custom  runtime system (in the file specified by option -o) incorporating
              the C object files and libraries given on the command line.   This  custom  runtime
              system  can  be used later to execute bytecode executables produced with the option
              ocamlc -use-runtime runtime-name.

              Deactivates the applicative behaviour of functors. With this option,  each  functor
              application  generates  new types in its result and applying the same functor twice
              to the same argument yields two incompatible structures.

              Do not compile assertion checks.  Note that the special form assert false is always
              compiled  because  it  is  typed  specially.   This flag has no effect when linking
              already-compiled files.

              When linking .cma libraries, ignore -custom, -cclib and -ccopt options  potentially
              contained  in  the  libraries  (if  these  options  were  given  when  building the
              libraries).  This can be useful if a library contains incorrect specifications of C
              libraries  or C options; in this case, during linking, set -noautolink and pass the
              correct C libraries and options on the command line.

              Ignore non-optional labels in types. Labels cannot be  used  in  applications,  and
              parameter order becomes strict.

              Do  not  include the standard library directory in the list of directories searched
              for compiled interfaces (see option -I ).

       -o exec-file
              Specify the name of the output file produced by the linker. The default output name
              is  a.out,  in  keeping with the Unix tradition. If the -a option is given, specify
              the name of the library produced.  If the -pack option is given, specify  the  name
              of  the  packed  object file produced.  If the -output-obj option is given, specify
              the name of the output file produced.

              Cause the linker to produce a C object file instead of a bytecode executable  file.
              This  is useful to wrap OCaml code as a C library, callable from any C program. The
              name of the output object file must be set with the -o option. This option can also
              be  used  to  produce  a  C source file (.c extension) or a compiled shared/dynamic
              library (.so extension).

       -pack  Build a bytecode object file (.cmo file)  and  its  associated  compiled  interface
              (.cmi) that combines the object files given on the command line, making them appear
              as sub-modules of the output .cmo file.  The name of the output .cmo file  must  be
              given  with  the  -o option.  For instance, ocamlc -pack -o p.cmo a.cmo b.cmo c.cmo
              generates compiled files p.cmo and p.cmi describing a compilation unit having three
              sub-modules  A,  B  and C, corresponding to the contents of the object files a.cmo,
              b.cmo and c.cmo.  These contents can be referenced as  P.A,  P.B  and  P.C  in  the
              remainder of the program.

       -pp command
              Cause  the  compiler  to  call  the given command as a preprocessor for each source
              file. The output of command  is  redirected  to  an  intermediate  file,  which  is
              compiled.  If  there  are  no  compilation errors, the intermediate file is deleted
              afterwards. The name of this file is built from the basename  of  the  source  file
              with the extension .ppi for an interface (.mli) file and .ppo for an implementation
              (.ml) file.

       -ppx command
              After parsing, pipe the abstract syntax tree through the preprocessor command.  The
              format of the input and output of the preprocessor are not yet documented.

              Check  information  path  during  type-checking,  to  make  sure that all types are
              derived in a principal way.   When  using  labelled  arguments  and/or  polymorphic
              methods,  this  flag  is required to ensure future versions of the compiler will be
              able to infer types correctly, even if internal algorithms  change.   All  programs
              accepted  in  -principal mode are also accepted in the default mode with equivalent
              types, but different binary signatures, and this may slow down type  checking;  yet
              it is a good idea to use it once before publishing source code.

              Allow  arbitrary  recursive types during type-checking.  By default, only recursive
              types where the recursion goes through an object type are supported. Note that once
              you  have  created  an  interface  using  this  flag, you must use it again for all

       -runtime-variant suffix
              Add suffix to the name of the runtime library that will be used by the program.  If
              OCaml  was  configured  with  option  -with-debug-runtime,  then  the  d  suffix is
              supported and gives a debug version of the runtime.

              When a type is visible under  several  module-paths,  use  the  shortest  one  when
              printing the type's name in inferred interfaces and error and warning messages.

              Force the left-hand part of each sequence to have type unit.

              Compile  or  link  multithreaded programs, in combination with the system "threads"
              library described in The OCaml user's manual.

              Turn  bound  checking  off  for  array  and  string  accesses  (the   v.(i)ands.[i]
              constructs).  Programs  compiled  with  -unsafe  are therefore slightly faster, but
              unsafe: anything can happen if the program accesses an array or string  outside  of
              its bounds.

       -use-runtime runtime-name
              Generate  a  bytecode  executable  file  that can be executed on the custom runtime
              system runtime-name, built earlier with ocamlc -make-runtime runtime-name.

       -v     Print the version number of the compiler and the location of the  standard  library
              directory, then exit.

              Print  all external commands before they are executed, in particular invocations of
              the C compiler and linker in -custom mode.  Useful to debug C library problems.

              Compile or link multithreaded programs, in combination with  the  VM-level  threads
              library described in The OCaml user's manual.

       -vnum or -version
              Print the version number of the compiler in short form (e.g. "3.11.0"), then exit.

