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       ocamlopt - The OCaml native-code compiler


       ocamlopt [ options ] filename ...

       ocamlopt.opt (same options)


       The OCaml high-performance native-code compiler ocamlopt(1) compiles OCaml source files to
       native code object files and link these object files to produce standalone executables.

       The ocamlopt(1) command has a command-line interface very close to that of ocamlc(1).   It
       accepts the same types of arguments and processes them sequentially:

       Arguments  ending  in  .mli  are taken to be source files for compilation unit interfaces.
       Interfaces specify the names exported by compilation units: they declare value names  with
       their  types,  define  public data types, declare abstract data types, and so on. From the
       file x.mli, the ocamlopt(1) compiler produces a compiled interface in the file x.cmi.  The
       interface produced is identical to that produced by the bytecode compiler ocamlc(1).

       Arguments ending in .ml are taken to be source files for compilation unit implementations.
       Implementations provide definitions for the names exported by the unit, and  also  contain
       expressions  to  be evaluated for their side-effects.  From the file, the ocamlopt(1)
       compiler produces two files: x.o, containing native object  code,  and  x.cmx,  containing
       extra  information  for  linking and optimization of the clients of the unit. The compiled
       implementation should always be referred to under the name x.cmx (when given  a  .o  file,
       ocamlopt(1) assumes that it contains code compiled from C, not from OCaml).

       The implementation is checked against the interface file x.mli (if it exists) as described
       in the manual for ocamlc(1).

       Arguments ending in .cmx are taken to be compiled object code.   These  files  are  linked
       together,  along  with  the object files obtained by compiling .ml arguments (if any), and
       the OCaml standard library, to produce a native-code  executable  program.  The  order  in
       which  .cmx  and  .ml arguments are presented on the command line is relevant: compilation
       units are initialized in that order at run-time, and it is a  link-time  error  to  use  a
       component  of  a  unit  before  having initialized it. Hence, a given x.cmx file must come
       before all .cmx files that refer to the unit x.

       Arguments ending in .cmxa are taken to be libraries of object code.  Such a library  packs
       in two files lib.cmxa and lib.a a set of object files (.cmx/.o files). Libraries are build
       with ocamlopt -a (see the description of the -a option below). The object files  contained
       in  the  library are linked as regular .cmx files (see above), in the order specified when
       the library was built. The only difference is that  if  an  object  file  contained  in  a
       library is not referenced anywhere in the program, then it is not linked in.

       Arguments  ending  in  .c  are passed to the C compiler, which generates a .o object file.
       This object file is linked with the program.

       Arguments ending in .o or .a are assumed to be C object  files  and  libraries.  They  are
       linked with the program.

       The  output  of  the  linking  phase  is  a regular Unix executable file. It does not need
       ocamlrun(1) to run.

       ocamlopt.opt is the same compiler as ocamlopt, but compiled with itself  instead  of  with
       the  bytecode  compiler  ocamlc(1).   Thus, it behaves exactly like ocamlopt, but compiles
       faster.  ocamlopt.opt is not available in all installations of OCaml.


       The following command-line options are recognized by ocamlopt(1).

       -a     Build a library (.cmxa/.a file) with the object files (.cmx/.o files) given on  the
              command  line,  instead  of  linking  them into an executable file. The name of the
              library must be set with the -o option.

              If -cclib or -ccopt options are passed on  the  command  line,  these  options  are
              stored   in   the  resulting  .cmxa  library.   Then,  linking  with  this  library
              automatically adds back the -cclib and -ccopt options as if they had been  provided
              on the command line, unless the -noautolink option is given.

              Show absolute filenames in error messages.

       -annot Dump detailed information about the compilation (types, bindings, tail-calls, etc).
              The information for file is put into file src.annot.   In  case  of  a  type
              error,  dump all the information inferred by the type-checker before the error. The
              src.annot file can be used with the emacs commands given in emacs/caml-types.el  to
              display types and other annotations interactively.

