Provided by: git-man_2.17.1-1ubuntu0.18_all bug


       giteveryday - A useful minimum set of commands for Everyday Git


       Everyday Git With 20 Commands Or So


       Git users can broadly be grouped into four categories for the purposes of describing here
       a small set of useful command for everyday Git.

       •   Individual Developer (Standalone) commands are essential for anybody who makes a
           commit, even for somebody who works alone.

       •   If you work with other people, you will need commands listed in the Individual
           Developer (Participant) section as well.

       •   People who play the Integrator role need to learn some more commands in addition to
           the above.

       •   Repository Administration commands are for system administrators who are responsible
           for the care and feeding of Git repositories.


       A standalone individual developer does not exchange patches with other people, and works
       alone in a single repository, using the following commands.

       •   git-init(1) to create a new repository.

       •   git-log(1) to see what happened.

       •   git-checkout(1) and git-branch(1) to switch branches.

       •   git-add(1) to manage the index file.

       •   git-diff(1) and git-status(1) to see what you are in the middle of doing.

       •   git-commit(1) to advance the current branch.

       •   git-reset(1) and git-checkout(1) (with pathname parameters) to undo changes.

       •   git-merge(1) to merge between local branches.

       •   git-rebase(1) to maintain topic branches.

       •   git-tag(1) to mark a known point.

       Use a tarball as a starting point for a new repository.

               $ tar zxf frotz.tar.gz
               $ cd frotz
               $ git init
               $ git add . (1)
               $ git commit -m "import of frotz source tree."
               $ git tag v2.43 (2)

           1. add everything under the current directory.
           2. make a lightweight, unannotated tag.

       Create a topic branch and develop.

               $ git checkout -b alsa-audio (1)
               $ edit/compile/test
               $ git checkout -- curses/ux_audio_oss.c (2)
               $ git add curses/ux_audio_alsa.c (3)
               $ edit/compile/test
               $ git diff HEAD (4)
               $ git commit -a -s (5)
               $ edit/compile/test
               $ git diff HEAD^ (6)
               $ git commit -a --amend (7)
               $ git checkout master (8)
               $ git merge alsa-audio (9)
               $ git log --since='3 days ago' (10)
               $ git log v2.43.. curses/ (11)

           1. create a new topic branch.
           2. revert your botched changes in curses/ux_audio_oss.c.
           3. you need to tell Git if you added a new file; removal and modification will be
           caught if you do git commit -a later.
           4. to see what changes you are committing.
           5. commit everything, as you have tested, with your sign-off.
           6. look at all your changes including the previous commit.
           7. amend the previous commit, adding all your new changes, using your original
           8. switch to the master branch.
           9. merge a topic branch into your master branch.
           10. review commit logs; other forms to limit output can be combined and include -10
           (to show up to 10 commits), --until=2005-12-10, etc.
           11. view only the changes that touch what’s in curses/ directory, since v2.43 tag.


       A developer working as a participant in a group project needs to learn how to communicate
       with others, and uses these commands in addition to the ones needed by a standalone

       •   git-clone(1) from the upstream to prime your local repository.

       •   git-pull(1) and git-fetch(1) from "origin" to keep up-to-date with the upstream.

       •   git-push(1) to shared repository, if you adopt CVS style shared repository workflow.

       •   git-format-patch(1) to prepare e-mail submission, if you adopt Linux kernel-style
           public forum workflow.

       •   git-send-email(1) to send your e-mail submission without corruption by your MUA.

       •   git-request-pull(1) to create a summary of changes for your upstream to pull.

       Clone the upstream and work on it. Feed changes to upstream.

               $ git clone git:// my2.6
               $ cd my2.6
               $ git checkout -b mine master (1)
               $ edit/compile/test; git commit -a -s (2)
               $ git format-patch master (3)
               $ git send-email --to="person <>" 00*.patch (4)
               $ git checkout master (5)
               $ git pull (6)
               $ git log -p ORIG_HEAD.. arch/i386 include/asm-i386 (7)
               $ git ls-remote --heads (8)
               $ git pull git:// ALL (9)
               $ git reset --hard ORIG_HEAD (10)
               $ git gc (11)

           1. checkout a new branch mine from master.
           2. repeat as needed.
           3. extract patches from your branch, relative to master,
           4. and email them.
           5. return to master, ready to see what’s new
           6. git pull fetches from origin by default and merges into the current branch.
           7. immediately after pulling, look at the changes done upstream since last time we
           checked, only in the area we are interested in.
           8. check the branch names in an external repository (if not known).
           9. fetch from a specific branch ALL from a specific repository and merge it.
           10. revert the pull.
           11. garbage collect leftover objects from reverted pull.