       -w warning-list
              Enable,  disable,  or  mark  as  fatal  the  warnings  specified  by  the  argument

              Each warning can be enabled or disabled, and each warning can be fatalor non-fatal.
              If  a warning is disabled, it isn't displayed and doesn't affect compilation in any
              way (even if it is fatal).  If a warning is enabled, it is  displayed  normally  by
              the compiler whenever the source code triggers it.  If it is enabled and fatal, the
              compiler will also stop with an error after displaying it.

              The warning-list argument is a sequence of warning specifiers, with  no  separators
              between them.  A warning specifier is one of the following:

              +num   Enable warning number num.

              -num   Disable warning number num.

              @num   Enable and mark as fatal warning number num.

              +num1..num2   Enable all warnings between num1 and num2 (inclusive).

              -num1..num2   Disable all warnings between num1 and num2 (inclusive).

              @num1..num2    Enable  and  mark  as  fatal  all  warnings  between  num1  and num2

              +letter   Enable the set of warnings corresponding to letter.  The  letter  may  be
              uppercase or lowercase.

              -letter    Disable  the set of warnings corresponding to letter.  The letter may be
              uppercase or lowercase.

              @letter   Enable and mark as fatal the set of  warnings  corresponding  to  letter.
              The letter may be uppercase or lowercase.

              uppercase-letter   Enable the set of warnings corresponding to uppercase-letter.

              lowercase-letter   Disable the set of warnings corresponding to lowercase-letter.

              The warning numbers are as follows.

              1    Suspicious-looking start-of-comment mark.

              2    Suspicious-looking end-of-comment mark.

              3    Deprecated feature.

              4     Fragile  pattern  matching:  matching  that  will  remain  complete  even  if
              additional constructors are added to one of the variant types matched.

              5    Partially applied function: expression whose result has function type  and  is

              6    Label omitted in function application.

              7    Method overridden without using the "method!" keyword

              8    Partial match: missing cases in pattern-matching.

              9    Missing fields in a record pattern.

              10    Expression  on  the  left-hand side of a sequence that doesn't have type unit
              (and that is not a function, see warning number 5).

              11   Redundant case in a pattern matching (unused match case).

              12   Redundant sub-pattern in a pattern-matching.

              13   Override of an instance variable.

              14   Illegal backslash escape in a string constant.

              15   Private method made public implicitly.

              16   Unerasable optional argument.

              17   Undeclared virtual method.

              18   Non-principal type.

              19   Type without principality.

              20   Unused function argument.

              21   Non-returning statement.

              22   Camlp4 warning.

              23   Useless record with clause.

              24   Bad module name: the source file name is not a valid OCaml module name.

              25   Pattern-matching with all clauses guarded.

              26   Suspicious unused variable: unused variable that is bound with let or as,  and
              doesn't start with an underscore (_) character.

              27    Innocuous unused variable: unused variable that is not bound with let nor as,
              and doesn't start with an underscore (_) character.

              28   A pattern contains a  constant  constructor  applied  to  the  underscore  (_)

              29    A  non-escaped  end-of-line  was  found in a string constant.  This may cause
              portability problems between Unix and Windows.

              30   Two labels or constructors of the  same  name  are  defined  in  two  mutually
              recursive types.

              31   A module is linked twice in the same executable.

              32   Unused value declaration.

              33   Unused open statement.

              34   Unused type declaration.

              35   Unused for-loop index.

              36   Unused ancestor variable.

              37   Unused constructor.

              38   Unused exception constructor.

              39   Unused rec flag.

              40   Constructor or label name used out of scope.

              41   Ambiguous constructor or label name.

              42   Disambiguated constructor or label name.

              43   Nonoptional label applied as optional.

              44   Open statement shadows an already defined identifier.

              45   Open statement shadows an already defined label or constructor.

              The  letters  stand  for  the following sets of warnings.  Any letter not mentioned
              here corresponds to the empty set.

              A  all warnings

              C  1, 2

              D  3

              E  4

              F  5

              K  32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39

              L  6

              M  7

              P  8

              R  9

              S  10

              U  11, 12

              V  13

              X  14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 30

              Y  26

              Z  27

              The default setting is -w +a-4-6-7-9-27-29-32..39-41..42-44-45.  Note that warnings
              5 and 10 are not always triggered, depending on the internals of the type checker.

       -warn-error warning-list
              Mark  as  errors the warnings specified in the argument warning-list.  The compiler
              will stop with an error when one of these warnings is  emitted.   The  warning-list
              has  the same meaning as for the -w option: a + sign (or an uppercase letter) marks
              the corresponding warnings as fatal, a - sign (or a lowercase  letter)  turns  them
              back  into  non-fatal  warnings,  and  a @ sign both enables and marks as fatal the
              corresponding warnings.

              Note: it is not recommended to use  the  -warn-error  option  in  production  code,
              because it will almost certainly prevent compiling your program with later versions
              of OCaml when they add new warnings.

              The default setting is -warn-error -a (all warnings are non-fatal).

              Show the description of all available warning numbers.

       -where Print the location of the standard library, then exit.

       - file Process file as a file name, even if it starts with a dash (-) character.

       -help or --help
              Display a short usage summary and exit.


       ocamlopt(1), ocamlrun(1), ocaml(1).
       The OCaml user's manual, chapter "Batch compilation".