              Dump  detailed information about the compilation (types, bindings, tail-calls, etc)
              in binary format. The information for file is put  into  file  src.cmt.   In
              case  of a type error, dump all the information inferred by the type-checker before
              the error.  The annotation files produced by -bin-annot  contain  more  information
              and are much more compact than the files produced by -annot.

       -c     Compile  only. Suppress the linking phase of the compilation. Source code files are
              turned into compiled files, but no executable file  is  produced.  This  option  is
              useful to compile modules separately.

       -cc ccomp
              Use  ccomp  as  the  C  linker  called  to  build the final executable and as the C
              compiler for compiling .c source files.

       -cclib -llibname
              Pass the -llibname option to the linker. This causes the  given  C  library  to  be
              linked with the program.

       -ccopt option
              Pass  the  given  option  to  the C compiler and linker. For instance, -ccopt -Ldir
              causes the C linker to search for C libraries in directory dir.

              Optimize the produced code for space rather than for time. This results in  smaller
              but slightly slower programs. The default is to optimize for speed.

              Print   the   version   number  of  ocamlopt(1)  and  a  detailed  summary  of  its
              configuration, then exit.

       -for-pack module-path
              Generate an object file (.cmx and .o files) that can later be included  as  a  sub-
              module  (with  the given access path) of a compilation unit constructed with -pack.
              For instance, ocamlopt -for-pack P -c will generate a.cmx and a.o  files  that
              can later be used with ocamlopt -pack -o P.cmx a.cmx.

       -g     Add  debugging  information while compiling and linking. This option is required in
              order to produce stack backtraces  when  the  program  terminates  on  an  uncaught
              exception (see ocamlrun(1)).

       -i     Cause  the  compiler to print all defined names (with their inferred types or their
              definitions) when compiling an implementation (.ml file). No compiled  files  (.cmo
              and  .cmi  files)  are produced.  This can be useful to check the types inferred by
              the compiler. Also, since the output follows the syntax of interfaces, it can  help
              in writing an explicit interface (.mli file) for a file: just redirect the standard
              output of the  compiler  to  a  .mli  file,  and  edit  that  file  to  remove  all
              declarations of unexported names.

       -I directory
              Add  the given directory to the list of directories searched for compiled interface
              files (.cmi) and compiled  object  code  files  (.cmo).  By  default,  the  current
              directory is searched first, then the standard library directory. Directories added
              with -I are searched after the current directory, in the order in which  they  were
              given on the command line, but before the standard library directory.

              If  the given directory starts with +, it is taken relative to the standard library
              directory. For instance, -I +labltk adds the subdirectory labltk  of  the  standard
              library to the search path.

       -impl filename
              Compile  the  file filename as an implementation file, even if its extension is not

       -inline n
              Set aggressiveness of inlining to n, where n  is  a  positive  integer.  Specifying
              -inline  0  prevents  all  functions from being inlined, except those whose body is
              smaller than the call site. Thus, inlining causes no expansion in  code  size.  The
              default  aggressiveness, -inline 1, allows slightly larger functions to be inlined,
              resulting in a slight expansion in code size. Higher values for the -inline  option
              cause  larger and larger functions to become candidate for inlining, but can result
              in a serious increase in code size.

       -intf filename
              Compile the file filename as an interface file, even if its extension is not .mli.

       -intf-suffix string
              Recognize file names ending with string as interface files (instead of the  default

              Labels  are  not ignored in types, labels may be used in applications, and labelled
              parameters can be given in any order.  This is the default.

              Force all modules contained in libraries to be linked  in.  If  this  flag  is  not
              given,  unreferenced  modules are not linked in. When building a library (-a flag),
              setting the -linkall flag forces all subsequent links of  programs  involving  that
              library to link all the modules contained in the library.

              Deactivates  the  applicative behaviour of functors. With this option, each functor
              application generates new types in its result and applying the same  functor  twice
              to the same argument yields two incompatible structures.