       Push into another repository.

               satellite$ git clone mothership:frotz frotz (1)
               satellite$ cd frotz
               satellite$ git config --get-regexp '^(remote|branch)\.' (2)
               remote.origin.url mothership:frotz
               remote.origin.fetch refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*
               branch.master.remote origin
               branch.master.merge refs/heads/master
               satellite$ git config remote.origin.push \
                          +refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/satellite/* (3)
               satellite$ edit/compile/test/commit
               satellite$ git push origin (4)

               mothership$ cd frotz
               mothership$ git checkout master
               mothership$ git merge satellite/master (5)

           1. mothership machine has a frotz repository under your home directory; clone from it
           to start a repository on the satellite machine.
           2. clone sets these configuration variables by default. It arranges git pull to fetch
           and store the branches of mothership machine to local remotes/origin/* remote-tracking
           3. arrange git push to push all local branches to their corresponding branch of the
           mothership machine.
           4. push will stash all our work away on remotes/satellite/* remote-tracking branches
           on the mothership machine. You could use this as a back-up method. Likewise, you can
           pretend that mothership "fetched" from you (useful when access is one sided).
           5. on mothership machine, merge the work done on the satellite machine into the master

       Branch off of a specific tag.

               $ git checkout -b private2.6.14 v2.6.14 (1)
               $ edit/compile/test; git commit -a
               $ git checkout master
               $ git cherry-pick v2.6.14..private2.6.14 (2)

           1. create a private branch based on a well known (but somewhat behind) tag.
           2. forward port all changes in private2.6.14 branch to master branch without a formal
           "merging". Or longhand

           git format-patch -k -m --stdout v2.6.14..private2.6.14 | git am -3 -k

       An alternate participant submission mechanism is using the git request-pull or
       pull-request mechanisms (e.g as used on GitHub ( to notify your upstream of
       your contribution.


       A fairly central person acting as the integrator in a group project receives changes made
       by others, reviews and integrates them and publishes the result for others to use, using
       these commands in addition to the ones needed by participants.

       This section can also be used by those who respond to git request-pull or pull-request on
       GitHub ( to integrate the work of others into their history. An sub-area
       lieutenant for a repository will act both as a participant and as an integrator.

       •   git-am(1) to apply patches e-mailed in from your contributors.

       •   git-pull(1) to merge from your trusted lieutenants.

       •   git-format-patch(1) to prepare and send suggested alternative to contributors.

       •   git-revert(1) to undo botched commits.

       •   git-push(1) to publish the bleeding edge.

       A typical integrator’s Git day.

               $ git status (1)
               $ git branch --no-merged master (2)
               $ mailx (3)
               & s 2 3 4 5 ./+to-apply
               & s 7 8 ./+hold-linus
               & q
               $ git checkout -b topic/one master
               $ git am -3 -i -s ./+to-apply (4)
               $ compile/test
               $ git checkout -b hold/linus && git am -3 -i -s ./+hold-linus (5)
               $ git checkout topic/one && git rebase master (6)
               $ git checkout pu && git reset --hard next (7)
               $ git merge topic/one topic/two && git merge hold/linus (8)
               $ git checkout maint
               $ git cherry-pick master~4 (9)
               $ compile/test
               $ git tag -s -m "GIT 0.99.9x" v0.99.9x (10)
               $ git fetch ko && for branch in master maint next pu (11)
                       git show-branch ko/$branch $branch (12)
               $ git push --follow-tags ko (13)

           1. see what you were in the middle of doing, if anything.
           2. see which branches haven’t been merged into master yet. Likewise for any other
           integration branches e.g.  maint, next and pu (potential updates).
           3. read mails, save ones that are applicable, and save others that are not quite ready
           (other mail readers are available).
           4. apply them, interactively, with your sign-offs.
           5. create topic branch as needed and apply, again with sign-offs.
           6. rebase internal topic branch that has not been merged to the master or exposed as a
           part of a stable branch.
           7. restart pu every time from the next.
           8. and bundle topic branches still cooking.
           9. backport a critical fix.
           10. create a signed tag.
           11. make sure master was not accidentally rewound beyond that already pushed out.
           12. In the output from git show-branch, master should have everything ko/master has,
           and next should have everything ko/next has, etc.
           13. push out the bleeding edge, together with new tags that point into the pushed