              Do not compile assertion checks.  Note that the special form assert false is always
              compiled because it is typed specially.  This  flag  has  no  effect  when  linking
              already-compiled files.

              When   linking   .cmxa  libraries,  ignore  -cclib and -ccopt  options  potentially
              contained in  the  libraries  (if  these  options  were  given  when  building  the
              libraries).  This can be useful if a library contains incorrect specifications of C
              libraries or C options; in this case, during linking, set -noautolink and pass  the
              correct C libraries and options on the command line.

              Allow  the  compiler to use some optimizations that are valid only for code that is
              never dynlinked.

              Ignore non-optional labels in types. Labels cannot be  used  in  applications,  and
              parameter order becomes strict.

       -o exec-file
              Specify the name of the output file produced by the linker. The default output name
              is a.out, in keeping with the Unix tradition. If the -a option  is  given,  specify
              the name of the library produced. If the -pack option is given, specify the name of
              the packed object file produced.  If the -output-obj option is given,  specify  the
              name  of the output file produced. If the -shared option is given, specify the name
              of plugin file produced.

              Cause the linker to produce a C object file instead of an executable file. This  is
              useful  to wrap OCaml code as a C library, callable from any C program. The name of
              the output object file must be set with the -o option.  This  option  can  also  be
              used to produce a compiled shared/dynamic library (.so extension).

       -p     Generate extra code to write profile information when the program is executed.  The
              profile information can then be examined with the analysis program  gprof(1).   The
              -p  option  must  be  given  both at compile-time and at link-time.  Linking object
              files not compiled with -p is possible, but results in less precise profiling.

              See the gprof(1) man page for more information about the profiles.

              Full support for gprof(1) is only available for certain platforms (currently: Intel
              x86/Linux  and  Alpha/Digital Unix).  On other platforms, the -p option will result
              in a less precise profile (no call graph information, only a time profile).

       -pack  Build an object file (.cmx and .o files)  and  its  associated  compiled  interface
              (.cmi)  that  combines the .cmx object files given on the command line, making them
              appear as sub-modules of the output .cmx file.  The name of the  output  .cmx  file
              must      be      given      with     the     -o     option.      For     instance,
              ocamlopt -pack -o P.cmx A.cmx B.cmx C.cmx generates compiled files P.cmx,  P.o  and
              P.cmi  describing  a  compilation  unit  having  three  sub-modules  A,  B  and  C,
              corresponding to the contents of the object files A.cmx, B.cmx  and  C.cmx.   These
              contents can be referenced as P.A, P.B and P.C in the remainder of the program.

              The  .cmx  object files being combined must have been compiled with the appropriate
              -for-pack option.  In the example above, A.cmx, B.cmx  and  C.cmx  must  have  been
              compiled with ocamlopt -for-pack P.

              Multiple  levels of packing can be achieved by combining -pack with -for-pack.  See
              The OCaml user's manual, chapter "Native-code compilation" for more details.

       -pp command
              Cause the compiler to call the given command as  a  preprocessor  for  each  source
              file.  The  output  of  command  is  redirected  to  an intermediate file, which is
              compiled. If there are no compilation errors,  the  intermediate  file  is  deleted

       -ppx command
              After parsing, pipe the abstract syntax tree through the preprocessor command.  The
              format of the input and output of the preprocessor are not yet documented.

              Check information path during type-checking,  to  make  sure  that  all  types  are
              derived  in  a  principal  way.  All  programs accepted in -principal mode are also
              accepted in default mode with equivalent types, but different binary signatures.

              Allow arbitrary recursive types during type-checking.  By default,  only  recursive
              types where the recursion goes through an object type are supported. Note that once
              you have created an interface using this flag,  you  must  use  it  again  for  all

       -runtime-variant suffix
              Add suffix to the name of the runtime library that will be used by the program.  If
              OCaml was  configured  with  option  -with-debug-runtime,  then  the  d  suffix  is
              supported and gives a debug version of the runtime.