       In this example, the ko shorthand points at the Git maintainer’s repository at,
       and looks like this:

           (in .git/config)
           [remote "ko"]
                   url =
                   fetch = refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/ko/*
                   push = refs/heads/master
                   push = refs/heads/next
                   push = +refs/heads/pu
                   push = refs/heads/maint


       A repository administrator uses the following tools to set up and maintain access to the
       repository by developers.

       •   git-daemon(1) to allow anonymous download from repository.

       •   git-shell(1) can be used as a restricted login shell for shared central repository

       •   git-http-backend(1) provides a server side implementation of Git-over-HTTP ("Smart
           http") allowing both fetch and push services.

       •   gitweb(1) provides a web front-end to Git repositories, which can be set-up using the
           git-instaweb(1) script.

       update hook howto[1] has a good example of managing a shared central repository.

       In addition there are a number of other widely deployed hosting, browsing and reviewing
       solutions such as:

       •   gitolite, gerrit code review, cgit and others.

       We assume the following in /etc/services

               $ grep 9418 /etc/services
               git             9418/tcp                # Git Version Control System

       Run git-daemon to serve /pub/scm from inetd.

               $ grep git /etc/inetd.conf
               git     stream  tcp     nowait  nobody \
                 /usr/bin/git-daemon git-daemon --inetd --export-all /pub/scm

           The actual configuration line should be on one line.

       Run git-daemon to serve /pub/scm from xinetd.

               $ cat /etc/xinetd.d/git-daemon
               # default: off
               # description: The Git server offers access to Git repositories
               service git
                       disable = no
                       type            = UNLISTED
                       port            = 9418
                       socket_type     = stream
                       wait            = no
                       user            = nobody
                       server          = /usr/bin/git-daemon
                       server_args     = --inetd --export-all --base-path=/pub/scm
                       log_on_failure  += USERID

           Check your xinetd(8) documentation and setup, this is from a Fedora system. Others
           might be different.

       Give push/pull only access to developers using git-over-ssh.
           e.g. those using: $ git push/pull ssh://host.xz/pub/scm/project

               $ grep git /etc/passwd (1)
               $ grep git /etc/shells (2)

           1. log-in shell is set to /usr/bin/git-shell, which does not allow anything but git
           push and git pull. The users require ssh access to the machine.
           2. in many distributions /etc/shells needs to list what is used as the login shell.

       CVS-style shared repository.

               $ grep git /etc/group (1)
               $ cd /home/devo.git
               $ ls -l (2)
                 lrwxrwxrwx   1 david git    17 Dec  4 22:40 HEAD -> refs/heads/master
                 drwxrwsr-x   2 david git  4096 Dec  4 22:40 branches
                 -rw-rw-r--   1 david git    84 Dec  4 22:40 config
                 -rw-rw-r--   1 david git    58 Dec  4 22:40 description
                 drwxrwsr-x   2 david git  4096 Dec  4 22:40 hooks
                 -rw-rw-r--   1 david git 37504 Dec  4 22:40 index
                 drwxrwsr-x   2 david git  4096 Dec  4 22:40 info
                 drwxrwsr-x   4 david git  4096 Dec  4 22:40 objects
                 drwxrwsr-x   4 david git  4096 Nov  7 14:58 refs
                 drwxrwsr-x   2 david git  4096 Dec  4 22:40 remotes
               $ ls -l hooks/update (3)
                 -r-xr-xr-x   1 david git  3536 Dec  4 22:40 update
               $ cat info/allowed-users (4)
               refs/heads/master       alice\|cindy
               refs/heads/doc-update   bob
               refs/tags/v[0-9]*       david

           1. place the developers into the same git group.
           2. and make the shared repository writable by the group.
           3. use update-hook example by Carl from Documentation/howto/ for branch policy
           4. alice and cindy can push into master, only bob can push into doc-update. david is
           the release manager and is the only person who can create and push version tags.


       Part of the git(1) suite


        1. update hook howto