       -S     Keep  the  assembly code produced during the compilation. The assembly code for the
              source file is saved in the file x.s.

              Build a plugin (usually .cmxs) that can be  dynamically  loaded  with  the  Dynlink
              module. The name of the plugin must be set with the -o option. A plugin can include
              a number of OCaml modules and libraries, and extra native objects (.o,  .a  files).
              Building  native  plugins  is  only supported for some operating system. Under some
              systems (currently, only Linux AMD 64), all the OCaml code linked in a plugin  must
              have  been  compiled without the -nodynlink flag. Some constraints might also apply
              to the way the extra native objects have been compiled (under Linux  AMD  64,  they
              must contain only position-independent code).

              When  a  type  is  visible  under  several  module-paths, use the shortest one when
              printing the type's name in inferred interfaces and error and warning messages.

              The left-hand part of a sequence must have type unit.

              Compile or link multithreaded programs, in  combination  with  the  system  threads
              library described in The OCaml user's manual.

              Turn   bound  checking  off  for  array  and  string  accesses  (the  v.(i)ands.[i]
              constructs). Programs compiled with  -unsafe  are  therefore  faster,  but  unsafe:
              anything  can  happen  if  the  program  accesses an array or string outside of its
              bounds. Additionally, turn off the check for zero divisor in integer  division  and
              modulus  operations.   With  -unsafe,  an integer division (or modulus) by zero can
              halt the program or continue with  an  unspecified  result  instead  of  raising  a
              Division_by_zero exception.

       -v     Print  the  version number of the compiler and the location of the standard library
              directory, then exit.

              Print all external commands before they are executed, in particular invocations  of
              the assembler, C compiler, and linker.

              Print the version number of the compiler in short form (e.g. "3.11.0"), then exit.

       -w warning-list
              Enable,  disable,  or  mark  as  fatal  the  warnings  specified  by  the  argument
              warning-list.  See ocamlc(1) for the syntax of warning-list.

       -warn-error warning-list
              Mark as fatal the warnings specified in the argument  warning-list.   The  compiler
              will  stop  with  an error when one of these warnings is emitted.  The warning-list
              has the same meaning as for the -w option: a + sign (or an uppercase letter)  marks
              the  corresponding  warnings  as fatal, a - sign (or a lowercase letter) turns them
              back into non-fatal warnings, and a @ sign both enables  and  marks  as  fatal  the
              corresponding warnings.

              Note:  it  is  not  recommended  to  use the -warn-error option in production code,
              because it will almost certainly prevent compiling your program with later versions
              of OCaml when they add new warnings.

              The default setting is -warn-error -a (all warnings are non-fatal).

              Show the description of all available warning numbers.

       -where Print the location of the standard library, then exit.

       - file Process file as a file name, even if it starts with a dash (-) character.

       -help or --help
              Display a short usage summary and exit.


       The  IA32  code  generator  (Intel  Pentium, AMD Athlon) supports the following additional

              Use the IA32 instructions  to  compute  trigonometric  and  exponential  functions,
              instead of calling the corresponding library routines.  The functions affected are:
              atan, atan2, cos, log, log10, sin, sqrt and tan.  The resulting code  runs  faster,
              but  the  range  of  supported  arguments  and  the  precision of the result can be
              reduced.  In particular, trigonometric operations cos, sin, tan  have  their  range
              reduced to [-2^64, 2^64].


       The  AMD64  code  generator (64-bit versions of Intel Pentium and AMD Athlon) supports the
       following additional options:

       -fPIC  Generate position-independent machine code.  This is the default.

              Generate position-dependent machine code.


       The Sparc code generator supports the following additional options:

              Generate SPARC version 8 code.

              Generate SPARC version 9 code.

       The default is to generate code for SPARC version 7, which runs on all SPARC processors.


       The OCaml user's manual, chapter "Native-code compilation".